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Pioneer 1

Pioneer 1 was an American space probe, the first under the auspices of NASA, launched by a Thor-Able rocket on 11 October 1958. It was intended to orbit the Moon and make scientific measurements, but due to a guidance error failed to achieve lunar orbit and was destroyed upon reentering Earth's atmosphere; the flight, which lasted 43 hours and reached an apogee of 113,800 km, was the second and most successful of the three Thor-Able space probes. Pioneer 1 was fabricated by Space Technology Laboratories, a division of Ramo-Wooldridge Corp, consisted of a thin cylindrical midsection with a squat truncated cone on each side; the cylinder was 74 cm in diameter and the height from the top of one cone to the top of the opposite cone was 76 cm. Along the axis of the spacecraft and protruding from the end of the lower cone was an 11 kg solid propellant injection rocket and rocket case, which formed the main structural member of the spacecraft. Eight small low-thrust solid propellant velocity adjustment rockets were mounted on the end of the upper cone in a ring assembly which could be jettisoned after use.

A magnetic dipole antenna protruded from the top of the upper cone. The shell was composed of laminated plastic; the total mass of the spacecraft after vernier separation was 34.2 kg, after injection rocket firing it would have been 23.2 kg. The three-stage Thor-Able vehicle consisted of a modified Air Force Thor IRBM as the first stage. A liquid-propellant rocket engine powered the second stage; the third stage was a solid-propellant unit based on Vanguard design, rated at 116,500 lb*sec total impulse. The scientific instrument package had a mass of 17.8 kg and consisted of an image scanning infrared television system to study the Moon's surface to a resolution of 0.5°, an ionization chamber to measure radiation in space, a diaphragm/microphone assembly to detect micrometeorites, a spin-coil magnetometer to measure magnetic fields to 5 microgauss, temperature-variable resistors to record the spacecraft's internal conditions. The spacecraft was powered by nickel-cadmium batteries for ignition of the rockets, silver cell batteries for the television system, mercury batteries for the remaining circuits.

The radio transmission was on 108.06 MHz through an electric dipole antenna for telemetry and doppler information at 300 mW and a magnetic dipole antenna for the television system at 50 W. Ground commands were received through the electric dipole antenna at 115 MHz; the spacecraft was spin-stabilized at 1.8 rps, the spin direction was perpendicular to the geomagnetic meridian planes of the trajectory. Two days after the failure of Pioneer 0 on 17 August 1958, Thor 129, the backup vehicle, was erected on LC-17B in preparation for a September attempt; the postflight investigation of Pioneer 0 pointed to a turbopump failure, which had caused the loss of Thor-Able 116 in April. This was followed by the failure of an Atlas launch on 18 September, so the Air Force moved to replace the turbopumps in their inventory of Thor and Atlas missiles. Thor 129 was pulled from the pad for modifications and replaced with Thor 130. On 11 October 1958, Pioneer 1 lifted off smoothly, but the guidance system steered the Thor too high and fast, causing the second stage to be lofted 3° higher than intended.

As a result, it shut off 10 seconds earlier than planned, bumped the third stage during separation. The third stage was left pitched up about 15° and suffering a velocity shortfall of about 500 feet per second; the vernier engines on the third stage were fired to make up for the thrust deficit, but added only 150 feet per second of velocity, insufficient to escape Earth orbit. As a last resort, ground controllers decided that if they could not get Pioneer 1 to the Moon, they would place it in a high Earth orbit by firing the attached solid rocket motor; the inaccurate launch trajectory, had placed the probe on an orbital track that resulted in thermal heating and cooling beyond what the primitive temperature control system could handle. The probe's internals fell to near-freezing temperatures, rendering the solid motor igniter inoperable. Pioneer 1 reached a total distance of 113,800 km before beginning its descent back to Earth; the spacecraft was launched from LC-17A at Cape Canaveral at 08:42:00 GMT but it did not reach the Moon as planned due to a programming error in the upper stage causing a slight error in burnout velocity and angle.

