FC Bayern Munich II
Bayern Munich II are the reserve team of German association football club Bayern Munich. In 2010–11 they played in the 3 and they have generally achieved at least mid-table finishes at this level, and won the Regionalliga Süd title in 2004. In 2010–11 Bayern II finished last in the 3, liga and was thus relegated to the Regionalliga. Bayern II has made appearances in the DFB-Pokal, even facing the senior Bayern side in a fourth round tie in 1977 losing 5–3. Their last appearance in the cup was the 2004–05 season, when reached the quarter final. In 1983 and 1987, Bayern II advanced to the national cup final where they lost 0–2 to FC Homburg. After finishing its first season in league in mid-table, it ended 1957–58 as runners-up. It repeated this achievement in 1960–61, this time coming second to TSV1860 Munich II, Bayern Amateure had to finish seventh to qualify but came only 14th and found itself grouped in the new tier-four Landesliga Bayern-Süd. It took the four seasons in this league to work its way back up, improving year by year and, in 1966–67, it finished first.
Bayern started well in the league, coming fourth in the first year and it only took two seasons this time for the team to return to the third division and another league win in 1973 moved the team back up. For the next 21 season, the team was to be a member of the Bayernliga without interruption, however, in all the 21 seasons there, the team could never win the league either, being ineligible for promotion from there to professional football anyway. The team had few bad seasons in this time, coming close to relegation only once. It managed three runners-up finishes in the league, in 1983,1984 and 1987 and generally existed as an upper-table side, in 1994, with the introduction of the new tier-three Regionalliga Süd, the team qualified comfortably. It was to be a member of this league, belonging to it until 2008. After mostly finishing in mid-table in the league, Bayern earned its first league title in over 30 years when it won the Regionalliga in 2004. Being already a member of the highest league in which teams are permitted.
In 2005, all sides of clubs in the first and second Bundesliga changed their name from Amateure to II. In 2008, the team earned promotion to the new 3, finishing eighth when a top-ten finish was needed
German nationality law
German nationality law is the law governing the acquisition and loss of German citizenship. The law is based on a mixture of the principles of jus sanguinis, Naturalisation is possible for foreign nationals after six to eight years of legal residence in Germany. However, non-EU and non-Swiss citizens must usually renounce their old citizenship before being naturalised in Germany, citizens of other EU countries and of Switzerland usually can keep their old citizenship. Some EU countries do not allow dual citizenship even with other EU countries, for details, see section Dual citizenship. A significant reform to the nationality law was passed by the Bundestag in 1999, the reformed law makes it somewhat easier for foreigners resident in Germany on a long-term basis, and especially their children born in Germany, to acquire German citizenship. The previous German nationality law dated from 1913, Nationality law was amended by the Nuremberg Laws of Nazi Germany, these amendments were revoked after the defeat of Nazism by an Allied occupational ordinance in 1945.
Germany ratified the European Convention on Nationality, which came into force in Germany on 1 September 2005, all German nationals are automatically citizens of the European Union. Before the formation of the German Empire in 1871, the states became part of the empire were sovereign with their own nationality laws. On 13 March 1938 the German nationality law was extended to Austria following the Anschluss which annexed Austria to Germany, any Austrians who had held German nationality lost it. The Nazi amendments of 1934 and the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were revoked by Allied occupational ordinance in 1945, restoring the 1913 nationality law, until 1990 ethnic Germans living abroad in a country in the former Eastern Bloc could obtain citizenship through a virtually automatic procedure. From 1990 the law was steadily tightened each year to limit the number of immigrants, requiring immigrants to prove language skills, Article 116 entitles persons, who were denaturalised by the Nazi government, to be renaturalised if they wish.
Those among them, who after May 8,1945 take up residence in Germany are automatically considered German citizens, both regulations, allowed a considerable numbers of Poles and Israelis, residing in Poland and Israel, to be concurrently German citizens. In order to retain German citizenship, such children are required to take affirmative measures by age 23, parents who are citizens of European Economic Area states or Switzerland are eligible to receive permanent resident permits after five years. A person born of a parent with German citizenship at the time of the birth is a German citizen. Place of birth is not a factor in citizenship determination based on parentage and those born after 1 January 1975 are Germans if the mother or father is a German citizen. Those born before 1 January 1975 could normally only claim German citizenship from the father, exceptions included cases where the parents were unmarried or where the German mother applied for the child to be registered as German on or before 31 December 1977.
Special rules exist for those born before 1 July 1993 if only the father is German and is not married to the mother, the father must acknowledge paternity and must have married the mother before 1 July 1998. Exceptions are, The child would be stateless, the German parent registers the childs birth within one year of birth to the responsible German agency abroad
Rostock is the largest city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Rostock is on the Warnow river, the district of Warnemünde 12 kilometres north of the city centre is directly on the Baltic Sea coast, Rostock is home to one of the oldest universities in the world, the University of Rostock, founded in 1419. The city territory of Rostock stretches for about 20 km along the Warnow to the Baltic Sea, the largest built-up area of Rostock is on the western side of the river. The eastern part of its territory is dominated by industrial estates, Rostock is considered as the only regiopolis in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. In the 11th century Polabian Slavs founded a settlement at the Warnow river called Roztoc, the Danish king Valdemar I set the town aflame in 1161. Afterwards the place was settled by German traders, initially there were three separate cities, Altstadt around the Alter Markt with St. Petri, Mittelstadt around the Neuer Markt with St. Marien and Neustadt around the Hopfenmarkt with St.
Jakobi. In 1218, Rostock was granted Lübeck law city rights by Heinrich Borwin, during the first partition of Mecklenburg following the death of Henry Borwin II of Mecklenburg in 1226, Rostock became the seat of the Lordship of Rostock, which survived for almost a century. In 1251, the city became a member of the Hanseatic League, in the 14th century it was a powerful seaport town with 12,000 inhabitants and the biggest city of Mecklenburg. Ships for cruising the Baltic Sea were constructed in Rostock, the formerly independent fishing village of Warnemünde at the Baltic Sea became a part of Rostock in 1323, to secure the citys access to the Baltic Sea. In 1419, one of the earliest universities in Europe, the University of Rostock, was founded and they took advantage of a riot known as Domfehde, a failed uprising of the impoverished population. Subsequent quarrels with the dukes and persistent plundering led ultimately to a loss of economic, in 1565 there were further clashes with Schwerin that which had far-reaching consequences.
Among other things, was the introduction of a beer excise that favoured the dukes. John Albert I advanced on the city with 500 horsemen, after Rostock had refused to take the oath of allegiance. The citizens slighted the fortress the following spring, from 1575 to 1577 the city walls were rebuilt, as was the Lagebusch tower and the Stein Gate in the Dutch Renaissance style. The inscription sit intra te concordia et publica felicitas, which can still be read on the gate, in 1584 it finally came to the Second Rostock Inheritance Agreement, which resulted in a further loss of former tax privileges. At the same time, these inheritance contracts put paid to Rostocks ambition of achieving imperial immediacy as Lübeck had done in 1226, the strategic location of Rostock provoked the envy of its rivals. Danes and Swedes occupied the city twice, first during the Thirty Years War, the French, under Napoleon, occupied the town for about a decade until 1813. In nearby Lübeck-Ratekau, Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, who was born in Rostock and this was only after furious street fighting in the Battle of Lübeck, in which he led some of the cavalry charges himself
Thomas Jens Uwe Doll is a German former footballer and current manager of Ferencváros. He played as an midfielder for Hansa Rostock, Berliner FC Dynamo, Hamburger SV, Eintracht Frankfurt. Doll began his career with local side BSG Lokomotiv Malchin, before joining East German first-division DDR-Oberliga side Hansa Rostock, in 1986 he was transferred to Berliner FC Dynamo, the countrys dominant side, where he won two East Germany titles and played his first European Cup matches. At Berliner FC Dynamo he teamed up with fellow talented forward Andreas Thom, after reunification Doll was one of the most sought-after players of coming out of the former East Germany. Together with Frank Rohde he joined Hamburger SV in 1990, after just one season there he had impressed sufficiently to move to Italian side Lazio for a record fee of DM15 million. After a year in Italy with Bari, he returned to Hamburger SV in 1998 and he played another three seasons, but injuries continued to take their toll. At international level, Doll represented both East Germany and the unified Germany and his last international appearance came in 1993.
He was part of Germanys squad for Euro 1992 where the finished as runners-up. Following his retirement, he part of Hamburgs coaching staff. The 2006–07 season, was successful for the coach. The team delivered a performance in the Champions League that saw only one win in six first-round games. Doll was sacked on 1 February 2007, on 19 May 2008, Doll resigned as the coach of Borussia Dortmund after the team finished a disappointing 13th in the Bundesliga. He agreed to manage Gençlerbirliği SK and signed a two-year contract, on 20 July 2011, he was appointed as head coach of Saudi Arabian champion team, Al-Hilal but was sacked on 22 January 2012. He became head coach of Hungarian club Ferencváros on 18 December 2013, on 20 May 2015, Ferencváros beat Videoton 4–0 at the Groupama Arena in the 2014–15 Magyar Kupa Final. Dolls Ferencváros secured the clubs 29th Nemzeti Bajnokság I title on 2 April 2016 after a defeat at the Nagyerdei Stadion against Debreceni VSC, by winning the 2015–16 Nemzeti Bajnokság I season, Doll managed to win all the possible titles in football in Hungary.
In recognition of his performance with Ferencváros, Doll received the Coach of the year in NB I award from the Hungarian Football Federation in 2016. Doll has two daughters, one with his current Italian-born wife Roberta, the other with a former wife now married to another ex-footballer, Olaf Bodden. Hungarian Football Federation, Coach of the year in NB I Thomas Doll at Fussballdaten Thomas Doll at weltfussball. de Thomas Doll at National-Football-Teams. com
UEFA Champions League
The UEFA Champions League is an annual continental club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations and contested by top-division European clubs. It is one of the most prestigious tournaments in the world, the UEFA Champions League final is the most watched annual sporting event worldwide. The final of the 2012–13 tournament had the highest TV ratings to date, the pre-1992 competition was initially a straight knockout tournament open only to the champion club of each country. During the 1990s, the format was expanded, incorporating a round-robin group stage to include clubs that finished runner-up of some nations top-level league. Clubs that finish next-in-line in each top level league, having not qualified for the UEFA Champions League competition. In its present format, the UEFA Champions League begins in mid-July with three qualifying rounds and a play-off round. The 10 surviving teams enter the stage, joining 22 other teams qualified in advance. The 32 teams are drawn into eight groups of four teams, the eight group winners and eight runners-up proceed to the knockout phase that culminates with the final match in May.
The winner of the UEFA Champions League qualifies for the UEFA Super Cup, Real Madrid is the most successful club in the competitions history, having won the tournament 11 times, including its first five seasons. Spanish clubs have accumulated the highest number of victories, followed by England, the competition has been won by 22 different clubs,12 of which have won it more than once. Since the tournament changed name and structure in 1992, no club has managed consecutive wins, Milan were the last holders to defend their title. The reigning champions are Real Madrid, who secured their title in the competition after defeating Atlético Madrid on penalties following a 1–1 draw in the 2016 final. The first pan-European tournament was the Challenge Cup, a competition between clubs in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Mitropa Cup, a competition modelled after the Challenge Cup, was created in 1927, an idea of Austrian Hugo Meisl, and played between Central European clubs. In 1930, the Coupe des Nations, the first attempt to create a cup for national clubs of Europe, was played and organised by Swiss club Servette.
Held in Geneva, it brought together ten champions from across the continent, the tournament was won by Újpest of Hungary. Latin European nations came together to form the Latin Cup in 1949 and it was conceived in Paris in 1955 as the European Champion Clubs Cup. The first edition of the European Cup took place during the 1955–56 season, the first European Cup match took place on 4 September 1955, and ended in a 3–3 draw between Sporting CP and Partizan. The first goal in European Cup history was scored by João Baptista Martins of Sporting CP, the inaugural final took place at the Parc des Princes between Stade de Reims and Real Madrid
Other players still function as deep-lying playmakers, in a free role, behind the mid-field line. Playmakers are not usually known for their capabilities, which is why they are often supported by a defensive midfielder. As many midfielders and forwards have the creative and technical attributes. The attacking playmakers are sometimes called the number 10 of the team, the attacking midfield playmaker will sit in a free role between the midfield and the forwards, either in the centre of the pitch or on either flank. These offensive playmakers will often make incisive passes to the wingers or forwards, seeing them through on goal or to deliver killer crosses, as well as scoring goals themselves. In Italian football, as creative, advanced playmakers are known not to be reserved to a single position, in Brazil, the offensive playmaker is known as the meia atacante, whereas in Argentina, it is known as the enganche. Diego Maradona and Zico are notable examples of attacking midfield playmakers, deep-lying playmakers are often known for their vision and passing.
