In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that lies below the surface of the soil. Roots can be aerial or aerating, that is, growing up above the ground or above water. Furthermore, a stem occurring below ground is not exceptional either. Therefore, the root is best defined as the non-nodes bearing parts of the plant's body. However, important internal structural differences between stems and roots exist; the fossil record of roots—or rather, infilled voids where roots rotted after death—spans back to the late Silurian, about 430 million years ago. Their identification is difficult, because casts and molds of roots are so similar in appearance to animal burrows, they can be discriminated using a range of features. The first root that comes from a plant is called the radicle. A root's four major functions are: absorption of inorganic nutrients. In response to the concentration of nutrients, roots synthesise cytokinin, which acts as a signal as to how fast the shoots can grow. Roots function in storage of food and nutrients.
The roots of most vascular plant species enter into symbiosis with certain fungi to form mycorrhizae, a large range of other organisms including bacteria closely associate with roots. When dissected, the arrangement of the cells in a root is root hair, epiblem, endodermis, pericycle and, the vascular tissue in the centre of a root to transport the water absorbed by the root to other places of the plant; the most striking characteristic of roots is that, roots have an endogenous origin, i.e. it originates and develops from an inner layer of the mother axis. Whereas Stem-branching and leaves are exogenous, i.e. start to develop from the cortex, an outer layer. In its simplest form, the term root architecture refers to the spatial configuration of a plant’s root system; this system can be complex and is dependent upon multiple factors such as the species of the plant itself, the composition of the soil and the availability of nutrients. The configuration of root systems serves to structurally support the plant, compete with other plants and for uptake of nutrients from the soil.
Roots grow to specific conditions. For example, a root system that has developed in dry soil may not be as efficient in flooded soil, yet plants are able to adapt to other changes in the environment, such as seasonal changes. Root architecture plays the important role of providing a secure supply of nutrients and water as well as anchorage and support; the main terms used to classify the architecture of a root system are: Branch magnitude: the number of links. Topology: the pattern of branching, including:Herringbone: alternate lateral branching off a parent root Dichotomous: opposite, forked branches Radial: whorl of branches around a rootLink length: the distance between branches. Root angle: the radial angle of a lateral root’s base around the parent root’s circumference, the angle of a lateral root from its parent root, the angle an entire system spreads. Link radius: the diameter of a root. All components of the root architecture are regulated through a complex interaction between genetic responses and responses due to environmental stimuli.
These developmental stimuli are categorised as intrinsic, the genetic and nutritional influences, or extrinsic, the environmental influences and are interpreted by signal transduction pathways. The extrinsic factors that affect root architecture include gravity, light exposure and oxygen, as well as the availability or lack of nitrogen, sulphur and sodium chloride; the main hormones and respective pathways responsible for root architecture development include: Auxin – Auxin promotes root initiation, root emergence and primary root elongation. Cytokinins – Cytokinins regulate root apical meristem size and promote lateral root elongation. Gibberellins -- Together with ethylene they promote elongation. Together with auxin they promote root elongation. Gibberellins inhibit lateral root primordia initiation. Ethylene – Ethylene promotes crown root formation. Early root growth is one of the functions of the apical meristem located near the tip of the root; the meristem cells more or less continuously divide, producing more meristem, root cap cells, undifferentiated root cells.
The latter become the primary tissues of the root, first undergoing elongation, a process that pushes the root tip forward in the growing medium. These cells differentiate and mature into specialized cells of the root tissues. Growth from apical meristems is known as primary growth. Secondary growth encompasses all growth in diameter, a major component of woody plant tissues and many nonwoody plants. For example, storage roots of sweet potato are not woody. Secondary growth occurs at the lateral meristems, namely the vascular cork cambium; the former forms secondary phloem, while the latter forms the periderm. In plants with secondary growth, the vascular cambium, originating between the xylem and the phloem, forms a cylinder of tissue along the stem and root; the vascular cambium forms new cells on both the inside and outside of the cambium cylinder, with those on the inside forming secondary xylem cells, those on the outside forming secondary phloem cells. As
A plumber is a tradesperson who specializes in installing and maintaining systems used for potable water and drainage in plumbing systems. The term dates from ancient times and is related to the Latin word for lead, "plumbum"; the word "plumber" dates from the Roman Empire. The Latin for lead is plumbum. Roman roofs used lead in conduits and drain pipes and some were covered with lead, lead was used for piping and for making baths. In medieval times anyone who worked with lead was referred to as a plumber as can be seen from an extract of workmen fixing a roof in Westminster Palace and were referred to as plumbers "To Gilbert de Westminster, working about the roof of the pantry of the little hall, covering it with lead, about various defects in the roof of the little hall", thus a person with expertise in working with lead was first known as a Plumbarius, shortened to plumber. Years of training and/or experience are needed to become a skilled plumber; some needed skills and values. Protecting health and welfare of the nation is the top priority of a plumber along with, Reading drawings, specifications to determine layout of water supply and venting systems Detecting faults in plumbing appliances and systems, diagnosing their causes Installing and maintaining domestic and industrial plumbing fixtures and systems Locating and marking positions for pipe connections, passage holes, fixtures in walls and floors Measuring, cutting and threading pipes using hand and power tools or machines Joining pipes and fittings together using soldering techniques, compression fittings, threaded fittings, push-on fittings.
Testing pipes for leaks using air and water pressure gauges Awareness of legal regulations and safety issues Ensuring safety standards and building regulations are met. Copper Piping Hydronic heating system installation and maintenance. ADA Compliance Potable Water Systems Sanitary Waste & Vent Plumbing Code Compliance Acid Waste Grease trap interceptors Heating Hot Water Chill Water Backflow Preventers Natural Gas Storm Drains Seismic New Construction Urinals Flush Valves Toilet Chair Carriers Floor Drains Floor Cleanouts Combination waste & Vent Floor Sinks Operate a Plumber's Snake to unclog sanitary sewers & drains. Perform a Pipeline Video Inspection of a sanitary sewer or drain. Replace Sump Pumps & Install Sump Pit Basins; each state and locality may have its own taxing schemes for plumbers. There is no federal law establishing licenses for plumbers. In Canada, licensing requirements differ by province, however the provinces have pooled resources to develop an Interprovincial Program Guide that developed and maintains apprenticeship training standards across all provinces.
The result is. National Vocational Qualifications remained the main form of plumbing qualification until they were superseded in 2008 by the Qualification and Credit Framework and again into the National qualifications frameworks in the United Kingdom in 2015; the terms NVQ and SVQ are still used. Plumbers in the United Kingdom are required to pass Level 2 and Level 3 vocational requirements of the City and Guilds of London Institute. There are several regulatory bodies in the United Kingdom providing accredited plumbing qualifications, including City and Guilds of London Institute and Pearson PLC. Plumbers in Australia have licensing requirements that differ from state to state but it is accepted a 4-year apprenticeship with further minimum experience of 2 years and a further curricular requirement as a benchmark for licensing. Licensed plumbers are expected to maintain minimum relevant training requirements to maintain their plumbing license; the availability of 24-hour emergency plumbing services is an important advantage among competitors, as well as a massive factor to take in consideration for clientele looking for an emergency plumber in Sydney, an emergency plumber in Melbourne or in any other area in Australia.
In Ireland, a 4-year apprenticeship plus qualification exam was necessary for someone to practice professionally. Accreditation of businesses is of great help in order to show their credibility and experience in the job. Offering emergency call out services is an edge among competitors and a huge factor to consider for people looking for an emergency plumber in Dublin on in any area in Ireland. There are many types of dangers to a plumber; some of them are strains and sprains and lacerations, bruises and contusions, fractures and scalds, foreign bodies in the eye, hernias. On a construction site there are many dangers. Without protective measures, a ditch can collapse on a plumber, at the bottom of one. A plumber can fall down a hole; when a person has a blockage in their sewage system they try to fix it themselves by adding an acid or a base such as Drano in an attempt to dissolve or dislodge the problem. These chemicals can get into the plumbers eyes; the plumbers skin during the repair does come into contact with the sewage water.
The owner of the toilet might not report to the plumber they have tried Drano a caustic base. Plumbers risk infections. Microbes can be excreted in the feces or vomit of the sufferer onto the sewage pipes. Human waste can contain infectious diseases such as cholera, hepatitis, cryptosporidiosis and schistosomiasis; the term "White House Plumbers" was a popular name given to the
A storm drain, storm sewer, surface water drain/sewer, or stormwater drain is infrastructure designed to drain excess rain and ground water from impervious surfaces such as paved streets, car parks, parking lots, footpaths and roofs. Storm drains vary in design from small residential dry wells to large municipal systems. Drains receive water from street gutters on most motorways and other busy roads, as well as towns in areas with heavy rainfall that leads to flooding, coastal towns with regular storms. Gutters from houses and buildings can connect to the storm drain. Many storm drainage systems are gravity sewers that drain untreated storm water into rivers or streams—so it is unacceptable to pour hazardous substances into the drains. Storm drains cannot manage the quantity of rain that falls in heavy rains or storms. Inundated drains can cause street flooding. In many areas require detention tanks inside a property that temporarily hold runoff in heavy rains and restrict outlet flow to the public sewer.
This reduces the risk of overwhelming the public sewer. Some storm drains mix stormwater with sewage, either intentionally in the case of combined sewers, or unintentionally. Several related terms are used differently in American and British English: There are two main types of stormwater drain inlets: side inlets and grated inlets. Side inlets are located adjacent to the curb and rely on the ability of the opening under the back stone or lintel to capture flow, they are depressed at the invert of the channel to improve capture capacity. Many inlets have gratings or grids to prevent people, large objects or debris from falling into the storm drain. Grate bars are spaced so that the flow of water is not impeded, but sediment and many small objects can fall through. However, if grate bars are too far apart, the openings may present a risk to pedestrians and others in the vicinity. Grates with long narrow slots parallel to traffic flow are of particular concern to cyclists, as the front tire of a bicycle may become stuck, causing the cyclist to go over the handlebars or lose control and fall.
Storm drains in streets and parking areas must be strong enough to support the weight of vehicles, are made of cast iron or reinforced concrete. Some of the heavier sediment and small objects may settle in a catch basin, or sump, which lies below the outlet, where water from the top of the catch basin reservoir overflows into the sewer proper; the catchbasin serves much the same function as the "trap" in household wastewater plumbing in trapping objects. In the United States, unlike the plumbing trap, the catch basin does not prevent sewer gases such as hydrogen sulfide and methane from escaping. However, in the United Kingdom, where they are called gully pots, they are designed as true water-filled traps and do block the egress of gases and rodents. Most catchbasins contain stagnant water during drier parts of the year and can, in warm countries, become mosquito breeding grounds. Larvicides or disruptive larval hormones, sometimes released from "mosquito biscuits", have been used to control mosquito breeding in catch basins.
Mosquitoes may be physically prevented from reaching the standing water or migrating into the sewer proper by the use of an "inverted cone filter". Another method of mosquito control is to spread a thin layer of oil on the surface of stagnant water, interfering with the breathing tubes of mosquito larvae; the performance of catch basins at removing sediment and other pollutants depends on the design of the catchbasin, on routine maintenance to retain the storage available in the sump to capture sediment. Municipalities have large vacuum trucks that perform this task. Catch basins act as the first-line pretreatment for other treatment practices, such as retention basins, by capturing large sediments and street litter from urban runoff before it enters the storm drainage pipes. Pipes can come in many different cross-sectional shapes. Drainage systems may have many different features including waterfalls, stairways and pits for catching rubbish, sometimes called Gross Pollutant Traps. Pipes made of different materials can be used, such as brick, high-density polyethylene or galvanized steel.
Fibre reinforced plastic is being used more for drain pipes and fittings. Most drains have a single large exit at their point of discharge into a canal, lake, sea or ocean. Other than catchbasins there are no treatment facilities in the piping system. Small storm drains may discharge into individual dry wells. Storm drains may be interconnected to make a larger dry well system. Storm drains may discharge into man-made excavations known as recharge basins or retention ponds. Storm drains are unable to manage the quantity of rain that falls during heavy rains and/or storms; when storm drains are inundated and street flooding can occur. Unlike catastrophic flooding events, this type of urban flooding occurs in built-up areas where man-made drainage systems are prevalent. Urban flooding is the primary cause of sewer backups and basement flooding, which can affect properties repeatedly. Clogged drains contribute to flooding by the obstruction of storm drains. Communities or cities can help reduce this by cleaning leaves from the storm drains to stop ponding or flooding into yards.
Snow in the winter can clog drains when there is an unusual amount of rain in the w
Pigging in the context of pipelines refers to the practice of using devices known as pigs or scrapers to perform various maintenance operations. This is done without stopping the flow of the product in the pipeline; these operations are not limited to cleaning and inspecting the pipeline. This is accomplished by inserting the pig into a "pig launcher" — an oversized section in the pipeline, reducing to the normal diameter; the launching station is closed and the pressure-driven flow of the product in the pipeline is used to push the pig along down the pipe until it reaches the receiving trap — the "pig catcher". Pigging has been used for many years to clean large diameter pipelines in the oil industry. Today, the use of smaller diameter pigging systems is now increasing in many continuous and batch process plants as plant operators search for increased efficiencies and reduced costs. Pigging can be used for any section of the transfer process between, for example, storage or filling systems. Pigging systems are installed in industries handling products as diverse as lubricating oils, chemicals, toiletries and foodstuffs.
Pigs are used in lube oil or paint blending to clean the pipes to avoid cross-contamination, to empty the pipes into the product tanks. Pigging is done at the beginning and at the end of each batch, but sometimes it is done in the midst of a batch, such as when producing a premix that will be used as an intermediate component. Pigs are used in oil and gas pipelines to clean the pipes. There are "smart pigs" used to inspect pipelines for the purpose of preventing leaks, which can be explosive and dangerous to the environment, they do not interrupt production, though some product can be lost when the pig is extracted. They can be used to separate different products in a multiproduct pipeline. If the pipeline contains butterfly valves, or reduced port ball valves, the pipeline cannot be pigged. Full port ball valves cause no problems because the inside diameter of the ball opening is the same as that of the pipe; some early cleaning "pigs" were made from straw bales wrapped in barbed wire while others used leather.
Both made a squealing noise while traveling through the pipe, sounding to some like a pig squealing, which gave pigs their name. "PIG" is sometimes claimed as an acronym or backronym derived from the initial letters of the term "Pipeline Inspection Gauge" or "Pipeline Intervention Gadget". A major advantage for multi-product pipelines of piggable systems is the potential of product savings. At the end of each product transfer, it is possible to clear out the entire line contents with the pig, either forwards to the receipt point, or backwards to the source tank. There is no requirement for extensive line flushing. Without the need for line flushing, pigging offers the additional advantage of much more rapid and reliable product changeover. Product sampling at the receipt point is faster with pigs, because the interface between products is clear. Pigging can be operated by a programmable logic controller. Pigging has a significant role to play in reducing the environmental impact of batch operations.
Traditionally, the only way that an operator of a batch process could ensure a product was cleared from a line was to flush the line with a cleaning agent such as water or a solvent, or with the next product. The cleaning agent had to be subjected to effluent treatment or solvent recovery. If a product was used to clear the line, it was necessary to downgrade or dump the contaminated portion of the product. All of these problems can now be eliminated due to the precise interface produced by modern pigging systems. Pigging systems are designed so that the pig is loaded into the launcher, pressured to launch the pig into the pipeline through a kicker line. In some cases, the pig is removed from the pipeline via the receiver at the end of each run. All systems must allow for the receipt of pigs at the launcher, as blockages in the pipeline may require the pigs to be pushed back to the launcher. Many systems are designed to pig the pipeline in either direction; the pig is pushed either with a liquid.
The pigs must be removed, as many pigs are rented, pigs wear and must be replaced, cleaning pigs push contaminants from the pipeline such as wax, foreign objects, etc. which must be removed from the pipeline. There are inherent risks in opening the barrel to atmospheric pressure so care must be taken to ensure that the barrel is depressurized prior to opening. If the barrel is not depressurized, the pig can be ejected from the barrel and operators have been injured when standing in front of an open pig door. A pig was once accidentally shot out of the end of a pipeline without a proper pig receiver and went through the side of a house 500 feet away; when the product is sour, the barrel should be evacuated to a flare system where the sour gas is burnt. Operators should wear a self-contained breathing apparatus. A few pigging systems utilize a "captive pig", the pipeline is only opened to check the condition of the pig. At all other times, the pig is shuttled up and down the pipeline at the end of each transfer, the pipeline is never opened up during process operation.
These systems are not common. There are many reports of incidents in which opera
A drain cleaner is a chemical-based consumer product that unblocks sewer pipes or clogged wastewater drains. The term refers to mechanical devices such as a plumber's snake, drain augur, toilet plunger, etc.. Or, sometimes the term is applied to a plumber or other individual who performs the hygiene and cleaning Chemical drain cleaners, handheld drain augers, air burst drain cleaners, home remedy drain cleaners are applied to the problem of a clogged single drain, such as a sink, tub, or shower drain. An effective drain cleaner can remove soft obstructions accumulating near the fixture's drain inlet. If more than one plumbing fixture is clogged electric drain cleaners, battery powered drain cleaners, sewer jetters or such mechanical devices are required to clear obstructions along the entire length of the drain piping system, that is, from fixture drain inlets through the main building drains and lateral piping outside the building to the collector sewer mains; each type of drain cleaner has advantages and safety considerations as described below.
Chemical drain cleaners can be in solid or liquid form that are available through hardware stores, though some are intended for use by licensed plumbers. Alkaline drain cleaners are available in either solid or liquid state while the acidic ones are in liquid form; the history of drain cleaners shares a relationship with the evolution of the drain systems themselves, so there is not an extensive history of cleaners in the US, as municipal plumbing systems were not available in middle-class American homes until the early 20th century. Prior to this time, Americans discarded the dirty water collected in basins after use. Limited piping systems developed with lead materials, but after WWI when the poisonous properties of lead became more well-known, piping was reconstructed with galvanized iron. Galvanized iron is steel covered in a protective layer of zinc, but it was soon discovered that this zinc layer corroded due to exposure to the atmosphere and rainwater, as well as cement, etc. Once corrosion occurred down to the base metal and rust would form, leading to sediment build-up that would clog these drains.
Thus, the first motivation for drain cleaners came to be. The struggle against corroding galvanized iron pipes led to a replacement by copper or plastic piping by the 1960s. Copper and plastic do not possess that zinc layer that corrodes to expose the base metal to decay. Still, natural substances such as hair, grease, or other oils continued to be an issue in drain clogs, so, the development of more effective chemical drain cleaners became necessary. Alkaline drain openers contain sodium hydroxide and some may contain potassium hydroxide, they may appear in solid form. Solid formulations of corrosive alkaline drain cleaners are composed of a caustic substance, aluminum particles, and'additives.' These additives include wetting agents such as alkyl aryl sulfonates, but the exact nature of these additives are not known for commercial drain cleaners, as they are regarded as the trade secrets that make each drain cleaner unique to its brand. The aluminum granules that are included in the solid caustic drain cleaner is an aluminum oxide that breaks down and re-oxidizes to release hydrogen gas.
The components of this reaction are shown below. Because the release of hydrogen gas is overall an exothermic reaction, the extra heat released helps to break down the greases, etc. that form the clog. 1. Breakdown of Aluminum Oxide: Al2O3 + 2NaOH + 3H2O → 2Na 2. Oxidation of Aluminum metal: 2Al + 2NaOH + 6H2O → 2Na + 3H2The actual breakdown of a clog occurs by reaction with the basic sodium hydroxide. Clogs are composed of natural substances such as hair, oils, etc. and breakdown occurs via a saponification reaction of a base and triglycerol. The hydroxide ions from the basic lye attack the carbonyl carbons of the fat, which kicks off the hydrophobic tails of the triglyceride to isolate glycerol. Alkaline drain openers can dissolve hair and fats inside pipes via alkaline hydrolysis of amide and ester respectively: RCONH2+ OH− → NH3 + RCOO− RCO2R’+ OH− → R'OH + RCOO−Because solid lye is hygroscopic, it is crucial that the solid granules of the cleaner are placed directly in proximity to the clog.
Otherwise, the lye itself will absorb water and create a mass itself, exacerbating the clog issue. Liquid formulations of corrosive alkaline drain cleaners can contain sodium hypochlorite and lye in concentrations up to 50 percent. Other corrosive mixtures come as two-part cleaners that are mixed as they are poured in the drain opening. Inside the drain the two solutions react to release a gas, surfactants trap the gas as dense foam; the intent of this foaming action is to coat the inside of the drain pipe to dislodge more of the substances that form the clog. Because liquid alkaline drain cleaners are a base dissolved in water, this is denser than water and can sink to the source of the clog. Acidic drain cleaners contain sulfuric acid at high concentrations, it can dissolve cellulose, proteins like hair, fats via acid hydrolysis. According to a manufacturer, potential hazards include violent reaction with water and the production of explosive hydrogen vapors upon contact with most metals.
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses pipes, plumbing fixtures and other apparatuses to convey fluids. Heating and cooling, waste removal, potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing, but it is not limited to these applications; the word derives from the Latin for lead, plumbum, as the first effective pipes used in the Roman era were lead pipes. In the developed world, plumbing infrastructure is critical to public sanitation. Boilermakers and pipefitters are not plumbers, although they work with piping as part of their trade, but their work can include some plumbing. Plumbing originated during ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Persian and Chinese cities as they developed public baths and needed to provide potable water and wastewater removal, for larger numbers of people. Standardized earthen plumbing pipes with broad flanges making use of asphalt for preventing leakages appeared in the urban settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 BC.
The Romans used lead pipe inscriptions to prevent water theft. The word "plumber" dates from the Roman Empire; the Latin for lead is plumbum. Roman roofs used lead in conduits and drain pipes and some were covered with lead. Lead was used for piping and for making baths. Plumbing reached its early apex in ancient Rome, which saw the introduction of expansive systems of aqueducts, tile wastewater removal, widespread use of lead pipes. With the Fall of Rome both water supply and sanitation stagnated—or regressed—for well over 1,000 years. Improvement was slow, with little effective progress made until the growth of modern densely populated cities in the 1800s. During this period, public health authorities began pressing for better waste disposal systems to be installed, to prevent or control epidemics of disease. Earlier, the waste disposal system had consisted of collecting waste and dumping it on the ground or into a river; the development of separate, underground water and sewage systems eliminated open sewage ditches and cesspools.
Most large cities today pipe solid wastes to sewage treatment plants in order to separate and purify the water, before emptying into streams or other bodies of water. For potable water use, galvanized iron piping was commonplace in the United States from the late 1800s until around 1960. After that period, copper piping took over, first soft copper with flared fittings with rigid copper tubing utilizing soldered fittings; the use of lead for potable water declined after World War II because of increased awareness of the dangers of lead poisoning. At this time, copper piping was introduced as a safer alternative to lead pipes; the major categories of plumbing systems or subsystems are: potable cold and hot tap water supply plumbing drainage venting sewage systems and septic systems with or without hot water heat recycling and graywater recovery and treatment systems Rainwater and subsurface water drainage fuel gas piping hydronics, i.e. heating and cooling systems utilizing water to transport thermal energy, as in district heating systems, like for example the New York City steam system.
A water pipe is a pipe or tube made of plastic or metal, that carries pressurized and treated fresh water to a building, as well as inside the building. For many centuries, lead was the favoured material for water pipes, because its malleability made it practical to work into the desired shape; this was a source of lead-related health problems in the years before the health hazards of ingesting lead were understood. Lead water pipes were still used in the early 20th century, remain in many households. In addition, lead-tin alloy solder was used to join copper pipes, but modern practice uses tin-antimony alloy solder instead, in order to eliminate lead hazards. Despite the Romans' common use of lead pipes, their aqueducts poisoned people. Unlike other parts of the world where lead pipes cause poisoning, the Roman water had so much calcium in it that a layer of plaque prevented the water contacting the lead itself. What causes confusion is the large amount of evidence of widespread lead poisoning amongst those who would have had easy access to piped water.
This was an unfortunate result of lead being used in cookware and as an additive to processed food and drink, for example as a preservative in wine. Roman lead pipe inscriptions provided information on the owner to prevent water theft. Wooden pipes were elsewhere during the 16th and 17th centuries; the pipes were hollowed-out logs, which were tapered at the end with a small hole in which the water would pass through. The multiple pipes were sealed together with hot animal fat, they were used in Philadelphia and Montreal in the 1800s, built-up wooden tubes were used in the USA during the 20th century. These pipes, used in place of corrugated iron or reinforced concrete pipes, were made of sections cut from short lengths of wood. Locking of adjacent rings with hardwood dowel pins produced a flexible structure. About 100,000 feet of these wooden pipes were installed during WW2 in drainage culverts, storm sewers and conduits, under highways and at army camps, naval stations and ordnance plants. Cast iron and ductile iron pipe was long a lower-cost alternative to copper, before the advent of durable plastic materials but special non-conductive fittings must be used where transitions are to be made to other metallic pipes, except for terminal fittin
A plumber's snake or drain snake is a slender, flexible auger used to dislodge clogs in plumbing. The plumber's snake is reserved for difficult clogs that cannot be loosened with a plunger, it is sometimes called a toilet jack. A plumbers snake is used by plumbers to clear a clogged drain pipe or sanitary sewer. Plumber's snakes have a coiled metal wire with a broader gap between the coils at the terminal end; the operator turns a crank to rotate the helix. If the clog is caused by a dense, but shreddable obstacle, such as tree roots or glass wool, the auger might break it up enough to enable flow. A small, lightweight obstruction might be snagged or corkscrewed by the auger, enabling the operator to pull it away; as the auger rotates, it flails against the interior walls of the pipe, scraping off minerals and oil. Hand augers are useful for clearing bathtub drains, they are unsuitable for sending through flush toilets. The closet auger feeds a short auger through a hook-shaped length of metal tubing.
The hook shape makes it easier to feed the auger into the toilet. A plastic boot on the end of the auger protects the finish of the visible porcelain. Since most toilet clogs occur in the trap built into the bowl, the short cable is sufficient to break up or retrieve the greater majority of clogs. A drum auger is a motorized auger with modular blades designed for various gauges of pipe. A drum auger is powerful enough to cut through tree roots. Used unskillfully, they can damage plastic pipework and copper tubing; the Roto-Rooter is an electric auger invented in 1933 by an American. His wife called the invention a Roto-Rooter, because the cable and blades rotated as they cut through tree roots inside sewer pipe. Competing companies made imitations after Blanc's patent expired in 1953, but the machine is manufactured by and for a United States company called the Roto-Rooter Plumbing & Drain Service. Drain rods Media related to Plumber's snake at Wikimedia Commons