This resulted in a ballistic trajectory with a peak altitude of 113,800 km around 13:00 local time. The real-time transmission was obtained for about 75% of the flight, but the percentage of data recorded for each experiment was variable. Except for the first hour of flight, the signal-to-noise ratio was good; the spacecraft ended transmission when it reentered the Earth's atmosphere after 43 hours of flight on 13 October 1958 at 03:46 GMT over the South Pacific Ocean. A small quantity of useful scientific information was returned, showing the radiation surrounding Earth was in the form of bands and measuring the extent of the bands, mapping the total ionizing flux, making the first observations of hydromagnetic oscillations of the magnetic field, taking the first measurements of the density of micrometeorites and the interplanetary magnetic field. Pioneer program Space Technology Laboratories Documents Archive

Church of Our Father (Atlanta)

Church of Our Father was the first Unitarian church established in Atlanta, Georgia. The church was organized on March 1883, by Rev. George Leonard Chaney, a Boston minister. Rev. Chaney held Sunday services in the Senate Chamber, Concordia Hall and the United States Courtroom. A church building was constructed at the corner of North Forsyth and Church Street and dedicated on April 23, 1884; the original building was demolished in 1900. The church continued to serve Atlanta's liberal religious community for more than six decades. During that time the church name was changed several times. In 1918, Atlanta's Unitarians merged with the city's Universalist congregation; the combined congregation collapsed in 1951. From its founding in 1825, the southern church expansion of the Boston-based American Unitarian Association was hampered by the liberal Unitarian theology perceived in the south as religious heresy and the AUA’S adoption in 1837 of abolition advocacy. Prior to the Civil War, Unitarian churches were operating in Virginia.

By the end of the Civil War, only the churches in Louisville and New Orleans were active. For years after the war, the AUA made no effort to expand its southern churches; this non-engagement policy was reversed at the January 10, 1881 meeting of the directors of the AUA. The directors authorized Rev. John Heywood to conduct a tour of general missionary work in the south and requested that Rev. Enoch Powell perform missionary work in Atlanta. Six months after Rev. Powell's initial Atlanta trip, the AUA directors allocated $1,000 for Atlanta missionary work and requested that Rev. Chaney lead that effort. Years Rev. Chaney noted, “They had sent a young minister to spy out the land, who promptly returned with the tidings of ‘nothing doing’ or to be done in Atlanta. I was a member of the Executive Board of the Association and zealous in sending other ministers into the field. So, for shame, when I was asked to go myself, I could not refuse.” The resumption of missionary work in Atlanta coincided with the city’s recovery from the Civil War.

By the 1880’s Atlanta was experiencing a building boom and the 1881 International Cotton Exposition brought favorable national attention to the city. More to the Unitarian southern expansion effort, the idea of the exposition originated with a Bostonian Unitarian, Edward Atkinson. Atkinson subsequently served on the exposition’s executive committee with Georgia Governor Colquitt and prominent citizens of the city. If not directly influencing the timing of the AUA’s action, the relationships established by Atkinson were leveraged by the AUA directors in their Atlanta expansion strategy. Upon the arrival of Rev. Powell in Atlanta in January 1881, the city newspaper reported that Unitarian services would be held in that state’s senate chambers “by the courtesy of Governor Colquitt." In February 1882 when Rev. Chaney arrived in Atlanta, The Atlanta Constitution newspaper included in his biographical background that Rev. Chaney “has labored for the cause of industrial education with Mr. Edward Atkinson, of Boston.”

In March 1883 one year after Rev. Chaney first arrived in Atlanta, he announced “that the time had come for giving organized form to the interest we felt on the establishment of a new church in Atlanta." A church covenant and constitution were adopted and a committee appointed to identify property on which a new church building could be built. A month in April 1883, the committee reported that a lot had been secured with funds provided by the AUA. A church building was soon erected on the corner of Forsyth and Church Streets and dedicated on the evening of April 23, 1884; the church remained at this location until 1899 when the church property was sold to the Carnegie Library Trustees for the construction of Atlanta's first public library. A new church building was constructed nearby at the corner of Spring and Forsyth Streets and dedicated in January 1900. A proposal to rename the church to the "First Unitarian Church of Atlanta" was offered during the January 1901 church annual meeting but was voted down.

The timing of the initiative to change the church's name may have been influenced by the dedication a year earlier of the new First Universalist Church of Atlanta building on East Harris Street. The two denominations shared liberal faith principles and had a sense of common bond in the otherwise orthodox faith environment in Atlanta. Three years another effort was made to rename the church. On April 17, 1904 members were asked to vote on two names. Both names failed to achieve the required two-thirds majority. However, after a request by one member to change his ballot, the vote to change the name to the First Unitarian Church of Atlanta carried by that single vote; the Unitarians sold their second church building and built their third church on West Peachtree Street in 1915. This new church building located between Third Avenue and Kimball Street included a set of stained glass windows known as the Founders’ Windows; the name was derived from an inscription on the windows reading “In Honor of George Leonard Chaney - Caroline Isabel Chaney”.

Rev. Chaney and his wife Isabel were both present as the hymn of dedication was sung by the pastor, Rev. Joseph Wade Conkling. Three years Atlanta's Universalists joined their fellow liberal colleagues in this church building in what was described as a temporary merger for the duration of World War I; this merger of local Atlanta Unitarians and Universalists appears to have been influenced by a December 1917 reco

Morning Star (opera)

Morning Star is an opera by composer Ricky Ian Gordon and librettist William M. Hoffman, tells the story of a Russian Jewish family who immigrates to New York City in 1910, it is based on a 1940 play by the same name by Sylvia Regan. The opera was developed by Opera Fusion: New Works, a collaboration between Cincinnati Opera and the University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music which focuses on the creation of new American operas, it premiered at Cincinnati Opera in June 2015. Ricky Ian Gordon started writing Morning Star in the late 1990s, when he was the resident composer at the Lyric Opera of Chicago, it was going to be a collaboration between the Lyric Opera of the Goodman Theatre. In 2012, it was brought back to life by Opera Fusion: New Works, a collaboration between Cincinnati Opera and the University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music dedicated to the development of new American opera. In June 2015, Morning Star premiered at Cincinnati Opera; the opera tells the story of the Felderman family, a Russian Jewish family who immigrates to Manhattan's Lower East Side in 1910.

It is set against the backdrop of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, follows the family through World War I and the Great Depression. The Chicago Tribune described the score as blending "melodic arioso, accompanied recitative, Broadway-style ballads, stirring ensembles, Tin Pan Alley and ragtime elements." This piece calls for a small orchestra. Critical reception for this opera was mixed. Chicago Tribune stated that this opera had "considerable heart and poignancy." The Cincinnati Enquirer said that "Hoffman's libretto was at times poetic or sentimental, other times groaningly clichéd." Opera News, on the other hand, called Morning Star "a rich, complex work."

Wind power in Wyoming

Wyoming has one of the highest wind power potentials of any state in the United States. As of 2016, Wyoming has 1489 megawatts of wind powered electricity generating capacity, responsible for 9.42% of in-state electricity production. Wyoming produced about 9 % of the total. Wyoming's geography of high-altitude prairies with broad ridges makes the state an ideal site for the development of wind resources. Other factors that positively affect Wyoming's wind power development potential include transmission capabilities, the high energy needs of nearby population centers, high public support of wind power development in the state, the historical importance of energy sectors to the state's economy. Disadvantages to large-scale wind power production include competition from fossil fuels industry, as coal power provided 42.7 TWh of Wyoming electricity in 2016, compared to 3.8 TWh for wind. Wyoming taxes wind power with $1/MWh which provided the state with $3.8 million in 2015. The first two wind turbines in Wyoming were constructed in Medicine Bow on September 4, 1982 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the United States Department of Energy.

The wind turbines were the largest in the U. S; the two turbines included the WTS-4 at 391 feet tall, the MOD-2 at 350 feet tall. Mayor of Medicine Bow Gerald Cook held an event with 500 residents at the construction site and declared September 4 "Wind Turbine Day."Wyoming's first commercial wind farm was the Foote Creek Rim wind project located near Arlington completed on April 4, 1999. This 85 MW wind project had 69 wind turbines, it is located in one of the windiest locations in the state. Due to average winds of 25 mph in the area, the wind project has a capacity factor of 43% of peak output annually, higher than most wind farms; as of 2016, the Foote Creek wind project has 183 turbines with a generating capacity of 134.7 MW. In 2003, the Wyoming Wind Energy Center began operations, it is located near Evanston in Uinta County. In 2008, the Glenrock Wind Project outside of Glenrock began operations on top of a reclaimed surface coal mine. PacifiCorp, the owner, "believe this is the first wind facility in the West to recycle land that once provided fossil fuels into one that captures renewable energy."

The wind project has 66 turbines that generate up to 99 MW. Seven Mile Hill and Seven Mile Hill II began operations between Medicine Bow, it has 79 turbines with a generating capacity of 118.5 MW. In 2008, Mountain Wind Power, LLC and Mountain Wind Power II, LLC began operations, they have 67 turbines with a 140 MW capacity. In November 2008, the New York Times reported a land rush in Wyoming in anticipation of future wind power development projects. Citizens and land-owners in Wyoming have formed numerous "wind associations" in the hopes of collectively bargaining for higher compensation for the use of their land in wind power production and transmission projects. Most of these associations are located in the wind-power dense counties of southeastern Wyoming, including Platte, Converse and Laramie counties. In 2010, the High Plains and McFadden Ridge Wind Energy Project near Rock River began operations with 66 turbines, it has a capacity of 99 MW. Three Buttes Windpower, LLC, began operations in Converse County near Glenrock and has 66 turbines with a 99 MW capacity.

Casper Wind Farm began operations near Capser in Natrona County and has 11 turbines with a generating capacity of 16.5 MW. Energy Transportation Inc. headquartered in Casper, is a well-known logistics firm that transports overweight and outsized components used in the wind power industry. The Casper landfill is a disposal site for windmill blades. In 2010, Dunalap I began operations near Medicine Bow, it has 74 turbines with 111 MW capacity. The Top of the World Windpower Project began operations in Converse County near Glenrock and has 110 Turbines with a 200 MW capacity. On November 16, 2016, Microsoft Corp bought 237 MW of wind power from Duke Energy's Happy Jack and Silver Sage wind farms in Wyoming along with Allianz Risk Transfer AG's Bloom Wind Project in Kansas to power a data center located in Cheyenne; this was the largest wind purchase in the history of Microsoft. The White Mountain Wind Energy Project is a proposed 360 MW wind farm which would result in the construction of up to 240 turbines on White Mountain just northwest of Rock Springs.

The Chokecherry and Sierra Madre Wind Energy Project is the largest commercial wind generation facility under development in North America. Power Company of Wyoming has applied to the BLM to build 1,000 wind turbines in an area located south of Rawlins, Wyoming, in Carbon County; the project is proposed to generate 2,000 to 3,000 megawatts of electricity and construction may take 3–4 years with a project life estimate of 30 years. Source: In 2014, wind energy consumption in Wyoming was estimated to be 4,406 GWh. Map of wind associations in southern Wyoming

2012–13 Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C. season

The 2012–13 season was the 114th season of competitive league football in the history of English football club Wolverhampton Wanderers. The club competed in the second tier of the English football system, the Football League Championship, they had returned to the second level having been relegated from the Premier League after three seasons during the previous season. Norwegian manager Ståle Solbakken was appointed to begin the season as the club's manager, but he was sacked on 5 January with the team in 18th place and having been eliminated from the FA Cup by a non-league club, he was swiftly replaced by former Doncaster Rovers manager Dean Saunders who oversaw the remaining twenty games. After Saunders failed to bring any upturn, the club suffered relegation for a second successive season to drop into the third level for the first time since 1988–89; this made them the only club to twice experience back-to-back relegations from the top flight, having suffered this in the mid 1980s. Three days after their relegation was confirmed, Saunders was fired having held the post for only four months.

Having been relegated from the Premier League after three seasons, the club sought to put a new playing style in place under new manager Ståle Solbakken who became the permanent replacement for Mick McCarthy on 1 July. In contrast to McCarthy's preference for British and Irish players, the Norwegian used the foreign market for all of his summer signings, with Bakary Sako, Razak Boukari, Björn Sigurðarson and Georg Margreitter signing permanent deals as well as the loan captures of Tongo Doumbia and Sławomir Peszko. Despite these incomings, the transfer window saw the sale of several key players with leading goalscorer Steven Fletcher exiting for a club record £14 million fee, both Matt Jarvis and Michael Kightly remaining in the Premier League with new clubs; the players began pre-season training on 9 July, which featured a week at a training camp in Ireland. After four pre-season matches, their first competitive game of the campaign saw the team narrowly win a League Cup tie against Aldershot after a penalty shootout.

League football began on 18 August with a 0–1 defeat at Leeds, before the team registered their first victory at Molineux in nine months by beating Barnsley. After an inconsistent start September brought a run of four consecutive victories to lift the team up the table. Victory at fellow newly relegated club Blackburn in early October placed Wolves in third place, to be their highest position of the season; these results came at a price as their injury list grew with Razak Boukari, Stephen Hunt and Sławomir Peszko all sidelined with long-term problems. Winger Jermaine Pennant was therefore loaned to help but the team hit a poor run of form and failed to win any of their next ten fixtures. December began with a halting of this poor sequence as three wins were recorded from four games, but their three games over the festive period were all lost, leading Solbakken to declare that they were "in a crisis"; when the following game - a loss at Luton - brought their first exit from the FA Cup to a non-league side since 1986, he was fired as manager after six months in the role.

He expressed disappointment at owner Steve Morgan offering him such a limited period of time to oversee a reshaping of the club's playing culture and identity. In contrast to the club's criticised two-week-long recruitment process after the dismissal of Mick McCarthy, Solbakken's replacement was swiftly announced within two days as former Doncaster Rovers' manager Dean Saunders was unveiled on 7 January as Wolves' fourth different manager within twelve months. Steve Morgan defended the changes and stated that he hoped Saunders would be with the club "for a long period of time". At the time of Saunders' first game at the helm, the team sat in 18th position six points clear of the relegation zone and nine points from the play-off places, he said that, while he believed promotion still remained possible, "the more scenario is we’re going to creep up the league." He soon used the January transfer window to make two loan signings as defenders Kaspars Gorkšs and Jack Robinson were brought in from the top flight.

The manager's first game brought a 1–1 draw against Blackburn, to be the first of nine winless games under his command. Saunders' first win arrived at the start of March, by which time the team had slumped into the Championship relegation zone for the first time since October 1999. An upturn in form brought four wins from five games but the form of the other relegation-battling sides meant that Wolves were never any more than a single point above the relegation zone. Injuries to both of their leading goalscorers, Sylvan Ebanks-Blake and Bakary Sako, further endangered their risk of losing their Championship status. Shorn of attacking options, their final six games brought five defeats which meant relegation for a second consecutive season. A home loss to Burnley in their penultimate match consigned the club to their fate, led to some supporters storming the pitch at full-time to show their anger at the situation. Only victory on the final day, coupled with defeats for both Barnsley and Peterborough and a five-goal swing in goal difference would have prevented relegation, but in the event, Wolves lost their game at Brighton to become the first club to twice be relegated from the top division to the third level within two years.

Although Saunders spoke of his hopes to be allowed to rebuild the team in League One, three days it was announced that he had become the fourth Wolves manager in fifteen months to leave his post. The club announced it would be taking an indefinite time to seek a "head coach" rather than a manager as it sought to restructure in preparation for their first season outside the top two divisions since 198

George Hillis Newlove

George Hillis Newlove was an American accounting scholar, Professor at the University of Texas, Department of Accounting and, College of Business Administration. His pioneering work in consolidation theory. Born in Crystal, North Dakota to Reverend Samuel Newlove and school teacher Vangie Hillis Newlove, Newlove wanted to follow in his mother's footsteps, he obtained his BA from Hamline University in 1914, his MA in Mathematics at the University of Minnesota in 1915, his PhD at the University of Illinois in 1918. In 1918 he obtained his Certified Public Accountant license for the State of North Carolina, also for the State of Illinois. Newlove had started his academic career during his graduate study as instructor in accountancy at the University of Illinois. After graduation he served in the US Navy in World War I. From 1919 to 1923 he was lecturer in accountancy at the University of Washington, from 1923 to 1928 Associate Professor at Johns Hopkins University. In 1928 he joined the University of Texas faculty.

Newlove wrote 27 books and numerous articles and is credited for his "pioneering work in consolidation theory, cost accounting, and... in the relationship of mathematics and accountancy. Considered one of the country's leading experts in consolidation theory and practice, he developed the original consolidation procedures used by the Treasury Department in its administration of the income tax." Newlove, George Hillis. C. P. A. accounting, theory and problems, The White Press Company, Inc. 1921. Newlove, George Hillis, Cost accounts, 1922. Newlove, George Hillis. Consolidated balance sheets. Ronald Press Company, 1926. Newlove, George Hillis, Charles Aubrey Smith, John Arch White. Intermediate Accounting. Heath, 1948. Newlove, George Hillis, Samuel Paul Garner. Elementary Cost Accounting. Heath, 1949. Newlove, George Hillis, Samuel Paul Garner. Advanced Accounting. Vol. 1. Heath, 1951. In Memoriam: George Hillis Newlove Works by George Hillis Newlove on Hathi Trust Digital Library