Many are known for their ability to switch the play or provide long passes that pick out players making attacking runs, in Italy, the deep-lying playmaker is known as a regista, whereas in Brazil, it is known as a meia-armador. Xavi, Andrea Pirlo, Luka Modrić, Michael Carrick, skill, technique, tactical awareness and good passing ability are the true requirements of a good playmaker. Advanced playmakers can operate on the wings, in more of a position, as a half-winger, inverted-winger, or as an outside forward. Lionel Messi, for example, was deployed in this position under manager Frank Rijkaard. There are other similar variants upon the advanced playmaking role and this position allowed these technical players to make dribbling runs, and score many goals as well as assisting them. Unlike a pure number ten playmaker, the nine, in Italy, this role is known as a rifinitore or seconda punta, whereas in Brazil, it is known as a segundo atacante or ponta-de-lança. A false-9 is often a quick, technical player, with vision and passing ability.
The false-9, seemingly playing as a striker, will drop deep into the midfield number 10 role, drawing defenders with them. This allows the space to dribble with the ball and score. Examples of false-9s are Lionel Messi under Pep Guardiola, Cesc Fàbregas under Vicente del Bosque and this position is most common in a 4–6–0 formation disguised as a 4–3–3 or 4–2–3–1 formation. The false-10 shares similar attributes to a false-9, and is used in a 4–2–3–1 formation
Wales national football team
The Wales national football team represents Wales in international football. It is controlled by the Football Association of Wales, the body for football in Wales. During their history, Wales have qualified for two international tournaments. They reached the quarter-finals of the 1958 FIFA World Cup and they reached the semi-finals of UEFA Euro 2016 after beating Belgium in the quarter-final match on 1 July 2016. This was, the first time that Wales had reached the semi-final of a major tournament, Wales progressed through UEFA Euro 1976 qualifying to the quarter-final, which was played on a home and away leg basis but they did not feature in the finals tournament. At all levels including the teams the Welsh national team draws players primarily from clubs in the English football league system. The main professional Welsh clubs play in the English leagues, with some full-time and part-time professional clubs playing in the Welsh football league system. Wales played its first competitive match on 25 March 1876 against Scotland in Glasgow, Scotland took the spoils winning 2–0.
Wales first match against England came in 1879 – a 2–1 defeat at the Kennington Oval, London and in 1882 Wales faced Ireland for the first time, the associations of the four Home Nations met in Manchester on 6 December 1882 to set down a set of worldwide rules. This meeting saw the establishment of the International Football Association Board to approve changes to the rules, the 1883–84 season saw the formation of the British Home Championship, a tournament which was played annually between England, Scotland and Wales, until 1983–84. Wales were champions on 12 occasions, winning seven times whilst sharing the title five times. As a result, Wales did not enter the first three World Cups, in 1932 Wales played host to the Republic of Ireland, the first time they played against a side from outside the four home nations. A year later, Wales played a match outside the United Kingdom for the first time when they travelled to Paris to take on France in a match which was drawn 1–1. The top two teams were to qualify for the finals in Brazil, but Wales finished bottom of the group.
The 1950s were an age for Welsh football with stars such as Ivor Allchurch, Cliff Jones, Alf Sherwood, Jack Kelsey, Trevor Ford, Ronnie Burgess, Terry Medwin. Wales made its only World Cup finals tournament appearance in the 1958 FIFA World Cup in Sweden, their path to qualification was unusual. In the Asian/African qualifying zone Egypt and Sudan had refused to play against Israel following the Suez crisis, as a result, FIFA proclaimed Israel winners of their respective group. However, FIFA did not want a team to qualify for the World Cup finals without actually playing a match and so lots were drawn of all the second placed teams in UEFA
UEFA Euro 2008
It took place in Austria and Switzerland from 7 to 29 June 2008. The tournament was won by Spain, who defeated Germany 1–0 in the final, Spain were only the second nation to win all their group stage fixtures and the European Championship itself - an accomplishment matched by France in 1984. Spain were the first team since Germany in 1996 to win the tournament undefeated, Greece were the defending champions going into the tournament, having won UEFA Euro 2004. They recorded the worst finish in Euro 2008, losing their three fixtures and collecting the least amount of prize money. Throughout 31 matches, the participating nations totalled 77 goals, the same as the previous tournament and Switzerland automatically qualified as hosts, the remaining 14 teams were determined through qualifying matches, which began in August 2006. As European champions, Spain earned the right to compete for the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup in South Africa, Austria had previously bid to host Euro 2004 with Hungary, but they eventually lost out to Portugal.
Austria/Switzerland, Greece/Turkey, and Hungary were recommended before the final vote and Turkey were rejected and let Hungary and Austria/Switzerland battle for the win. The Austria/Switzerland bid is the successful joint bid in the competitions history, following the UEFA Euro 2000 hosted by Belgium. The following tournament, held in Poland and Ukraine, became the third jointly hosted tournament, qualification for Euro 2008 started in August 2006, just over a month after the end of the 2006 FIFA World Cup. England was the only seeded team not to qualify for the tournament proper, in contrast and Portugal were deemed to have an easy draw, as the tournament structure meant they could not meet Italy, the Netherlands or Spain until the final. In the group stage, Croatia and the Netherlands all qualified with maximum points and Switzerland were not expected to progress, despite the advantage of being the hosts. In Group A, the Swiss lost their captain, Alexander Frei, to injury in their first game and became the first team to be eliminated from the tournament, Switzerland managed to beat the group winner Portugal in their last game.
In Group B, Austria managed to set up a final game against Germany. However, they lost by one goal, making Euro 2008 the first European Championship not to have one of the host nations present in the knockout phase, in the same game, goalkeeper Volkan Demirel was shown a red card for pushing Czech striker Jan Koller to the ground. The Turks joined Portugal as the qualifiers from Group A, France were the high-profile victims of Group C, recording just one point from a goalless draw against Romania in their opening game. Italy beat the French, on the day, to finish on four points. Finally, in Group D, Greece failed to reproduce the form of their shock 2004 win, Russia qualified at the expense of Sweden, after beating them in a final game decider, joining Spain in the knockout phase. Turkey continued their streak of wins, equalising at the end of extra-time against Croatia
UEFA Euro 2008 qualifying
This page describes the qualifying procedure for the UEFA Euro 2008. Qualification coefficients were used to rank the teams according to their results in both UEFA Euro 2004 and FIFA World Cup 2006 qualifying stages, only the group matches, and not any additional playoffs, counted towards the coefficients, determining which pot a national team was put in. Some points to note, Greece were European champions, thus were automatically seeded in the top pool, portugal did not have to qualify for UEFA Euro 2004 as they hosted the tournament. Only their record in 2006 World Cup qualifying was used, germany did not have to qualify for the World Cup 2006 as hosts. Only their record in UEFA Euro 2004 qualifying was used, kazakhstan had never competed in the European Championships, so only their World Cup record was used. The teams last continental qualifying was for the 2000 Asian Cup and their record in that competition is not used. After the independence from Serbia for Montenegro, Serbia took up the old Serbia, Montenegro had not been admitted to UEFA/FIFA at the time the qualifying competition had started, and therefore did not compete until the qualifying for the 2010 World Cup.
The draw took place on 27 January 2006 in Montreux, Switzerland,1 Greece were first seeded, as European champions Austria and Switzerland were already assured of places at Euro 2008 as host nations. If this procedure does not lead to a decision, criteria 6), results of all group matches,1. Higher number of goals scored 3, higher number of goals scored away from home 4. Fair play conduct Drawing of lots Below is a table containing all seven qualifying groups, teams that secured a place in the final tournament are highlighted in green. The order of teams is by final group position, for the first time, UEFA named the qualifying groups alphabetically rather than numerically. Hosts Austria Switzerland The qualifying process started in August 2006, Austria and Switzerland were granted places in the tournament finals as host nations. The qualifying format had changed compared to the previous tournament. The winners and runners-up from seven groups will qualify for the Championship. Therefore, there were no play-offs between teams finishing in place in the groups.
Six of the qualifying groups contain seven teams, and the other, as the official successor of the previous football association, Serbia inherited the position originally allotted to Serbia and Montenegro in Group A prior to the dissolution of the state union. Montenegro were granted UEFA membership after qualifying had started and thus were not able to participate in this European Championship. com