Lava Beds National Monument
Lava Beds National Monument is located in northeastern California, in Siskiyou and Modoc counties. The Monument lies on the flank of the Medicine Lake Volcano. The region in and around Lava Beds Monument lies at the junction of the Sierra-Klamath, the Monument was established as a United States National Monument on November 21,1925, and includes more than 46,000 acres. Lava Beds National Monument has numerous lava tube caves, with twenty-five having marked entrances and developed trails for public access, the monument offers trails through the high Great Basin xeric shrubland desert landscape and the volcanic field. 1872–1873, this area was the site of the Modoc War, the area of Captain Jacks Stronghold was named in his honor. Volcanic eruptions on the Medicine Lake shield volcano have created a rugged landscape punctuated by these many landforms of volcanism. Cinder cones are formed when magma is under great pressure and it is released in a fountain of lava, blown into the air from a central vent.
The lava cools as it falls, forming cinders that pile up around the vent, when the pressure has been relieved, the rest of the lava flows from the base of the cone. Cinder cones typically only erupt once, the cinder cones of Hippo Butte, Three Sisters, Juniper Butte, and Crescent Butte are all older than the Mammoth and Modoc Crater flows, more than 30, 000–40,000 years old. Eagle Nest Butte and Bearpaw Butte are 114,000 years old, Schonchin Butte cinder cone and the andesitic flow from its base were formed around 62,000 years ago. The flow that formed Valentine Cave erupted 10,850 years ago, an eruption that formed The Castles is younger than the Mammoth Crater flows. Even younger were eruptions from Fleener Chimneys, such as the Devils Homestead flow,10,500 years ago, about 1,110 years ago, plus or minus 60 years, the Callahan flow was produced by an eruption from Cinder Butte. Though Cinder Butte is just outside the boundary of the monument, spatter cones are built out of thicker lava. The lava is thrown out of the vent and builds, layer by layer, Fleener Chimneys and Black Crater are examples of spatter cones.
Roughly ninety percent of the lava in the Lava Beds Monument is basaltic, there are primarily two kinds of basaltic lava flows, pahoehoe and aa. Pahoehoe is smooth, often ropy and is the most common type of lava in Lava Beds, aa is formed when pahoehoe cools and loses some of its gases. Aa is rough and jagged, an excellent example is the Devils Homestead lava flow, most of the rest of the lava in the monument is andesitic. Pumice, a type of lava, is found covering the monument
Big Pine, California
Big Pine is a census-designated place in Inyo County, United States. Big Pine is located approximately 15 miles south-southeast of Bishop, at an elevation of 3,989 feet, the population was 1,756 at the 2010 census, up from 1,350 at the 2000 census. The Big Pine Band of Owens Valley Paiute Shoshone Indians of the Big Pine Reservation operates their tribal headquarters from here. Big Pine is located in the Owens Valley of California between the Sierra Nevada and the White Mountains, just west of the Owens River upstream of its diversion into the Los Angeles Aqueduct. It lies on U. S. Route 395, the main artery through the Owens Valley, connecting the Inland Empire to Reno. US395 connects Big Pine to Los Angeles via State Route 14 through Palmdale, to the East, CA route 168 crosses the White Mountains over Westgard Pass to the basin and range province of Nevada, while Death Valley Road leads to Death Valley. The plaque beneath the giant sequoia at the road junction says it was planted in 1913 to commemorate the opening of Westgaard Pass to auto traffic.
North from Westgaard Pass lies the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest, home to the oldest trees in the world. To the West, Glacier Lodge Road leads high up Big Pine Creek into the Sierra, to lakes, hiking trails and rock climbing underneath the Palisades Range and the Palisade Glacier. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has an area of 3.0 square miles. The Big Pine post office first opened in 1870, closed for a time during 1877, changed its name to Bigpine in 1895, Big Pine has a significant geologic feature related to the 1872 Lone Pine earthquake. In 1958, the Owens Valley Radio Observatory was established just north of Big Pine, matt Williams, a professional baseball player and manager, lived there for part of his life. Hollywood character actor Elisha Cook, Jr. known for classic films as The Maltese Falcon and Shane, had a home in Big Pine. The 2010 United States Census reported that Big Pine had a population of 1,756, the population density was 594.0 people per square mile.
The racial makeup of Big Pine was 1,192 White,3 African American,438 Native American,13 Asian,1 Pacific Islander,52 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 182 persons. The Census reported that 1,756 people lived in households,0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 49 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 7 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 219 households were made up of individuals and 100 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.30. There were 497 families, the family size was 2.78
Pinus monophylla, the single-leaf pinyon, is a pine in the pinyon pine group, native to the United States and northwest Mexico. The range is in southernmost Idaho, western Utah, southwest New Mexico, Nevada and southern California and it occurs at moderate altitudes from 1, 200-metre -2, 300-metre, rarely as low as 950-metre and as high as 2, 900-metre. It is widespread and often abundant in this region, forming open woodlands. Single-leaf Pinyon is the worlds only 1-needled pine, Pinus monophylla is a small to medium size tree, reaching 10-metre -20-metre tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 80-centimetre rarely more. The bark is furrowed and scaly. The leaves are, uniquely for a pine, usually single, stout, 4-centimetre - 6-centimetre long, the cones thus grow over a two-year cycle, so that newer green and older, seed-bearing or open brown cones are on the tree at the same time. The cones open to 6-centimetre - 9-centimetre broad when mature, holding the seeds on the scales after opening, the seeds are 11-millimetre - 16-millimetre long, with a thin shell, a white endosperm, and a vestigial 1-millimetre - 2-millimetre wing.
Empty pine nuts with undeveloped seeds are a tan color. The pine nuts are dispersed by the pinyon jay, which plucks the seeds out of the cones, choosing only the dark ones. The jay, which uses the seeds as a food resource, some of these stored seeds are not used and are able to grow into new trees. Indeed, Pinyon seeds will germinate in the wild unless they are cached by jays or other animals. There are three subspecies, Pinus monophylla subsp, most of the range, except for the areas below. Needles more stout, bright blue-green, with 2-7 resin canals, cones are 5. 5-centimetre - 8-centimetre long, often longer than broad. Southernmost Nevada, southwest through southeastern California to 29°N in northern Baja California, needles less stout, gray-green, with 8-16 resin canals and 13-18 stomatal lines. Cones are 4. 5-centimetre - 6-centimetre long, broader than long, slopes of the lower Colorado River valley and adjacent tributaries from St. George, Utah to the Hualapai Mountains, and along the lower flank of the Mogollon Rim to Silver City, New Mexico.
Needles less stout, gray-green, with 2-3 resin canals and 8-16 stomatal lines, cones are 4. 5-centimetre - 6-centimetre long, broader than long. It is most closely related to the Colorado pinyon, which hybridises with it occasionally where their ranges meet in western Arizona and it hybridises extensively with Parry pinyon. Fallax/Pinus edulis zones as growing more single needle fascicles after dry years and they have recently been shown to be a two-needled variant of single-leaf pinyon from chemical and genetic evidence
The mountain peaks on either side reach above 14,000 feet in elevation, while the floor of the Owens Valley is at 4,000 feet, making the valley one of the deepest in the United States. The Sierra Nevada casts the valley in a shadow, which makes Owens Valley the Land of Little Rain. The bed of Owens Lake, now a predominantly dry endorheic alkali flat and these episodes inspired aspects of the film Chinatown. Towns in the Owens Valley include Bishop, Lone Pine, the major road in the valley is U. S. Route 395. Owens Valley is a graben—a downdropped block of land between two vertical faults, Owens Valley is the westernmost graben in the Basin and Range Province. It is part of a trough which extends from Oregon to Death Valley called the Walker Lane, the western flank of much of the valley has large moraines coming off the Sierra Nevada. These unsorted piles of rock and dust were pushed to where they are by glaciers during the last ice age, an excellent example of a moraine is on State Route 168 as it climbs into Buttermilk Country.
This graben was formed by a series of earthquakes, such as the 1872 Lone Pine earthquake. The topmost part of this escarpment is exposed at Alabama Hills, the Owens Valley is part of the Long Valley Caldera, a super-volcano that last erupted 260,000 years ago. It is filled with many mini-volcanoes, which look like hills, see also and Mono Craters. Smaller versions of the Devils Postpile, can be found, for example, the valley contains plants adapted to alkali flat habitat. One of these, the Owens Valley checkerbloom, is endemic to Owens Valley, the valley was inhabited in late prehistoric times by the Timbisha in the extreme south end around Owens Lake and by the Mono tribe in the central and northern portions of the valley. The Timbisha speak the Timbisha language, classified in the Numic branch of Uto-Aztecan language family, the closest related languages are Shoshoni and Comanche. The Eastern Mono speak a dialect of the Mono language which is Numic, the Timbisha presently live in Death Valley at Furnace Creek although most families have summer homes in the Lone Pine colony.
The Eastern Mono live in colonies from Lone Pine to Bishop. Trade between Native Americans of the Owens Valley between coastal tribes such as the Chumash has been indicated by the archaeological record, on May 1,1834, Joseph R. Walker entered Owens Valley at the mouth of Walker Pass. He and his group of 52 men traveled up the valley on their way back to the Humboldt Sink, fremont named the Owens valley and lake for Richard Owens, one of his guides. Camp Independence was established on Oak Creek nearby modern Independence, California, on July 4,1862, from 1942 to 1945 during World War II, the first Japanese American Internment camp operated in the valley at Manzanar near Independence, California
Death Valley National Park
Death Valley National Park is a national park in the United States. Straddling the border of California and Nevada, located east of the Sierra Nevada, the park protects the northwest corner of the Mojave Desert and contains a diverse desert environment of salt-flats, sand dunes, valleys and mountains. It is the largest national park in the lower 48 states and has declared an International Biosphere Reserve. Approximately 91% of the park is a wilderness area. It is the hottest and lowest of the parks in the United States. The second-lowest point in the Western Hemisphere is in Badwater Basin, the park is home to many species of plants and animals that have adapted to this harsh desert environment. Some examples include creosote bush, bighorn sheep and the Death Valley pupfish, several short-lived boom towns sprang up during the late 19th and early 20th centuries to mine gold and silver. The only long-term profitable ore to be mined was borax, which was transported out of the valley with twenty-mule teams, the valley became the subject of books, radio programs, television series, and movies.
Tourism blossomed in the 1920s, when resorts were built around Stovepipe Wells, Death Valley National Monument was declared in 1933 and the park was substantially expanded and became a national park in 1994. The natural environment of the area has been shaped largely by its geology, the valley itself is actually a graben. The oldest rocks are metamorphosed and at least 1.7 billion years old. Ancient, shallow seas deposited marine sediments until rifting opened the Pacific Ocean, additional sedimentation occurred until a subduction zone formed off the coast. This uplifted the region out of the sea and created a line of volcanoes, the crust started to pull apart, creating the current Basin and Range landform. Valleys filled with sediment and, during the wet times of glacial periods, with lakes, in 2013, Death Valley National Park was designated as a dark sky park by the International Dark-Sky Association. There are two valleys in the park, Death Valley and Panamint Valley. Both of these valleys were formed within the last few million years, the result of this shearing action is additional extension in the central part of Death Valley which causes a slight widening and more subsidence there.
Uplift of surrounding mountain ranges and subsidence of the floor are both occurring. The uplift on the Black Mountains is so fast that the fans there are small
In Sonora, it is more commonly called hediondilla. It is a plant in the family Zygophyllaceae. The specific name refers to its three-toothed leaves. The species grows as far east as Zapata County, Texas, L. tridentata is an evergreen shrub growing to 1 to 3 m tall, rarely 4 m. The stems of the plant bear resinous, dark green leaves with two opposite lanceolate leaflets joined at the base, with a deciduous awn between them, each leaflet 7 to 18 mm long and 4 to 8.5 mm broad. The flowers are up to 25 mm in diameter, with five yellow petals, galls may form by the activity of the creosote gall midge. The whole plant exhibits a characteristic odor of creosote, from which the name derives. In the regions where it grows, its smell is associated with the smell of rain. As the creosote bush grows older, its oldest branches eventually die and this normally happens when the plant is 30 to 90 years old. Eventually, the old crown dies and the new one becomes a clonal colony from the previous plant, the King Clone creosote ring is one of the oldest living organisms on Earth.
It has been alive an estimated 11,700 years, in the central Mojave Desert near present-day Lucerne Valley, California. Measurements of the plant, as well as radiocarbon dating of fragments, were used to determine the plants mean annual growth rate outward from the center of the ring. By measuring the diameter of the ring, its age could be estimated. It is within the Creosote Rings Preserve of the Lucerne Valley, Creosote bush is most common on the well-drained soils of alluvial fans and flats. In parts of its range, it may cover areas in practically pure stands. Chemicals found in creosote bush roots have shown to inhibit the growth of burro bush roots. Creosote bush stands tend to display an evenly spaced distribution of plants, originally, it was assumed that the plant produced a water-soluble inhibitor that prevented the growth of other bushes near mature, healthy bushes. Owing to the harshness of the germination environment above mature root systems, germination is actually quite active during wet periods, but most of the young plants die very quickly unless water conditions are optimal
Sequoia National Park
Sequoia National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada east of Visalia, California, in the United States. It was established on September 25,1890, the park is south of and contiguous with Kings Canyon National Park, the two are administered by the National Park Service together as the Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. They were designated the UNESCO Sequoia-Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve in 1976, the park is famous for its giant sequoia trees, including the General Sherman tree, the largest tree on Earth. The General Sherman tree grows in the Giant Forest, which five out of the ten largest trees in the world. The Giant Forest is connected by the Generals Highway to Kings Canyon National Parks General Grant Grove, the parks giant sequoia forests are part of 202,430 acres of old-growth forests shared by Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. Indeed, the preserve a landscape that still resembles the southern Sierra Nevada before Euro-American settlement. Many park visitors enter Sequoia National Park through its entrance near the town of Three Rivers at Ash Mountain at 1,700 ft elevation.
The last California grizzly was killed in this park in 1922, the California Black Oak is a key transition species between the chaparral and higher elevation conifer forest. At higher elevations in the front country, between 5,500 and 9,000 feet in elevation, the landscape becomes montane forest-dominated coniferous belt, found here are Ponderosa, Jeffrey and lodgepole pine trees, as well as abundant white and red fir. Found here too are the giant sequoia trees, the most massive living single-stem trees on earth, between the trees and summer snowmelts sometimes fan out to form lush, though delicate, meadows. In this region, visitors often see deer, Douglas squirrels, and American black bears. There are plans to reintroduce the bighorn sheep to this park, the vast majority of the park is roadless wilderness, no road crosses the Sierra Nevada within the parks boundaries. 84 percent of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks is designated wilderness and is only by foot or by horseback. Sequoias backcountry offers a vast expanse of high-alpine wonders, covering the highest-elevation region of the High Sierra, the backcountry includes Mount Whitney on the eastern border of the park, accessible from the Giant Forest via the High Sierra Trail.
On the floor of canyon, at least two days hike from the nearest road, is the Kern Canyon hot spring, a popular resting point for weary backpackers. From the floor of Kern Canyon, the trail ascends again over 8,000 ft to the summit of Mount Whitney, in the summertime, Native Americans would travel over the high mountain passes to trade with tribes to the East. By the time the first European settlers arrived in the area, smallpox had spread to the region. The first European settler to homestead in the area was Hale Tharp, Tharp allowed his cattle to graze the meadow, but at the same time had a respect for the grandeur of the forest and led early battles against logging in the area
The Inyo Mountains are a short mountain range east of the Sierra Nevada mountains in eastern California in the United States. Geologically, the mountains are a fault block range in the Basin and Range Province and they are considered to be among the most important and best-known Late Proterozoic to Cambrian sections in the United States. Approximately 205,000 acres of the range are designated as the Inyo Mountain Wilderness managed by the Bureau of Land Management, much of the northern part of the range is within Inyo National Forest. Wildlife in the area includes the endangered Inyo Mountains Salamander and the Desert Bighorn Sheep, plant communities include creosote and sagebrush at lower altitudes, and bristlecone pine forests at higher. A number of rare and endemic plants are adapted to the limestone soils of the mountains, including the cliffdweller, bristlecone cryptantha
Lassen Volcanic National Park
Lassen Volcanic National Park is a United States National Park in northeastern California. The dominant feature of the park is Lassen Peak, the largest plug dome volcano in the world, Lassen Volcanic National Park started as two separate national monuments designated by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1907, Cinder Cone National Monument and Lassen Peak National Monument. The source of heat for volcanism in the Lassen area is subduction off the Northern California coast of the Gorda Plate diving below the North American Plate, the area surrounding Lassen Peak is still active with boiling mud pots, stinking fumaroles, and churning hot springs. Lassen Volcanic National Park is one of the few areas in the world where all four types of volcano can be found, the park is accessible via State Routes SR89 and SR44. SR89 passes north-south through the park, beginning at SR36 to the south, SR89 passes immediately adjacent the base of Lassen Peak. A large lodge with concession facilities was located near the south-west entrance, a new, full-service visitor center was constructed in the same location, and opened to the public in 2008.
Near the old location was located Lassen Ski Area. Native Americans have inhabited the area long before white settlers first saw Lassen. The natives knew that the peak was full of fire and water, White immigrants in the mid-19th century used Lassen Peak as a landmark on their trek to the fertile Sacramento Valley. One of the guides to these immigrants was a Danish blacksmith named Peter Lassen, Lassen Peak was named after him. Nobles Emigrant Trail was cut through the area and passed Cinder Cone. Inconsistent newspaper accounts reported by witnesses from 1850 to 1851 described seeing fire thrown to a terrible height, as late as 1859, a witness reported seeing fire in the sky from a distance, attributing it to an eruption. Early geologists and volcanologists who studied the Cinder Cone concluded the last eruption occurred between 1675 and 1700, after the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, the United States Geological Survey began reassessing the potential risk of other active volcanic areas in the Cascade Range.
Further study of Cinder Cone estimated the last eruption occurred between 1630 and 1670, recent tree-ring analysis has placed the date at 1666. The Lassen area was first protected by being designated as the Lassen Peak Forest Preserve, Lassen Peak and Cinder Cone were declared as U. S. National Monuments in May 1907 by President Theodore Roosevelt. Starting in May 1914 and lasting until 1921, a series of minor to major eruptions occurred on Lassen and these events created a new crater, and released lava and a great deal of ash. Fortunately, because of warnings, no one was killed, because of the eruptive activity, which continued through 1917, and the areas stark volcanic beauty, Lassen Peak, Cinder Cone and the area surrounding were declared a National Park on August 9,1916. The 29-mile Main Park Road was constructed between 1925 and 1931, just 10 years after Lassen Peak erupted, near Lassen Peak the road reaches 8,512 feet, making it the highest road in the Cascade Mountains
The legal definition of what constitutes treasure trove and its treatment under law vary considerably from country to country, and from era to era. The term is often used metaphorically. Collections of articles published as a book are often titled Treasure Trove and this was especially fashionable for titles of childrens books in the early- and mid-20th century. Treasure trove, sometimes rendered treasure-trove, literally means treasure that has been found, the English term treasure trove was derived from tresor trové, the Anglo-French equivalent of the Latin legal term thesaurus inventus. The term wealth deposit has been proposed as a more accurate alternative, the term treasure trove is often used metaphorically to mean a valuable find, and hence a source of treasure, or a reserve or repository of valuable things. Trove is often used alone to refer to the concept, the word having been reanalysed as a noun via folk etymology from an original Anglo-French adjective trové, phrases of this form are often used either with the etymologically correct plural form or as fully rederived plural forms.
In the case of treasure trove, the plural form is almost always treasure troves. In Roman law treasure trove was called thesaurus, and defined by the Roman jurist Paulus as vetus quædam depositio pecuniæ, cujus non extat memoria, ut jam dominum non habeat. R. W. Lee, in his book The Elements of Roman Law, commented that this definition was not quite satisfactory as treasure was not confined to money, nor was there any abandonment of ownership. Under the emperors, if treasure was found on a persons own land or on sacred or religious land, an interpretation of Roman law regarding treasure troves makes an appearance in the 13th chapter of the Gospel of Matthew. The Parable of the Hidden Treasure is told by Jesus of Nazareth to the crowds surrounding him, in the parable, the treasure trove is hidden in a field, which is open country and anyone could conceivably discover something hidden in that location. Its assumed that the present owner has no knowledge or memory of the treasure, the finder of the treasure kept the trove secret until he could raise capital to purchase the land holding the trove.
Selling all he had, the finder purchased the land and unearthed the trove and, as the finder and owner, he was legally entitled to the entire trove. Jesus compared the kingdom of Heaven to the trove, being of value than all a persons earthly wealth. It has been said that the concept of treasure trove in English law dates back to the time of Edward the Confessor. If the person who had hidden the treasure was known or discovered later, to be treasure trove, an object had to be substantially – that is, more than 50% – gold or silver. Treasure trove had to be hidden with animus revocandi, that is, the Crown could grant its right to treasure trove to any person in the form of a franchise. It was the duty of the finder, and indeed of anyone who had acquired knowledge of the matter, concealing a find was a misdemeanour punishable with fine and imprisonment
Bishop is a city in Inyo County, United States. Though Bishop is the city and the largest populated place in Inyo County. Bishop is located near the end of the Owens Valley. The population was 3,879 at the 2010 census, up from 3,575 at the 2000 census, the town was named after Bishop Creek, flowing out of the Sierra Nevada, the creek was named after Samuel Addison Bishop, a settler in the Owens Valley. Bishop lies west of the Owens River at the end of the Owens Valley. It is on U. S. Route 395, the main artery through the Owens Valley, connecting the Inland Empire to Reno. US395 connects Bishop to Los Angeles via State Route 14 through Palmdale, Bishop is the western terminus of U. S. Route 6. The Paiute-Shoshone Indians of the Bishop Community of the Bishop Colony control land just west of the town, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power controls much of the upstream and surrounding area. Bishop is immediately to the east of the Sierra Nevada, numerous peaks are within a short distance of Bishop, including Mount Humphreys, to the west, White Mountain Peak in the northeast, and pyramidal Mount Tom northwest of town.
Basin Mountain is viewed to the west from Bishop as it rises above the Buttermilks, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.9 square miles, over 97% of it land. The festival attracts tourists, primarily from the Southern California area. Bishop is well known in the climbing community. Near the city are numerous climbing spots that attract visitors from around the world, there are over 2,000 bouldering problems in Bishop. The two main types of rock are volcanic tuff and granite.18 inches of precipitation, and is part of USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 7. The wettest year was 1969 with 17.09 in of precipitation, measurable precipitation occurs on an average of 27.6 days annually. The most precipitation in one month was 8.93 in in January 1969, which included 4.00 in on January 4, snowfall averages 6.8 inches per year. The snowiest season was from July 1968 to June 1969 with 57.1 inches, which included the snowiest month, January 1969, at 23.2 inches. There is an average of 2.5 nights of sub 10 °F lows,134 nights where the low reaches the mark,100 days with 90 °F + highs
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci