Pioneer Courthouse

The Pioneer Courthouse is a federal courthouse in Portland, United States. Built beginning in 1869, the structure is the oldest federal building in the Pacific Northwest, the second-oldest west of the Mississippi River. Along with Pioneer Courthouse Square, it serves as the center of downtown Portland, it is known as the Pioneer Post Office because a popular downtown Portland post office was, until 2005, located inside. The courthouse is one of four primary locations where the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit hears oral arguments, it houses the chambers of the Portland-based judges on the Ninth Circuit. Built in stages between 1869 and 1903, it was first occupied in 1875 by judge Matthew Deady. At that time the building was named the United States Building. Pioneer Courthouse has survived several attempts to demolish it, while continuing to function as a federal facility. On March 20, 1973, the building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places, it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1977.

In March 1933, city engineer Olaf Laurgaard proposed tearing down the building to open a parking garage. John C. Ainsworth asked Oregon representative Charles Martin and Charles L. McNary to see if President Franklin D. Roosevelt would consider giving the structure and property to the city of Portland. Portland would renovate the structure for the Oregon Historical Society and The Colonial Dames of America to use. Martin replied that the timing was bad since Oregon was asking for funding of the Bonneville Dam, it was illegal to donate a post office to a city. Ainsworth came up with a new scheme: demolish the Pioneer Courthouse and build an office building for the Historical Society, the Boy Scouts, a theater, a museum. A. E. Doyle, his architectural firm, the local chapter of the American Institute of Architects, the Colonial Dames, The Oregon Journal opposed destroying the building. In 2003, plans for renovating the courthouse sparked an unusual conflict between Portland Democratic congressmen Earl Blumenauer and David Wu.

Wu, whose district contains the courthouse, supported a plan that included removing the post office from the courthouse, adding five parking spaces in its basement. Wu's plan was adopted, the $23.4 million renovation of the building was completed in December 2005. The work included the addition of base isolators to protect the historic structure from earthquakes, the secure judges' parking area under the building, the renovation of the lobby where the post office had been; the trials of the Oregon land fraud scandal were held in the courthouse, beginning in 1904. These trials were documented at length in Stephen A. Douglas Puter's book Looters of the Public Domain. Mark O. Hatfield United States Courthouse Pioneer Courthouse Square Old Courthouse List of the oldest buildings in the United States General Services Administration page on the Pioneer Courthouse


Beldringe is a manor house and estate located four kilometres southwest of Præstø, Vordingborg Municipality, Denmark. The estate was from 1774 to 1993 owned by members of the Raben/Raben-Levetzau family; the two-storey main building from 1561 and a large, half-timbered barn from the 1710s were listed on the Danish registry of protected buildings and places in 1918. The first known owner of Beldringe was Joseph Nielsen Blade in 1360; the ownership of the estate is unclear until 1522 when it was acquired by Joachim Beck through his marriage to Anne Ravensberg who had inherited it after her parents. In 1537, Beck was appointed as royal treasurer of Eastern Denmark, he was in the same time granted considerable holdings of land on Zealand and was therefore able to expand Beldringe with nine additional tenant farms. Joachim Beck was the owner of Førslevgaard. Joachim Beck's son Lauge Beck, inherited Beldringe and Gørslevgaard after his father's death in 1572. After Lauge Beck's death in 1607, Beldringe passed to his son Jacob Beck while Førslevgaard went to his other son Sivert Beck.

In 1621, Jacob Beck ceded Beldringe to Christian IV in exchange for Gladsaxe in Scania. Christian IV's interest in the estate was due to its location in the middle of one of his hunting grounds. At this point, Beldringe consisted of a total of 52 tenant farms. In 1622, Christian IV placed the land that had belonged to Beldringe Rectory as well as 32 tenant farms from the Fief of Tryggevælde under Beldringe, he renovated the main building and constructed a new stable for his horses as well as new farm buildings. In his will of 1665, Frederick III bequeathed Vordingborg Castle and the manors of Beldringe and Lekkende to his youngest son, Prince George. After Prince George's death in 1708, all his holdings reverted to the Crown and was included in the newly established Vordingborg Cavalry District. In 1769, it was decided to sell Vordingborg Cavalry District. A commission proposed to sell them in public auction; these plans were, met with opposition. In 1774, Beldringe was instead sold to Frederik Sophus Raben.

He undertook a comprehensive refurbishment of the main building. Raben's son, Carl Vilhelm Raben, inherited Beldringe after his father's death in 1820, he had served as a diplomat in the Hague for many years but returned to Denmark to manage his estate. In 1834, he was granted royal permission to assume the surname Raben-Levetzau. Having no children, Carl Vilhelm Raben-Levetzau and his wife Julia Adelaide Harriet Bornemann established Den Raben-Levetsauske Fond. After Julia Adelaide Harriet Bornemann's death in 1888, Beldringe passed to the nephew Frederik Christoffer Otto Raben-Levetzau, he owned it until his death. He began his career in the foreign diplomacy but was in 1905 appointed as Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Cabinet of Prime Minister Jens Christian Christensen. In 1908, he retired from politics. Frederik Christoffer Otto Raben-Levetzaus was succeeded on the estate by his son Johan Otto Raben-Levetzau, it was passed to his daughter in 1992. She sold it in 1993; the two storey main building is from 1561.

It is constructed in red brick with bands of white-washed limestone. It has a base of finely cut granite ashlars. Most of the farm buildings were destroyed in a fire in 1910; the most notable exception is a large, half-timbered barn from 1715. The barn is 14 bays wide; the main building and the half-timbered barn were listed on the Danish registry of protected buildings and places in 1918. The scope of the heritage listing was expanded in 1990. Most of the other farm buildings date from after the fire; the entrance to the complex is marked by a gatehouse. Beldringe is today owned by Beldringe Gods ApS; the harvest festival scene in the Acadeny Award-winning 1876 film Pelle the Conqueror was filmed at Beldringe. Joseph Nielsen Blad Tage Josephsen Blad Anders Jensen Basse Morten Andersen Basse Jakob Jepsen Anne Jacobsdatter Ravensberg, gift Beck Joachim Beck Albert Joachimsen Beck Lauge Beck Jacob Lavesen Beck The Crown Prince George of Denmark Kronen Frederik Sophus Raben Carl Vilhelm Raben-Levetzau Julia Adelaide Harriet Bornemann, gift Raben-* Levetzau* Frederik Christopher Otto Raben-Levetzau Johan Otte Raben-Levetzau Nina Veronika Raben-Levetzau * Beldringe Gods ApS Stilling, Niels Peter Danmarks Herregårde.

Sjælland, Møn og Lolland-Falster ISBN 9788702132441

Massachusetts School Building Authority

The Massachusetts School Building Authority is a quasi-independent public authority that provides grants which fund municipal and regional school districts for kindergarten through high school construction and renovation projects in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The MSBA, upon the initiative of applicant municipal and regional school districts funds school facility construction and develops financially sound plans for constructing educationally appropriate buildings that are long-lived and economically and environmentally sustainable; the source of MSBA revenue funds is one cent of the 6.25-percent sales tax of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The MSBA funds a portion of approved eligible building project costs. In 2004, the Massachusetts legislature placed a moratorium on state assistance to the funding of public school capital expenditure projects. A prior backlog of more than 800 audits and a failure of the legislature to properly fund the former School Building Assistance Program had led to an accumulated a debt of more than $10 billion from the SBA's operations.

The program was at that time administered by the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. In July 2004, the legislature enacted the bill creating the MSBA, on July 26, the Governor, Mitt Romney, signed the bill into law as Chapter 208 of the Acts of 2004, establishing the new public authority, which assumed responsibility for the School Building Assistance Program, its debt obligations and other previous commitments; the MSBA’s first years focused on an accelerated audit program that resolved prior School Building Assistance Program commitments to local school districts. By the end of 2006, debt and the backlog of audits had been reduced enough for the authority to lift the moratorium on funding new building projects, in 2007, the MSBA accepted new capital projects for consideration. On January 25, 2012, Massachusetts Treasurer and Receiver General Steven Grossman, Chair of the MSBA, announced the appointment of Jack McCarthy as Executive Director of the MSBA. Since its establishment in 2004, the MSBA has made more than $10.1 billion in reimbursements to cities and regional school districts for school construction projects.

Instead of waiting years for reimbursement, districts now receive payments from the MSBA as costs are incurred. These timely payments have saved municipalities over $2.9 billion in avoided local interest costs. To fulfill its mission of developing fiscally responsible and educationally appropriate capital improvements, the MSBA has: Made full or partial payments to more than 424 of the 428 projects on the waiting list, with funding available for the remaining projects once they begin construction Received and processed over 180 Statements of Interest from communities interested in participating in the program Instituted an accelerated audit program that has completed more than 772 of the 800 backlogged audits inherited from the former program Audited over $14 billion in project costs Made it possible for local municipal or regional school districts to avoided $2.9 billion in interest costs, by increasing speed which projects move through the capital funding process Saved Massachusetts and its municipalities over $1.1 billion by establishing of reasonable enrollment projections.