click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pioneer P-31

Pioneer P-31 was intended to be a lunar orbiter probe, but the mission failed shortly after launch. The objectives were to place a instrumented probe in lunar orbit, to investigate the environment between the Earth and Moon, to develop technology for controlling and maneuvering spacecraft from Earth, it was equipped to take images of the lunar surface with a television-like system, estimate the Moon's mass and topography of the poles, record the distribution and velocity of micrometeorites, study radiation, magnetic fields, low frequency electromagnetic waves in space. A midcourse propulsion system and injection rocket would have been the first United States self-contained propulsion system capable of operation many months after launch at great distances from Earth and the first U. S. tests of maneuvering a satellite in space. The spacecraft was launched on Atlas vehicle 91D coupled to Thor-Able upper stages including an Able solid propellant third stage on December 15, 1960; the launch was uneventful until T+66 seconds when a severe axial disturbance was recorded, followed by rapid loss of LOX tank pressure and changes in the Atlas's engine exhaust indicative of oxidizer starvation.

At T +73 seconds, the Atlas experienced total structural loss of telemetry. The upper stages continued transmitting data until impact with the ocean; the payload fell into the Atlantic Ocean 12 to 20 km from Cape Canaveral in about 20 meter deep water. A Navy salvage operation recovered parts of the payload; the immediate cause of the failure was unclear, but thought to be related to either the adapter mating the Able stages to the Atlas coming loose and being rammed into the LOX tank or else aerodynamic buffeting on the launch vehicle. The recovered Able second stage showed no sign that engine ignition or operation had taken place, the most probable cause of the failure was believed to be aerodynamic flexing of the Able adapter which ruptured the Atlas's LOX tank; the crippled booster continued to fly for a few seconds afterwards, but the structural collapse of the Atlas's forward section combined with the loss of LOX pressure to the propellant feed system resulted in engine shutdown and vehicle self-destruction.

As a result of this failure and Mercury-Atlas 1 five months earlier due to a similar episode of aerodynamic bending in the forward portion of the LOX tank, GD/A began requiring that all Atlas upper stage/payload combinations undergo proper structural dynamics testing. The failure was described as "especially disappointing" since it was the final launch in the Able probe series as its successor, the Ranger program, was in the works. In the end, the US space program would not see a successful lunar probe until Ranger 7 four years later, it marked the final launch in the first generation of lunar probes, which used direct ascent trajectories and would give way to the second generation probes which had parking orbits. Pioneer P-31 was identical to the earlier Pioneer P-30 satellite which failed, a 1-meter diameter sphere with a propulsion system mounted on the bottom giving a total length of 1.4 meters. The mass of the structure and aluminum alloy shell was about 30 kg and the propulsion units 90 kg.

Four solar panels, each 60 x 60 cm and containing 2200 solar cells in 22 100-cell nodules, extended from the sides of the spherical shell in a "paddle-wheel" configuration with a total span of about 2.7 meters. The solar panels charged nickel-cadmium batteries. Inside the shell, a large spherical hydrazine tank made up most of the volume, topped by two smaller spherical nitrogen tanks and a 90 N injection rocket to slow the spacecraft down to go into lunar orbit, designed to be capable of firing twice during the mission. Attached to the bottom of the sphere was a 90 N vernier rocket for mid-course propulsion and lunar orbit maneuvers which could be fired four times. Around the upper hemisphere of the hydrazine tank was a ring-shaped instrument platform which held the batteries in two packs, two 1.5 W UHF transmitters and diplexers, logic modules for scientific instruments, two command receivers, decoders, a buffer/amplifier, three converters, a telebit, a command box, most of the scientific instruments.

Two dipole UHF antennas protruded from the top of the sphere on either side of the injection rocket nozzle. Two dipole UHF antennas and a long VLF antenna protruded from the bottom of the sphere; the transmitters operated on a frequency of 378 MHz. Thermal control was planned to be achieved by 50 small "propeller blade" devices on the surface of the sphere; the blades themselves were made of reflective material and consisted of four vanes which were flush against the surface, covering a black heat-absorbing pattern painted on the sphere. A thermally sensitive coil was attached to the blades in such a way that low temperatures within the satellite would cause the coil to contract and rotate the blades and expose the heat absorbing surface, high temperatures would cause the blades to cover the black patterns. Square heat-sink units were mounted on the surface of the sphere to help dissipate heat from the interior; the scientific instruments consisted of an ion chamber and Geiger-Müller tube to measure total radiation flux, a proportional radiation counter telescope to measure high energy radiation, a scintillation counter to monitor low-energy radiation, a scintillation spectrometer to study the Earth's radiation belts, a VLF receiver for natural radio waves, a transponder to study electron density, part of the flux-gate and search coil magnetometers mounted on the instrument platform.

A plasma probe was mounted on the sphere to measure energy and momentum distribution of protons above a few kilovolts

Anna Frants

Anna Frants is an American multimedia artist and art collector. She is the founder of nonprofit cultural foundation "St. Petersburg Arts Project" and "CYLAND" MediaArtLab, is director of "Frants Gallery". In 1989, Frants graduated from the St. Petersburg Stieglitz State Academy of Art and Design, where she had majored in Industrial Design. In 1992, she was admitted to the New-York Pratt Institute to the department of Art and Design where she majored in Computer Graphics and Animation; the mastering of computer graphics and animation marked the beginning of her enthusiasm for new media, new media art and technologies in art and the concentration of her interests on the transition from traditional classical methods to cyberarts, afforded unlimited possibilities by the developing internet. In 1997, she married Leonid Frants, their son Daniil became the youngest artist at CYLAND MediaArtLab: when he was only twelve, he created, as part of Cyfest, an international educational game program for children, the workshop "Humanizing Robots", which he held in Russia, Japan, United States and Ukraine.

In addition to continuous exhibition activities as an artist and a curator in New York, St. Petersburg and Japan, in 2010, Anna traveled to the Polar Region as a member of the international group of artists within the program "The Arctic Circle" organized by the Canadian government; the program's purpose was to afford the artists an opportunity to visit hard-to-reach places of the Polar Region that are known through scientific reports, which would subsequently allow them to create art projects based on their impressions of the region. In addition to the video footage filmed by Anna, that trip resulted in her interactive project Trembling Creatures, exhibited at the group show of participants of those annual expeditions that opened in May 2014 at the "1285 Avenue of the Americas Art Gallery" in New York. Weather Forecast: Digital Cloudiness - Reggia di Caserta, Italy, 2018. Personal Spaces – Interactive Multimedia Works by Anna Frants, Carla Gannis, Alexandra Dementieva, Elena Gubanova and Ivan Govorkov.

National Arts Club, 15 Gramercy Park South, New York, 2018 HYBRIS, Monsters and Hybrids in Contemporary Art, University Ca’ Foscari, Venice, 2017]. Patterns of the Mind, London, 2016. Nargifsus, Transfer Gallery, New York, 2016. Made in Ancient Greece, Sergey Kuryokhin Center for Contemporary Art, St. Petersburg, 2016; the Other Home, Made in NY Media Center by IFP, New York, 2015. Urbi et Orbi, as part of the 6th Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art, RGGU, Moscow, 2015. Personal Space #1, Youth Center at the State Hermitage, St. Petersburg, 2015. Re: Collection, Museum of Arts and Design, New York, 2014. Magnetic North, The UBS Art Gallery, New York, 2014. Finding Freedom in Russian Art, 1961-2014, Paul & Lulu Hilliard University Art Museum, Lafayette, USA, 2014; this Leads to Fire, Neuberger Museum of Art, New York, 2014. Capital of Nowhere, 2013. VISIONARY DREAMS # 3261-64", 2013; the Time Keeper, State Hermitage, 2013. CYFEST Exhibition, 2012. Migrants, 5th Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art, 2013.

The Time Keeper, 2012. Trembling Creatures, SIGGRAPH ASIA, 2011, Hong Kong. "No. 0" — Multimedia installation in public space. Made in Ancient Greece], Series of works. In the Shade of Olive Tree] — in the collection of Kyosei-no-Sato Museum. Polar Bear Fodder. Trembling Creatures; the last two works were made as a result of the trip to the Polar circle as a member of the Canadian art expedition "The Arctic Circle" in 2009. Artworks by Anna Frants are presented by Borey Gallery, Dam Stuhltrager Gallery and Barbarian Gallery, her works are in the collections of the New York Museum of Arts and Design, State Russian Museum, Kyosei-no-Sato Museum, Kolodzei Art Foundation, Sergey Kuryokhin Center for Contemporary Art and in numerous private collections all over the world. The most notable of Frants' curatorial works were the retrospective exhibitions "Sterligov's Group", 2006, New York, "Art around the Barracks", 2003, New York. In the documentary of Andrey Zagdansky "Konstantin and Mouse", dedicated to Konstantin Kuzminsky, one of the episodes was filmed at the opening night of "Art around the Barracks" at Frants Gallery in Soho.

Among contemporary artists, who collaborate with Anna Frants as a curator, are Vitaly Pushnitsky, Elena Gubanova and Ivan Govorkov, Alexander Kozhin, Alexander Terebenin, Marina Koldobskaya, Alexandra Dementieva, Peter Belyi, Petr Shvetsov. In 2006, Anna Frants together with Колдобская, Марина Дмитриевна|Marina Koldobskaya founded the international media lab "СYLAND". Since 2007, the MediaArtLab holds the annual festival of cyberart "Cyfest", the largest cyberart festival in Eastern Europe featuring artists from different countries who share an enthusiasm for new technologies. In 1999, Anna and Leonid Frants created the nonprofit foundation "St. Petersburg Arts Project", still active, its purpose was the representation in New York of the artists from Leningrad/St. Petersburg who have been working there from the postwar 1950s until the present time; the primary focus was on the so-called Leningrad underground — the unique and underexplored cultural phenomenon of the 1970s and the artistic and social environment that brought if forth.

The scope of activities of "Frants Gallery Space" expanded and started including not just the traditional genres, such as painting and graphics, but

William Torrey Harris

William Torrey Harris was an American educator and lexicographer. Born in North Killingly, Connecticut, he attended Phillips Academy in Massachusetts, he completed two years at Yale moved west and taught school in St. Louis, from 1857 to 1880, where he was superintendent of schools from 1868 to 1880, established, with Susan E. Blow, America's first permanent public kindergarten in 1873, it was in St. Louis where William Torrey Harris instituted many influential ideas to solidify both the structural institution of the public school system and the basic philosophical principles of education, his changes led to the expansion of the public school curriculum to make the high school an essential institution to the individual and to include art, music and manual studies, was largely responsible for encouraging all public schools to acquire a library. As Commissioner of Education, Harris wrote the introduction to Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Thomas Jefferson Morgan's, Bureau of Education Bulletin on Indian Education.

Harris called for the forced and mandatory education of American Indians through a partnership with Christianity in order to promote industry. It was Harris who called for the removal of Native children from their families for up to 10 years of training for the "lower form of civilization" as opposed to the United States government's policy of exterminating them. Harris wrote, "We owe it to ourselves and to the enlightened public opinion of the world to save the Indian, not destroy him. We can not his patriarchal or tribal institution both together. To save him we must take him up into our form of civilization. We must approach him in the missionary spirit and we must supplement missionary action by the aid of the civil arm of the State. We must establish compulsory education for the good of the lower race." Harris's St. Louis Schools were considered some of the best in the country, his fellow educators were local farmers that immigrated from Germany after they tried and failed to make Germany a republic.

In St. Louis Harris met mechanic and philosopher Henry Clay Brockmeyer, whose influence turned him towards Hegelianism. With Brockmeyer and other of the St. Louis Hegelians, he founded and edited the first philosophical periodical in America, the Journal of Speculative Philosophy, editing it until 1893, it promoted the view that the entire unfolding was part of a universal plan, a working out of an eternal historical dialectic, as theorized by Hegel. Harris was associated with Amos Bronson Alcott's Concord School of Philosophy from 1880 to 1889, when he became U. S. Commissioner of Education, serving until 1906, he did his best to organize all phases of education on the principles of philosophical pedagogy as espoused by Hegel, Fichte, Fröbel and many others of idealist philosophies. He died on November 5, 1909, he received the degree of LL. D. from various American and foreign universities. As the United States Commissioner of Education, Harris nearly succeeded in making Hegelianism the official philosophy of American education during the late 19th century.

Throughout time, his influence has been only momentarily recognized and misunderstood by historians. Harris’ extreme emphasis on discipline has become the most glaring misrepresentation of his philosophy. Harris–Stowe State University in St. Louis is named for Harris, author Harriet Beecher Stowe. In 1906 the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching conferred upon him "as the first man to whom such recognition for meritorious service is given, the highest retiring allowance which our rules will allow, an annual income of $3000." "Ninety-nine out of a hundred are automata, careful to walk in prescribed paths, careful to follow the prescribed custom. This is not an accident but the result of substantial education, scientifically defined, is the subsumption of the individual." And in that same book, The Philosophy of Education, he writes: "The great purpose of school can be realized better in dark, ugly places... It is to master the physical self. School should develop the power to withdraw from the external world."

Critics cite these passages to portray Harris as a proponent of self-alienation in order to better serve the great industrial nation of America. In fact, argue supporters, it can be found that quite the opposite is true of Harris when you are able to go beyond the surface of his educational philosophy. According to Harris's supporters, as a devout Christian he was quite concerned with the development of morality and discipline within the individual. Harris believed those values could systematically be instilled into the pupils, promoting common goals and social cooperation, with a strong sense of respect for and responsibility towards one’s society. Harris was a strong proponent of the American colonial projects in Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines following the Spanish–American War. In an article entitled "An Educational Policy for Our New Possessions", Harris wrote: “…f the other people of the world to the number of some fourteen hundred millions are united under the five great powers of Europe, while we in turn have only one hundred millions, our national idea will be threatened abroad and have more dangers than at home.”

“We must accept the charge of as many of these colonies as come to our hand. We must seek to give them civilization in the highest sense that we can conceive of it.” “The highest ideal of a civilization is that of a civilization, engaged in elevating lower classes of people into participation of all, good and reasonable and perpetually increasing at the same time their self-activity. Such a civiliz

Life writing

Life writing is the recording of memories,and experiences, whether one's own or another's. This applies to many genres and practices, under which can be found autobiography, memoir, letters, personal essays and, more digital forms such as blogs and email. Life writing can be linked with genealogical study: when recording one's life it is common to become curious about the lives of others that have affected one over time and, if they have not recorded their own life, to start doing it for them. In the eighteenth century there was an increase in life writing and life narratives produced due to the rise of literacy and the increased circulation in global trade; the continued popularity of the biographic form can be seen with the recent publication of the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, an updated version of a 19th-century publication, containing 50,113 biographic articles about 54,922 people who have affected and shaped Britain. Life writing has become popular and, as a result, academic research into the subject has increased.

Life writers and historians state that life writing and life history are useful academically as they provide first hand stories and accounts of individuals and their relationship with society, public life as well as detailed personal insights. At the same time, the prevalence of confessional writing and related audio/visual'reality' shows has been argued to reflect the extreme individualism of late modern societies. In 1975, psychologist Ira Progoff noted the positive effects that journal writing, or autobiographical writing could have; the findings of Progoff's research showed that not only could an Intensive Journal Method enhance personal growth and learning, but that it could "draw each person's life towards wholeness at its own tempo". Research into life writing has found that it can facilitate the expression of feeling, a shift in personal thinking and the development of a feeling of self-control and confidence in individuals with low self-esteem, it has been claimed that autobiographical writing helps with these deep issues as it allows the problem to be dealt with in a new and unusual way.

Another benefit to life writing is the pleasure and positive experience in re-living old memories and events, while knowing that they are being recorded and therefore will be remembered in years to come by future generations. People want to be remembered and through family orientated activity such as life writing the process can be more rewarding. Life writing enables family information, as well as emotions and feeling about history to be remembered, for example life writing can give the opportunity to pass down family traditions and memorabilia. With the increasing prevalence of Alzheimer's and other degenerative and dementia diseases in the developed world, it is being seen as more important to leave a record of oneself and one's times. There is some evidence to support the claim that increased intellectual activity and brain stimulation i.e. recording one's memories can lower the individual risk of dementia and Alzheimer's. There are now Centres for Life Writing Research at the University of Oxford, King's College London, the University of Sussex.

The Centres are multi-disciplinary, with contributors from history, anthropology, cultural studies and psychology as well as English language and literature and aim to produce academic publications in the field of life writing as well as contributing through other mediums, such as television and the internet. The University of Sussex Library is home to the Mass-Observation Archive, a large collection of material from everyday life kept routines and diaries that were collated between 1937 and the early 1950s. More Mass-Observation Archive has been collecting new material since the early 1980s, in order to generate a comparable record of everyday life from a personal perspective; the archive is considered of great social and cultural importance as well as supplying unheard accounts and stories of routine wartime and contemporary Britain. The International Auto/Biography Association holds a biannual conference which brings together some of the leading scholars in the field. Life writing has been evident for nearly 2,000 years.

St Augustine's autobiographical work being one example from the late 4th century AD. Margery Kempe, an early 15th-century English woman, is believed to have written the first autobiography in the English language, though it was a production that depended upon the help of scribes; this text provides what could be the best insight into a female, middle class experience in the Middle Ages. Other well-known examples include Mein Kampf by Adolf Hitler and Long Walk to Freedom by Nelson Mandela. Narrative identity Jolly, Margaretta. 2001 The Encyclopedia of Life Writing. Autobiographical and Biographical Forms. Routledge and New York Epstein, Helen. 2010. Ecrire La Vie. La Cause des Livres. Paris SAGA Document Collection – Women's autobiographical narratives from the UBC Library Digital Collections The Oxford Centre for Life Writing

Carlos Gurpegui

Carlos Gurpegui Nausia is a Spanish retired footballer who played as a central defender or a defensive midfielder. He spent his entire professional career with Athletic Bilbao, marred by a two-year ban due to a nandrolone positive test. Over 14 La Liga seasons, he scored 22 goals. Born in Pamplona and raised in the village of Andosilla, Gurpegui was a product of Athletic Bilbao's Lezama youth academy, made his first-team – and La Liga – debut on 31 March 2002 in a 2–5 away defeat against Villarreal CF, going on to establish himself as the first-choice holding midfielder in the following years with 121 games in four seasons. On 17 January 2004, he scored a late equaliser against FC Barcelona in a 1–1 draw at the Camp Nou. Gurpegui was banned for two years on 3 November 2003, for testing positive for nandrolone in a 1 September 2002 game against Real Sociedad the previous season; the ban was suspended after repeated appeals, with the player claiming that his body produced nandrolone but the appeals were in vain and he was forced to serve his sentence, which ran until 23 April 2008.

In the 2008–09 season, Gurpegui was used as a backup due to the emergence of youngster Javi Martínez, but regained his starting position in the following years alongside Martínez. On 28 November 2010, he headed home in the last minute against hometown club CA Osasuna, in a 1–0 home win. Gurpegui was again relegated to the bench for the 2011–12 campaign, following the arrival of new coach Marcelo Bielsa. On 23 October 2011, having replaced Andoni Iraola at half-time in an eventual 1–1 draw at Valencia CF, he had to leave the pitch early into the second half, with a torn anterior cruciate ligament which ended his season. After Martínez left in summer 2012 to join FC Bayern Munich, Gurpegui was chosen by Bielsa as the next player to be converted from defensive midfielder to central defender. After playing a big role in their qualification for the tournament through finishing fourth domestically in 2013–14, partnering the much younger Aymeric Laporte, he featured in defence in six matches in the subsequent edition of the UEFA Champions League.

The team reached three finals of the Copa del Rey in Gurpegui's time at the San Mamés Stadium, losing them all to Barcelona – he was an unused substitute on every occasion. He did play in both legs of the 2015 Supercopa de España against the same opponents, lifting the trophy as team captain. On 11 May 2016, by now a fringe player, 35-year-old Gurpegui announced he would retire from the game at the end of the campaign. Gurpegui never won any caps for Spain at any level, he did play six matches for the unofficial Basque selection, featured for the equivalent Navarrese team. Gurpegui had retired from club football when he appeared in his last friendly for the Basque Country on 27 May 2016, a draw and win on penalties over Corsica. On retiring from playing, Gurpegui was appointed to a coaching role at Athletic Bilbao working under Ernesto Valverde. However, when the latter moved to Barcelona in the 2017 off-season he did not take the former with him, nor was there any place in the new Athletic coaching structure under José Angel Ziganda.

Gurpegui's older brother, Pedro María, was a footballer who played as a forward. He had a spell in the reserve team of Osasuna, coming up against his younger sibling in a league fixture in the semi-professional Segunda División B in 2000. Pedro's career stalled after a serious knee injury, he never played above that level. Athletic Bilbao Supercopa de España: 2015.

Speedera Networks

Speedera Networks, founded in 1999, was a content delivery network company that emerged in the late 1990s to advance technology applications for Internet communications and collaboration and became the first CDN to turn a profit. On June, 2005, Akamai acquired Speedera Networks. A CDN is a distributed computing platform for global Internet content and application delivery, some of the advantages it brought to the Internet and online users was dynamic imaging, flash video, faster website download times, increased site performance and improved business continuity and uptime. Speedera added a layer of security to Web sites, resulting in reduction of risk of distributed denial-of-service attacks and bandwidth hijacking. A provider of distributed application hosting and content delivery services, Speedera was founded by Ajit Gupta, Rich Day, Eric Swildens; the company was based in California. Speedera opened its second headquarters in Bangalore, India in 2002 to offer 24x7 operations and customer support as well as sales and additional R&D capacity.

Investors backing Speedera included Trinity Ventures. Despite the end of the dot-com bubble in 2000 and a large number of competitors, Speedera had patented technology, a significant cost advantage and a customer focused sales philosophy that enabled the company to survive the economic downturn and grow enough to achieve a profitable annual revenue run rate of $60 million. In 2003 and 2004, both Deloitte & Touche and PricewaterhouseCoopers recognized Speedera as one of the top 10 fastest growing private companies in Silicon Valley and in North America; the company was created to cache static Web content through its vast network and direct users to the optimum server through intelligent traffic management and transformed itself to deliver dynamic imaging, rich dynamic content and accelerated Web applications using the same platform. Speedera enabled companies to offer bandwidth-intensive content and streaming media over the Web, it operated servers on more than 1,000 backbone networks in the Americas and the Asia-Pacific region, putting the content physically closer to users, speeding up downloads and streaming.

Speedera built its network to more than 100 points-of-presence within ata centers in 20 countries. Speedera at acquisition had more than 400 customers, including large companies, they included Fox Broadcasting Corporation, Amazon.com, Sony Music Entertainment, Comcast, NASA, the European Space Agency, Bank of America, The U. S. Department of Homeland Security, The Weather Channel, Nissan, NPR, iFilm, Atom Shockwave, Sirius Satellite Radio, the National Hockey League, the U. S. National Guard, Tag Heuer, Microsoft, Verizon, Intuit, Intel, AMD, Macromedia, McAfee, Network Associates, Symantec, RSA Security, Inc. Hewlett-Packard, Softbank, Satyam and The Times of India. Channel partners included HP Services, Softbank Broadmedia/Club IT, AboveNet, Inflow. Speedera's services included streaming media, content delivery, load balancing, security and management services, all based on its Global Traffic Management platform and patented technology. In 2005, Speedera announced FlexComputing. FlexComputing enabled enterprises to deploy and update applications as needed in multiple hosting locations.

FlexComputing represented the third stage of utility computing, a field in which Speedera had been a pioneer since its founding in 1999. The first stage entailed distributed caching of Web site content graphical objects; the next stage extended this model to downloadable media, video streaming files and whole site delivery. FlexComputing tooks the model one step further, to the third stage, by deploying customers` own applications on Speedera's global network and providing additional hosting capacity on demand for any distributed application running on an Intel platform; this distributed hosting solution enabled customer applications to be higher performing, more scalable, more reliable and more resistant to security attacks, while eliminating the need for customers to invest in added server and network infrastructure. Speedera was issued 21 patents ranging from load balancing to integrated point of presence server networks. Twelve of those were issued to CEO Ajit Gupta; these patents included: * Dynamic image delivery system * Global traffic management system using IP anycast routing and dynamic load-balancing * Performance computer network method * Method for determining metrics of a content delivery and global traffic management network * Integrated point of presence server network * Content delivery and global traffic management network system * Secure content delivery system * Load balancing service * Load balancing array packet routing system * Performance computer network method * Content delivery and global traffic management network system * Load balancing service * Method and system for generating and providing rich media presentations optimized for a device over a network * Method and apparatus for determining latency between multiple servers and a client * Scalable domain name system with persistence and load balancing * Method and system for delivering and monitoring an on-demand playlist over a network using a template * Scalable domain name system with persistence and load balancing * Content delivery and global traffic management network system * Performance computer network method * User device and system for traffic management and content distribution over a worldwide area network * Integrated point of presence server network Speedera hosted some of the l