The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Lipan, Salinero and Western Apache. Distant cousins of the Apache are the Navajo, with which they share the Southern Athabaskan languages. There are Apache communities in Oklahoma and reservations in Arizona and New Mexico. Apache people have moved throughout the United States and elsewhere, including urban centers; the Apache Nations are politically autonomous, speak several different languages and have distinct cultures. The Apache homelands have consisted of high mountains and watered valleys, deep canyons and the southern Great Plains, including areas in what is now Eastern Arizona, Northern Mexico (Sonora and New Mexico, West Texas, Southern Colorado; these areas are collectively known as Apacheria. The Apache tribes fought the invading Mexican peoples for centuries; the first Apache raids on Sonora appear to have taken place during the late 17th century. In 19th-century confrontations during the American-Indian wars, the U.
S. Army found the Apache to be skillful strategists; the following Apache tribes are federally recognized: Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Jicarilla Apache Nation, New Mexico Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Reservation, New Mexico San Carlos Apache Tribe of the San Carlos Reservation, Arizona Tonto Apache Tribe of Arizona White Mountain Apache Tribe of the Fort Apache Reservation, Arizona Yavapai-Apache Nation of the Camp Verde Indian Reservation, ArizonaThe Jicarilla are headquartered in Dulce, New Mexico, while the Mescalero are headquartered in Mescalero, New Mexico. The Western Apache, located in Arizona, is divided into several reservations, which crosscut cultural divisions; the Western Apache reservations include the Fort Apache Indian Reservation, San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, Yavapai-Apache Nation and Tonto-Apache Reservation. The Chiricahua were divided into two groups; the majority moved to the Mescalero Reservation and form, with the larger Mescalero political group, the Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Apache Reservation, along with the Lipan Apache.
The other Chiricahua are enrolled in the Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma, headquartered in Apache, Oklahoma. The Plains Apache are located in Oklahoma, headquartered around Anadarko, are federally recognized as the Apache Tribe of Oklahoma; the people who are known today as Apache were first encountered by the Conquistadors of the Spanish Crown, thus the term Apache has its roots in the Spanish language. The Spanish first used the term "Apachu de Nabajo" in the 1620s, referring to people in the Chama region east of the San Juan River. By the 1640s, they applied the term to southern Athabaskan peoples from the Chama on the east to the San Juan on the west; the ultimate origin is uncertain and lost to Spanish history. Modern Apache people today, the US government, maintain use of the Spanish term to describe themselves and tribal functions. Indigenous lineages who speak the language, handed down to them would refer to themselves and their people in that language's term Inde meaning "person" and/or "People".
Distant cousins and a subgroup of the Apache are the Navajo Peoples who in their own language refer to themselves as the Diné. The first known written record in Spanish is by Juan de Oñate in 1598; the most accepted origin theory suggests Apache was borrowed and transliterated from the Zuni word ʔa·paču meaning "Navajos". Another theory suggests the term comes from Yavapai ʔpačə meaning "enemy"; the Zuni and Yavapai sources are less certain because Oñate used the term before he had encountered any Zuni or Yavapai. A less origin may be from Spanish mapache, meaning "raccoon"; the fame of the tribes' tenacity and fighting skills bolstered by dime novels, was known among Europeans. In early 20th century Parisian society, the word Apache was adopted into French meaning an outlaw; the term Apachean includes the related Navajo people. Many of the historical names of Apache groups that were recorded by non-Apache are difficult to match to modern-day tribes or their subgroups. Over the centuries, many Spanish and English-speaking authors did not differentiate between Apache and other semi-nomadic non-Apache peoples who might pass through the same area.
Most Europeans learned to identify the tribes by translating their exonym, what another group whom the Europeans encountered first called the Apache peoples. Europeans did not learn what the peoples called themselves, their autonyms. While anthropologists agree on some traditional major subgrouping of Apaches, they have used different criteria to name finer divisions, these do not always match modern Apache groupings; some scholars do not consider groups residing in. In addition, an Apache individual has different ways of identification with a group, such as a band or clan, as well as the larger tribe or language grouping, which can add to the difficulties in an outsider comprehending the distinctions. In 1900, the U. S. government classified the members of the Apache tribe in the United States as Pinal Coyotero, Mescalero, San Carlos and White Mountain Apache. The different groups were located in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma. In the 1930s, the anthropologist Grenville Goodwin classified the Western Apache into five groups: White Mountain, San Carlos, North Tonto, South Tonto.
Since other anthropologists (e.g. Albert Sc
A television show is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, cable, or internet and viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are placed between shows. Television shows are most scheduled well ahead of time and appear on electronic guides or other TV listings. A television show might be called a television program if it lacks a narrative structure. A television series is released in episodes that follow a narrative, are divided into seasons or series – yearly or semiannual sets of new episodes. A show with a limited number of episodes may be called serial, or limited series. A one-time show may be called a "special". A television film is a film, broadcast on television rather than released in theaters or direct-to-video. Television shows can be viewed as they are broadcast in real time, be recorded on home video or a digital video recorder for viewing, or be viewed on demand via a set-top box or streamed over the internet; the first television shows were experimental, sporadic broadcasts viewable only within a short range from the broadcast tower starting in the 1930s.
Televised events such as the 1936 Summer Olympics in Germany, the 1937 coronation of King George VI in the UK, David Sarnoff's famous introduction at the 1939 New York World's Fair in the US spurred a growth in the medium, but World War II put a halt to development until after the war. The 1947 World Series inspired many Americans to buy their first television set and in 1948, the popular radio show Texaco Star Theater made the move and became the first weekly televised variety show, earning host Milton Berle the name "Mr Television" and demonstrating that the medium was a stable, modern form of entertainment which could attract advertisers; the first national live television broadcast in the US took place on September 4, 1951 when President Harry Truman's speech at the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference in San Francisco was transmitted over AT&T's transcontinental cable and microwave radio relay system to broadcast stations in local markets. The first national color broadcast in the US occurred on January 1, 1954.
During the following ten years most network broadcasts, nearly all local programming, continued to be in black-and-white. A color transition was announced for the fall of 1965, during which over half of all network prime-time programming would be broadcast in color; the first all-color prime-time season came just one year later. In 1972, the last holdout among daytime network shows converted to color, resulting in the first all-color network season. Television shows are more varied than most other forms of media due wide variety formats and genres that can be presented. A show may non-fictional, it may be historical. They could be instructional or educational, or entertaining as is the case in situation comedy and game shows. A drama program features a set of actors playing characters in a historical or contemporary setting; the program follows their adventures. Except for soap opera-type serials, many shows before the 1980s, remained static without story arcs, the main characters and premise changed little.
If some change happened to the characters' lives during the episode, it was undone by the end. Because of this, the episodes could be broadcast in any order. Since the 1980s, there are many series that feature progressive change to the plot, the characters, or both. For instance, Hill Street Blues and St. Elsewhere were two of the first American prime time drama television series to have this kind of dramatic structure. While the series, Babylon 5 is an extreme example of such production that had a predetermined story running over its intended five-season run. In 2012, it was reported that television was growing into a larger component of major media companies' revenues than film; some noted the increase in quality of some television programs. In 2012, Academy-Award-winning film director Steven Soderbergh, commenting on ambiguity and complexity of character and narrative, stated: "I think those qualities are now being seen on television and that people who want to see stories that have those kinds of qualities are watching television."
When a person or company decides to create a new series, they develop the show's elements, consisting of the concept, the characters, the crew, cast. They "pitch" it to the various networks in an attempt to find one interested enough to order a prototype first episode of the series, known as a pilot. Eric Coleman, an animation executive at Disney, told an interviewer, "One misconception is that it's difficult to get in and pitch your show, when the truth is that development executives at networks want much to hear ideas, they want much to get the word out on what types of shows they're looking for."To create the pilot, the structure and team of the whole series must be put together. If audiences respond well to the pilot, the network will pick up the show to air it the next season. Sometimes they save it for mid-season, or father review. Other times, they pass forcing the show's creator to "shop it around" to other networks. Many shows never make it past the pilot stage; the show hires a stable of writers, who usually
Jacob Hamblin was a Western pioneer, Mormon missionary, diplomat to various Native American tribes of the Southwest and Great Basin. He aided European-American settlement of large areas of southern Utah and northern Arizona, where he was seen as an honest broker between Mormon settlers and the Natives, he is sometimes referred to as the "Buckskin Apostle," or the "Apostle to the Lamanites." Hamblin was born in Ohio, to a family of farmers. He grew up learning farming, he was baptized a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on March 3, 1842, at the age of 22. Hamblin and his first wife Lucinda had four children; when Hamblin proposed moving west with the Latter-day Saints to the Salt Lake Valley, Lucinda refused to go. In February 1849, Hamblin and Lucinda decided to end their marriage, he continued west without her, taking the four children with him. In September, Hamblin married Rachel Judd, a widow, in Council Bluffs, Iowa. With Rachel he had five children. Hamblin lived the Mormon doctrine of plural marriage, he married Sarah Priscilla Leavitt on September 11, 1857, Eliza Hamblin on February 14, 1863 with whom he had one child, Clara Melvina Hamblin b.
Nov. 5, 1876, Louisa Bonelli on November 16, 1865. With Leavitt he had 10 children, with Bonelli he had 6 children. Leavitt and Bonelli were sealed to him in the Endowment House in Salt Lake City; as an adult and his family lived in Spring Prairie, Wisconsin. Hamblin thought he would die of his wound. Hamblin prayed. Soon after, a woman knocked on his door who said she had felt called to go to his house. A nurse, she had the medicines and poultices needed, helped heal Hamblin's wound and save his life. From on Hamblin turned to God. In 1842, he and his children converted to Mormonism, they moved from Wisconsin to Nauvoo, where the Latter Day Saints had gathered. After Joseph Smith's death, Hamblin witnessed the "succession crisis" among the Mormons, he became a supporter of Brigham Young for the leadership of the church and, with the majority of Latter-day Saints, affiliated himself with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. In his memoir, Hamblin wrote of the moment he decided to support Young: On the 8th of August, 1844, I attended a general meeting of the Saints.
Elder Rigdon was there. His voice did not sound like the voice of the true shepherd; when he was about to call a vote of the congregation to sustain him as President of the Church, Elders Brigham Young, Parley P. Pratt and Heber C. Kimball stepped into the stand. Brigham Young remarked to the congregation:'I will manage this voting for Elder Rigdon, he does not preside here. This child"will manage this flock for a season.' The voice and gestures of the man were those of the Prophet Joseph. The people, with few exceptions, visibly saw that the mantle of the Prophet Joseph Smith had fallen upon Brigham Young. To some it seemed. I arose to my feet and said to a man sitting by me,'That is the voice of the true shepherd—the chief of the Apostles'." Hamblin was a Mormon pioneer and in 1850 settled in Tooele, near Salt Lake City. He became well known for creating good relations between Indians. After an altercation, when his gun failed to fire as he shot at an Indian, Hamblin said God had revealed he was to be a "messenger of peace" to the Indians, that if he did not thirst for their blood, he should never fall by their hands.
In 1854, Hamblin was called by President Young to serve a mission to the southern Paiute Indians and settled at Santa Clara in the vicinity of the modern city of St. George, Utah. Hamblin's first home in Sant Clara was destroyed by a flash flood, his second wife, saved one of their young children from drowning, but the child died soon after from exposure. Rachael never recovered from the exposure she got from the flood. Swearing to avoid the risk of flood, Hamblin built a new home on a hill in Santa Clara. Owned today by the LDS Church, the house is operated as a museum, where Mormon missionaries give tours daily. In August 1857, Brigham Young made Hamblin President of the Santa Clara Indian Mission. Young directed Hamblin by letter to continue the conciliatory policy towards the Indians which I have commended, seek by works of righteousness to obtain their love and confidence. Omit promises. Young had become aware in July of an approaching United States army ordered to invade the Utah Territory to put down a supposed "rebellion" among the Mormons.
Anticipating what would become known as the Utah War, Young urged Hamblin to "not permit the brethren to part with their guns and ammunition, but save them against the hour of need." He wrote to Hamblin that the Indians "must learn to help us or the United States will kill us both."In late August, Hamblin traveled north to Salt Lake City with President George A. Smith, dispatched to the southern Mormon colonies to warn of the approaching U. S. army and recommend against colonists' trading with non-Mormons traveling through their territory. At Corn Creek near Fillmore, Smith and Thales Haskell encountered the Baker–Fancher party, a wagon train of Arkansans en route to California. Hamblin suggested to them that they stop further south in the grassy Mountain Meadows, where he mai
Grafton is a ghost town, just south of Zion National Park in Washington County, United States. Said to be the most photographed ghost town in the West, it has been featured as a location in several films, including 1929's In Old Arizona—the first talkie filmed outdoors—and the classic Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid; the nearest inhabited town is Rockville. The site was first settled in December 1859 as part of a southern Utah cotton-growing project ordered by Brigham Young. A group from Virgin led by Nathan Tenney established a new settlement. Wheeler didn't last long; the rebuilt town, about a mile upriver, was named New Grafton, after Massachusetts. The town grew in its first few years. There were some 28 families by 1864, each farming about an acre of land; the community dug irrigation canals and planted orchards, some of which still exist. Grafton was the county seat of Kane County, from January 1866 to January 12, 1867, but changes to county boundaries in 1882 placed it in Washington County.
Flooding was not the only major problem. One particular challenge to farming was the large amounts of silt in Grafton's section of the Virgin River. Residents had to dredge out clogged irrigation ditches at least weekly, much more than in most other settlements. Grafton was relatively isolated from neighboring towns, being the only community in the area located on the south bank of the river. In 1866, when the outbreak of the Black Hawk War caused widespread fear of Indian attacks, the town was evacuated to Rockville. Continued severe flooding discouraged resettlement, most of the population moved permanently to more accessible locations on the other side of the river. By 1890 only four families remained; the end of the town is traced to 1921, when the local branch of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was discontinued. The last residents left Grafton in 1944. A United Press news item dated May 23, 1946, stated that the town was purchased by movie producer Harry Sherman as a film location site.
He bought it from William Russell, 80, a descendant of the co-founder, one the town's three current inhabitants. In June 1997, the Grafton Heritage Partnership was organized to protect and restore the Grafton Townsite. With cooperation from former Grafton residents, the Utah State Historical Society, the BLM, the Utah Division of State History, others, the old church, Russell Home, Louisa Foster Home, the Berry fence in the cemetery, John Wood home were restored, with new windows, doors and other structural enhancements to represent the period in which they were built. In addition, 150 acres of farmland were purchased, on which agricultural operations are performed to enhance the farming appearance; the site is under 24-hour surveillance. The partnership is looking for a live-in caretaker to oversee the preservation of the townsite. Duncan's Retreat, Utah, a nearby ghost town Askar, Jamshid. "Remembering Grafton". Church News. Pp. 8–10. Retrieved November 20, 2009. Platt and Karen. Grafton, Ghost Town on the Rio Virgin.
St. George, Utah: The Grafton Heritage Partnership. Grafton Heritage Organization Grafton, Washington County, Utah at the Washington County UTGenWeb site Grafton, Utah on GhostTownGallery.com
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, are most classified collectively as Bos taurus. Cattle are raised as livestock for meat, for milk, for hides, which are used to make leather, they are used as riding animals and draft animals. Another product of cattle is dung, which can be used to create fuel. In some regions, such as parts of India, cattle have significant religious meaning. Cattle small breeds such as the Miniature Zebu, are kept as pets. Around 10,500 years ago, cattle were domesticated from as few as 80 progenitors in central Anatolia, the Levant and Western Iran. According to an estimate from 2011, there are 1.4 billion cattle in the world. In 2009, cattle became one of the first livestock animals to have a mapped genome; some consider cattle the oldest form of wealth, cattle raiding one of the earliest forms of theft. Cattle were identified as three separate species: Bos taurus, the European or "taurine" cattle.
The aurochs is ancestral to both taurine cattle. These have been reclassified as one species, Bos taurus, with three subspecies: Bos taurus primigenius, Bos taurus indicus, Bos taurus taurus. Complicating the matter is the ability of cattle to interbreed with other related species. Hybrid individuals and breeds exist, not only between taurine cattle and zebu, but between one or both of these and some other members of the genus Bos – yaks and gaur. Hybrids such as the beefalo breed can occur between taurine cattle and either species of bison, leading some authors to consider them part of the genus Bos, as well; the hybrid origin of some types may not be obvious – for example, genetic testing of the Dwarf Lulu breed, the only taurine-type cattle in Nepal, found them to be a mix of taurine cattle and yak. However, cattle cannot be hybridized with more distantly related bovines such as water buffalo or African buffalo; the aurochs ranged throughout Europe, North Africa, much of Asia. In historical times, its range became restricted to Europe, the last known individual died in Mazovia, Poland, in about 1627.
Breeders have attempted to recreate cattle of similar appearance to aurochs by crossing traditional types of domesticated cattle, creating the Heck cattle breed. The noun cattle encompasses both sexes; the singular, technically means the female, the male being bull. The plural form cows is sometimes used colloquially to refer to both sexes collectively, as e.g. in a herd, but that usage can be misleading as the speaker's intent may indeed be just the females. The bovine species per se is dimorphic. Cattle did not originate as the term for bovine animals, it was borrowed from Anglo-Norman catel, itself from medieval Latin capitale'principal sum of money, capital', itself derived in turn from Latin caput'head'. Cattle meant movable personal property livestock of any kind, as opposed to real property; the word is a variant of chattel and related to capital in the economic sense. The term replaced earlier Old English feoh ` property', which survives today as fee; the word "cow" came via Anglo-Saxon cū, from Common Indo-European gʷōus = "a bovine animal", compare Persian: gâv, Sanskrit: go-, Welsh: buwch.
The plural cȳ became ki or kie in Middle English, an additional plural ending was added, giving kine, but kies and others. This is the origin of the now archaic English plural, "kine"; the Scots language singular is coo or cou, the plural is "kye". In older English sources such as the King James Version of the Bible, "cattle" refers to livestock, as opposed to "deer" which refers to wildlife. "Wild cattle" may refer to undomesticated species of the genus Bos. Today, when used without any other qualifier, the modern meaning of "cattle" is restricted to domesticated bovines. In general, the same words are used in different parts of the world, but with minor differences in the definitions; the terminology described here contrasts the differences in definition between the United Kingdom and other British-influenced parts of the world such as Canada, New Zealand and the United States. An "intact" adult male is called a bull. A wild, unmarked bull is known as a micky in Australia. An unbranded bovine of either sex is called a maverick in the Canada.
An adult female that has had a calf is a cow. A young female before she has had a calf of her own and is under three years of age is called a heifer. A young female that has had only one calf is called a first-calf heifer. Young cattle of both sexes are called calves until they are weaned weaners until they are a year old in some areas. After that, they are referred to as stirks if between one and two years of age. A castrated male is called a steer in the United States.
Black Hawk War (1865–1872)
The Black Hawk War, or Black Hawk's War, from 1865 to 1872, is the name of the estimated 150 battles, skirmishes and military engagements between Mormon settlers in Sanpete County, Sevier County and other parts of central and southern Utah, members of 16 Ute, Southern Paiute and Navajo tribes, led by a local Ute war chief, Antonga Black Hawk. The conflict resulted in the abandonment of some settlements and hindered Mormon expansion in the region; the years 1865 to 1867 were by far the most intense of the conflict, though intermittent conflict occurred until federal troops intervened in 1872. The Utah Territory spent $1.5 million dollars on the war, requested reimbursement from the United States Government. Definitive reasons for the Black Hawk War are unknown. Lack of written history at the time makes the determination of effect difficult; however and opinions passed down by word of mouth from the side of the Native Americans and the settlers give insight into the state of affairs at the time leading up to the conflict.
It seems that both Ute and settler apologetics agree that the war was not started by one singular event, but by a series of events. Both parties wanted the land, but by the time the war started each side believed that both cultures could no longer live together peacefully, they had tried to live in harmony since about 1849 when Mormon pioneers settled in Manti and joined the Sanpits tribe in the Sanpete valley. However, within a few years of 1849 there were sporadic acts of aggression on both sides leading up to the war. In 1865 the Jake Arapeen and John Lowry, Jr. incident in Manti marked the official beginning of the open warfare between the natives and the settlers, John A. Peterson describes his point of view of the time: Latter-day Saints considered themselves in a state of open warfare, they built scores of forts and deserted dozens of settlements while hundreds of Mormon militiamen chased their illusive adversaries through the wilderness with little success. Requests for a federal troops went unheeded for eight years.
Unable to distinguish "guilty" from "friendly" tribesmen, frustrated Mormons at times indiscriminately killed Indians, including women and children". Since Mormon pioneers moved into Utah Valley in 1848 and built their fort at Provo, the Timpanogos Ute bands had been pushed aside by settlers' demands for grazing land and farmland. Frustrations on both sides led to several short battles. After the'Battle at Fort Utah' in 1850, the'Walker War' in 1853–1854, the'Tintic War' in 1856, Mormon leaders were able to convince the Ute leaders to stop hostilities when the losses incurred by Utes were compensated with food and promises of future friendship. Chief Blackhawk was directly involved in these wars either as a combatant or in being coerced to serve as a guide for Mormon punitive expeditions against his people. Utes had survived with the geography and harsh climate of Utah for centuries, but white settlement disrupted the economic equilibrium. Ute bands in Utah's central valleys were pushed out of traditional hunting and foraging areas by Mormon towns and livestock.
Some Ute bands struggled to feed themselves. Cattle or horses put out to graze by the settlers were taken as a kind of'rent' payment for the settlers' use of the land where Utes had lived for centuries. During the Black Hawk War, chief Black Hawk and allies made a business out of taking thousands of heads of livestock, transporting them out of Utah Territory and selling or trading them for goods and money with'brokers' like Isaac Potter; some suggest that Black Hawk believed that the loss of livestock was the quickest way to interfere with the growth of settlements. Troubles that arose between the Mormons and the Utes resulted from culture clashes. Settlers refused to accept the Native American culture, Native Americans rejected the settlers' culture of property rights. Native American culture included sharing of cattle, while the settlers' culture involved the buying and selling of land. Coexistence and compromise seemed unattainable. From the Mormon settlers' point of view there were several reasons to go to war.
The continuing loss of livestock to theft by natives and the continuous begging by Native Americans strained individual and community resources. Settlers viewed Utes as a threat to their personal and community future because the natives strained resources and had killed settlers in the area. The'feed them, don't fight them' policy in dealing with Utes was unable to be sustained indefinitely; because in 1849 Chief Walker offered the ground to the settlers, they believed the land now belonged to them. On Saturday April 8, 1865, Ute war chief Black Hawk and Chief Jake Arapeen the son of Chief Arapeen, a group of other Utes appeared to attend a council meeting in Manti near the present day elementary school; the whites had expected the Utes came to settle differences for 15 cattle, killed, but Arapeen demanded restitution for his father's recent death to smallpox in the winter 1864–1865 epidemic. Utes believed. Utes thought they could stop the sickness and death by destroying white leaders. Settler John Lowry, an interpreter for the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Utah, believed in being peaceful and friendly when friendship was possible and had learned Ute and Shoshone languages.
However, he believed the settlers could survive only if they were quick to punish for the loss of cattle and to revenge the death of their friends. Lowry, who may hav
The Edmunds–Tucker Act of 1887 was an Act of Congress that focused on restricting some practices of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It was passed in response to the dispute between the United States Congress and the LDS Church regarding polygamy; the act is found in full text as 24 Stat. 635, with this annotation to be interpreted as Volume 24, page 635 of United States Statutes at Large. The act is named after its congressional sponsors, Senator George F. Edmunds of Vermont and Congressman John Randolph Tucker of Virginia; the act was repealed in 1978. In President Grover Cleveland's annual address to Congress in December 1885, he discussed the issue of polygamy in Utah: The strength, the perpetuity, the destiny of the nation rest upon our homes, established by the law of God, guarded by parental care, regulated by parental authority, sanctified by parental love; these are not the homes of polygamy.... There is no feature of this practice or the system which sanctions it, not opposed to all, of value in our institutions.
There should be no relaxation in the firm but just execution of the law now in operation, I should be glad to approve such further discreet legislation as will rid the country of this blot upon its fair fame. Since the people upholding polygamy in our Territories are reenforced by immigration from other lands, I recommend that a law be passed to prevent the importation of Mormons into the country; the Act was passed by the Senate in January 1886 by a vote of 38-7. It was passed by the House via a voice vote in January 1887. President Cleveland refused to sign the bill but did not veto it, which meant that the Act became law on March 3rd, 1887; the act disincorporated both the LDS Church and the Perpetual Emigration Fund on the grounds that they fostered polygamy. The act prohibited the practice of polygamy and punished it with a fine of from $500 to $800 and imprisonment of up to five years, it dissolved the corporation of the church and directed the confiscation by the federal government of all church properties valued over a limit of $50,000.
The act was enforced by the U. S. Marshal and a host of deputies; the act: Disincorporated the LDS Church and the Perpetual Emigrating Fund Company, with assets to be used for public schools in the Territory. Required an anti-polygamy oath for prospective voters and public officials. Annulled territorial laws allowing illegitimate children to inherit. Required civil marriage licenses. Abrogated the common law spousal privilege for polygamists, thus requiring wives to testify against their husbands. Disenfranchised women. Replaced local judges with federally appointed judges. Abolished the office of Territorial superintendent of district schools, granting the supreme court of the Territory of Utah the right to appoint a commissioner of schools. Called for the prohibition of the use of sectarian books and for the collection of statistics of the number of so-called gentiles and Mormons attending and teaching in the schools. In 1890 the U. S. Supreme Court upheld the seizure of Church property under the Edmunds–Tucker Act in Late Corporation of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints v. United States.
This act was repealed in 1978. "Gospel Topics: The Manifesto and the End of Plural Marriage", LDS.org, LDS Church, retrieved 2014-10-22 Peters, Gerhard. The American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara. Peters, Gerhard; the American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara. Peters, Gerhard; the American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara