Airband or aircraft band is the name for a group of frequencies in the VHF radio spectrum allocated to radio communication in civil aviation, sometimes referred to as VHF, or phonetically as "Victor". Different sections of the band are used for air traffic control. In most countries a license to operate airband equipment is required and the operator is tested on competency in procedures and the use of the phonetic alphabet; the VHF airband uses the frequencies between 137 MHz. The lowest 10 MHz of the band, from 108–117.95 MHz, is split into 200 narrow-band channels of 50 kHz. These are reserved for navigational aids such as VOR beacons, precision approach systems such as ILS localizers; as of 2012, most countries divide the upper 19 MHz into 760 channels for amplitude modulation voice transmissions, on frequencies from 118–136.975 MHz, in steps of 25 kHz. In Europe, it is becoming common to further divide those channels into three permitting 2,280 channels; some channels between 123.100 and 135.950 are available in the US to other users such as government agencies, commercial company advisory and rescue, military aircraft and ballooning air-to-ground, flight test and national aviation authority use.
A typical transmission range of an aircraft flying at cruise altitude, is about 200 mi in good weather conditions. Aeronautical voice communication is conducted in other frequency bands, including satellite voice on Inmarsat or Iridium, high frequency voice; these other frequency bands are only used in oceanic and remote areas, though they work over wider areas or globally. Military aircraft use a dedicated UHF-AM band from 225.0–399.95 MHz for air-to-air and air-to-ground, including air traffic control communication. This band has a designated guard channel of 243.0 MHz. Radio aeronautical navigation aids use other frequencies. Non-directional beacons s operate on low frequency and medium frequency bands between 190–415 kHz and 510–535 kHz; the instrument landing system glide path operates in the UHF frequency range of 329.3–335.0 MHz with marker beacons at 75 MHZ. Distance measuring equipment uses UHF from 962–1150 MHz. Channel spacing for voice communication on the airband was 200 kHz until 1947, providing 70 channels from 118 to 132 MHz.
Some radios of that time provided receive-only coverage below 118 MHz for a total of 90 channels. From 1947–1958 the spacing became 100 kHz. On 1 January 1990 the frequencies between 136.000 and 136.975 MHz were added, resulting in 760 channels. Increasing air traffic congestion has led to further subdivision into narrow-band 8.33 kHz channels in the ICAO European region. Outside of Europe, 8.33 kHz channels are permitted in many countries but not used as of 2012. The emergency communication channel 121.5 MHz is the only channel that retains 100 kHz channel spacing in the US. Besides being simple, power-efficient and compatible with legacy equipment, AM and SSB permit stronger stations to override weaker or interfering stations. Additionally, this method does not suffer from the capture effect found in FM. If a pilot is transmitting, a control tower can "talk over" that transmission and other aircraft will hear a somewhat garbled mixture of both transmissions, rather than just one or the other.
If both transmissions are received with identical signal strength, a heterodyne will be heard where no such indication of blockage would be evident in an FM system. Alternative analog modulation schemes are under discussion, such as the "CLIMAX" multi-carrier system and offset carrier techniques to permit more efficient utilization of spectrum; the audio quality in the airband is limited by the RF bandwidth used. In the newer channel spacing scheme, the largest bandwidth of an airband channel is limited to 8.33 kHz, so the highest possible audio frequency is 4.166 kHz. In the 25 kHz channel spacing scheme, an upper audio frequency of 12.5 kHz would be theoretically possible. However, most airband voice transmissions never reach these limits; the whole transmission is contained within a 6 kHz to 8 kHz bandwidth, corresponding to an upper audio frequency of 3 kHz to 4 kHz. This frequency, while low compared to the top of the human hearing range, is sufficient to convey speech. Different aircraft, control towers and other users transmit with different bandwidths and audio characteristics.
A switch to digital radios has been contemplated, as this would increase capacity by reducing the bandwidth required to transmit speech. Other benefits from digital coding of voice transmissions include decreased susceptibility to electrical interference and jamming; the change-over to digital radio has yet to happen because the mobility of aircraft necessitates complete international cooperation to move to a new system and the time implementation for subsequent changeover. Another factor delaying the move to any digital mode is the need to retain the ability for one station to cut in another in an emergency, it is illegal in most countries to transmit on the Airband frequencies without a suitable license, although an individual license may not be required, for instance in the US where aircr
Piper PA-20 Pacer
The PA-20 Pacer and PA-22 Tri-Pacer are a family of four-place, strut braced, high-wing light aircraft that were built by Piper Aircraft in the post-World War II period. The Pacer was a four-place version of the two-place PA-17 Vagabond light aircraft, it features a steel tube fuselage and an aluminum frame wing, covered with fabric, much like Piper's most famous aircraft, the Cub and Super Cub. An aircraft prized for its ruggedness, spacious cabin, for its time, impressive speed, many Pacers continue to fly today. Factory installed 125 hp, 135 hp, 150 hp, 160 hp engine options were available, 180 hp engine after-market conversions are an option; the Piper PA-20 Pacer was designed as a tailwheel aircraft and thus had somewhat limited forward visibility on the ground and more demanding ground-handling characteristics. To help introduce more pilots to easier, safer flying, from February 1951, Piper introduced the PA-22 Tri-Pacer with a nosewheel instead of the tailwheel landing gear. Both the Pacer and the Tri-Pacer belong to a sub-group of Piper aircraft called "Short Wing Pipers."
Additionally, the Tri-Pacer offered higher-powered engine options in the form of 150 hp and 160 HP engines, whereas the largest engine available to the original Pacer had an output of 135 hp. At the time the tricycle undercarriage became a popular preference and 1953 saw the PA-22 Tri-Pacer outsell the Pacer by a ratio of six to one. Due to the geometry of the nosewheel installation it is sometimes called the "Flying Milk Stool". In 1959 and 1960 Piper offered a cheaper, less well-equipped version of the Tri-Pacer with a 150 HP Lycoming O-320 designated the PA-22-150 Caribbean. Over 9400 Tri-Pacers were produced between 1950 and 1964 when production ended, with 3280 still registered with the FAA in April 2018. An unusual feature of the Tri-Pacer is the incorporation of bungee-linked ailerons and rudder. Beside simplifying the coordination of inflight manoeuvres, this system which can be overcome by the pilot as required, allowed the installation of a simplified form of autopilot marketed by Piper under the name Auto-control.
A small number of PA-22s have been converted to taildragger configuration, resulting in an aircraft, similar to a PA-20 Pacer, but which retains the model refinements and features of the PA-22. These conversions are referred to by owners as PA-22/20s and are listed in classified aircraft ads as such, although such converted aircraft continue to be designated by the FAA as PA-22 Tri-Pacers; when this conversion is accomplished, a 2 puck disc brake conversion is installed in place of the original drum brakes, the Lycoming O-360 180 HP engine is the preferred upgrade. Some PA-22s have Koppers Aeromatic propeller; each of these installations improves performance/economy at the sacrifice of payload. A trainer version of the PA-22 Tri-Pacer was designated the PA-22-108 Colt, it was intended to compete directly with other popular trainers of the day, such as the Cessna 150 and was powered by a 108 hp Lycoming O-235. Over 2,000 Colts were manufactured during the two production years; the Colt resembles the Tri-Pacer and uses the same landing gear, engine mounts, windshield, tail surfaces and the same instrument panel as well.
A few Colts have been converted to tailwheel configuration, although this is not as popular as converting Tri-Pacers. The last batch of 12 PA-22-150s were built for the French Army in 1963 and the last of the family a PA-22-108 Colt was completed on 26 March 1964; the type was replaced on the Vero Beach production line by the PA-28 Cherokee 140. Between 1953 and 1955, the Cuban Army Air Force received 7 PA-20s, 4 PA-22-150s, 3 PA-22-160s. During the Cuban Revolution, PA-22s had their rear-doors removed and a.30 caliber machine gun installed in its place for use against insurgents, along with hand-dropped grenades. A PA-22 providing ground support for the Cuban Army during the Battle of Guisa is believed to be the lone aircraft lost by the FAEC to enemy fire. During the Congo Crisis, Katangese separatists received five PA-22-150s from the South African Air Force for the Force aérienne katangaise. Deployed against ONUC forces between 1961 and 1963, their status at the end of the conflict remained somewhat uncertain.
PA-20 Four-seat, conventional landing gear, light cabin aircraft, powered by a 125 hp Lycoming O-290-D engine. Certified 21 December 1949. PA-20S Three-seat, conventional landing gear, light cabin aircraft, with optional float installation, powered by a 125 hp Lycoming O-290-D engine. Certified 18 May 1950. PA-20 115 Four-seat, conventional landing gear, light cabin aircraft, powered by a 115 hp Lycoming O-235-C1 engine. Certified 22 March 1950. PA-20S 115 Three-seat, conventional landing gear, light cabin aircraft, with optional float installation, powered by a 115 hp Lycoming O-235-C1 engine. Certified 18 May 1950. PA-20 135 Four-seat, conventional landing gear, light cabin aircraft, powered by a 135 hp Lycoming O-290-D2 engine. Certified 5 May 1952. PA-20S 135 Three-seat, conventional landing gear, light cabin aircraft, with optional float installation, powered by a 135 hp Lycoming O-290-D2 engine. Certified 15 May 1952. PA-22 Four-seat, tricycle landing gear, light cabin aircraft, powered by a 125 hp Lycoming O-290-D engine.
Certified 20 December 1950. PA-22-108 Colt Two-seat, tricycle landing gear, light cabin aircraft, powered by a 108 hp Lycoming O-235-C1 or C1B engine. Certified 21 October 1960. PA-22-135 Four-seat, tricycle landing gear, light cabin aircraft, powered by a 135
The Lycoming O-235 is a family of four-cylinder, air-cooled, horizontally opposed piston aircraft engines that produce 100 to 135 hp, derived from the earlier O-233 engine. Well-known designs that use versions of the O-235 included the Cessna 152, Grumman American AA-1 series, Beechcraft Model 77 Skipper, Piper Tomahawk, American Champion Citabria, Piper Clipper, the Piper PA-22-108 Colt; the engines are all carburetor-equipped, feature dual magneto ignition and have a displacement of 233 cubic inches. The first O-235 model was certified on 11 February 1942; the O-235 was developed into the lighter-weight Lycoming IO-233 engine for light sport aircraft. O-235-C1 Power 115 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 246 lb Provision for dual pump drives and pusher installation. O-235-C1A Power 100 hp at 2450 rpm, dry weight 236 lb Similar to O-235-C1 except ignition timing, lower rpm and power. Optional 2 position or automatic propeller governor drive. O-235-C1B Power 115 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 245 lb Similar to O-235-C1 except with retarded breaker magnetos.
O-235-C1C Power 108 hp at 2600 rpm, dry weight 243 lb Similar to O-235-C1 except with Slick magnetos. O-235-C2A Power 115 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 246 lb Similar to O-235-C1 except with a type 1 propeller flange. O-235-C2B Power 115 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 247 lb Similar to O-235-C2A but with two S-1200 series magnetos. O-235-C2C Power 108 hp at 2600 rpm, alternate rated maximum continuous power rating of 100 hp at 2400 rpm, dry weight 244 lb Similar to O-235-C2B except with Slick magnetos and shielded ignition harness. O-235-E1 Power 115 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 250 lb Similar to O-235-C1 except crankcase and crankshaft supply pressurized oil to a constant speed propeller. Accessory case changed to accommodate a standard propeller governor drive. O-235-E1B Power 115 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 249 lb Similar to O-235-E1 except for S4LN-200 series retarded breaker magnetos. O-235-E2A Power 115 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 250 lb Similar to O-235-E1 except Type 1 propeller flange. O-235-E2B Power 115 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 251 lb Similar to O-235-E2A except incorporates S-1200 series magnetos.
O-235-F1 Power 125 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 250 lb Similar to O-235-C1 except compression ratio, fuel grade and rating. O-235-F1B Power 125 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 249 lb Similar to O-235-F1 except retarded breaker magnetos. O-235-F2A Power 125 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 250 lb Similar to O-235-F1 except a Type 1 propeller flange. O-235-F2B Power 125 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 251 lb Similar to O-235-F2A but with S-1200 series magnetos. O-235-G1 Power 125 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 253 lb Similar to O-235-F1 except provisions for using constant speed propeller. O-235-G1B Power 125 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 252 lb Similar to O-235-G1 except has retarded breaker magnetos. O-235-G2A Power 125 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 253 lb Similar to O-235-G1 except a Type 1 propeller flange. O-235-G2B Power 125 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 254 lb Similar to O-235-G2A except S-1200 series magnetos. O-235-H2C Power 108 hp at 2600 rpm, alternate rated maximum continuous power rating of 100 hp at 2400 rpm, dry weight 243 lb Similar to O-235-C2C except Type 1 dynafocal mounting.
O-235-J2A Power 125 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 252 lb Similar to O-235-J2B except magnetos. O-235-J2B Power 125 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 253 lb Similar to O-235-F2B except Type 1 dynafocal mounting. O-235-K2A Power 118 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 252 lb Similar to O-235-F2A except ignition timing, lower power and reduced compression ratio. O-235-K2B Power 118 hp at 2800 rpm, dry weight 253 lb Similar to O-235-F2B except ignition timing, lower power and reduced compression ratio. O-235-K2C Power 115 hp at 2700 rpm, dry weight 248 lb Similar to O-235-K2A except Slick magnetos. O-235-L2A Power 118 hp at 2800 rpm, alternate ratings of 115 hp at 2700 rpm, 112 hp at 2600 rpm, 110 hp at 2550 rpm and 105 hp at 2400 rpm, dry weight 252 lb Similar to O-235-J2A except ignition timing, lower power and reduced compression ratio. O-235-L2C Power 115 hp at 2700 rpm, alternate ratings of 115 hp at 2700 rpm, 112 hp at 2600 rpm, 110 hp at 2550 rpm and 105 hp at 2400 rpm, dry weight 249 lb Similar to O-235-L2A except Slick magnetos and lower maximum continuous rating.
O-235-M1 Power 118 hp at 2800 rpm, alternate ratings of 115 hp at 2700 rpm, 112 hp at 2600 rpm, 110 hp at 2550 rpm and 105 hp at 2400 rpm, dry weight 255 lb Similar to -L2A except provision for controllable propeller and has AS-127 Type 2 propeller flange. O-235-M2C Power 118 hp at 2800 rpm, alternate ratings of 115 hp at 2700 rpm, 112 hp at 2600 rpm, 110 hp at 2550 rpm and 105 hp at 2400 rpm, dry weight 252 lb Similar to O-235-M1 except Slick 4200 series magnetos and Type 1 propeller flange. O-235-M3C Power 118 hp at 2800 rpm, alternate ratings of 115 hp at 2700 rpm, 112 hp at 2600 rpm, 110 hp at 2550 rpm and 105 hp at 2400 rpm, dry weight 252 lb Similar to O-235-M1 except Slick 4200 series magnetos. O-235-N2A Power 116 hp at 2800 rpm, alternate ratings of 113 hp at 2700 rpm, 110 hp at 2600 rpm, 108 hp at 2550 rpm and 103 hp at 2400 rpm, dry weight 252 lb Similar to O-235-L2A except reduced compression rat
Rate of climb
In aeronautics, the rate of climb is an aircraft's vertical speed – the positive or negative rate of altitude change with respect to time. In most ICAO member countries in otherwise metric countries, this is expressed in feet per minute; the RoC in an aircraft is indicated with a vertical speed indicator or instantaneous vertical speed indicator. The temporal rate of decrease in altitude is referred to as the rate of sink rate. A negative rate of climb corresponds to a positive rate of descent: RoD = -RoC. There are a number of designated airspeeds relating to optimum rates of ascent, the two most important of these are VX and VY. VX is the indicated forward airspeed for best angle of climb; this is the speed at which an aircraft gains the most altitude in a given horizontal distance used to avoid a collision with an object a short distance away. By contrast, VY is the indicated airspeed for best rate of climb, a rate which allows the aircraft to climb to a specified altitude in the minimum amount of time regardless of the horizontal distance required.
Except at the aircraft’s ceiling, where they are equal, VX is always lower than VY. Climbing at VX allows pilots to maximize altitude gain per horizontal distance; this occurs at the speed for which the difference between drag is the greatest. In a jet airplane, this is minimum drag speed, occurring at the bottom of the drag vs. speed curve. Climbing at VY allows pilots to maximize altitude gain per time; this occurs at the speed where the difference between engine power and the power required to overcome the aircraft's drag is greatest. Vx increases with altitude and VY decreases with altitude until they converge at the airplane's absolute ceiling, the altitude above which the airplane cannot climb in steady flight; the Cessna 172 is a four-seat aircraft. At maximum weight it has a VY of 75 knots indicated airspeed providing a rate of climb of 721 ft/min. Rate of climb at maximum power for a small aircraft is specified in its normal operating procedures but for large jet airliners it is mentioned in emergency operating procedures.
Climb V speeds Variometer
Sun 'n Fun
Sun ’n Fun Aerospace Expo is a nonprofit organization in Lakeland, Florida dedicated to the promotion of aviation education. It is best known for the annual week-long fly-in and airshow at Lakeland Linder International Airport in Lakeland, Florida held during late March or early April. Called the'Sun ’n Fun International Fly-In and Expo, for 2020 the event was renamed the Sun ’n Fun Aerospace Expo in April 2019. In addition to the fly-in, Sun'n Fun operates the Florida Air Museum and supports the Central Florida Aerospace Academy—an aviation-focused career academy operated by the Polk County School Board as part of Kathleen High School; the event was founded in 1974 and was first organized by the local chapter of the Experimental Aircraft Association, but is now an independent corporation and not affiliated with EAA. Sun'n Fun is a volunteer organization, with a small year-round staff; the Florida Air Museum at Sun'n Fun, is located on the Sun'n Fun campus at Lakeland Linder International Airport.
In April 2010 Sun'n Fun received a US$7.5M grant from the Aviation Education Foundation for the new Central Florida Aerospace Academy building. The school is an existing aviation-oriented high school and career academy, located on the airport grounds. Completed in August 2011 it accommodates 500 high school students, increasing its current capacity of 175 students; the first weekend fly-in, called Mid-Winter Sun'n Fun, was held in January 1975 at the Lakeland Municipal Airport and was limited to pilot. A total of 1,980 guests and 365 aircraft were present; the following year the fly-in was expanded to a full week and the City of Lakeland approved a lease for the convention site to be moved to the southwest quadrant of the airport. The public was invited on a limited basis; the number of visiting aircraft more than tripled compared to the first year, with 1,200 aircraft including 200 homebuilts, 180 antiques, 260 classics, 28 warbirds on site. Snow fell at the airport for the only time in show history to date during the 1977 show.
In 1978 the fly-in became the second largest in the United States, topped only by the EAA convention in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, a position it holds to the present day. The date of the fly-in was changed from January to March in 1980; the following year hot air balloons became a part of the fly-in for the first time. A new corporate office and exhibit building were added to the facilities in 1986. A newly restored Convair XF2Y-1 Sea Dart was displayed near the new mini-museum. In 1992 The Sun'n Fun Air Museum held its grand opening. In 1997 the Brazilian Air Force's Aerial Demonstration Squadron was the featured act. In 2000 Airshow legend Bob Hoover performed the last flight of his Shrike Commander at the fly-in. Two years Bobby Younkin debuted the world's first aerobatic Learjet. During the 2004 show Bruce Bohannon and his turbocharged Exxon Flyin' Tiger set four time to climb world records; the 2006 show marked the first civilian appearance of the new USAF Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor fighter aircraft.
In 2011 on March 31, an EF1 tornado hit the grounds of the airshow, resulting in damage to 40-50 aircraft, along with display tents and exhibits. Fifteen people received minor injuries; the airshow continued the next day. The 2015 show featured the first US performance of the Breitling Jet Team. In 2017 the show featured the French Air Force Patrouille de France aerobatic team, making it the second appearance in the US in more than 30 years; the team flew one show on April 4. EAA AirVenture Oshkosh Official website Media related to Sun'n Fun at Wikimedia Commons
The Taylor J-2 Cub is an American two-seat light aircraft, designed and built by the Taylor Aircraft Company. The company became the Piper Aircraft Company and the J-2 was first of a long line of related Piper Cub designs; the J-2 Cub was a development of the earlier Taylor Cub. In 1935 the Taylor Aircraft Company had decided to improve their Cub line of aircraft which were angular and austere-looking and had an unglazed cabin area; the new J-2 had rounded-off wing tips, a "rounded" fin and rudder framed up and fabric-covered separately from the fuselage structure, enclosed cabin and wider Goodyear "airwheel" tires, a special low-pressure variety of aircraft landing gear tire pioneered by Alvin Musselmann U. S. Patent 1,877,360 in 1929 that resembled a tundra tire in general appearance and proportions. Powered by a 37 hp Continental A-40-3 piston engine the aircraft appeared in October 1935 and the type certificate was issued on 14 February 1936. From September 1936 the engine was changed to a 40 hp Continental A-40-4.
One sub-type was produced, the J-2S, a float-equipped version. In 1935 C. G. Taylor left the company to start another aircraft manufacturer. William T. Piper bought Taylor's shares in the company. In 1936 and 1937 some aircraft were completed by Aircraft Associates in California and these were known as the Western Cub. In 1937 the original Piper factory, a renovated former silk mill in Bradford, PA, was destroyed by fire and the company moved to Lock Haven, PA and production restarted in May 1937 and the company was renamed the Piper Aircraft Corporation in November 1937; the last of 1,207 J-2s was completed in 1938. Numbers of J-2 Cubs were exported to Europe including to the United Kingdom; the type was flown by private pilot owners. Over 100 Taylor and Piper J-2s remained on the U. S. civil aircraft register in 2009. Dudek V-1 Sportplane a low-wing homebuilt based on the J-2. Data from Specifications of American AirplanesGeneral characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 22 ft 5 in Wingspan: 35 ft 2 1⁄2 in Height: 6 ft 8 in Wing area: 178.5 sq ft Empty weight: 563 lb Gross weight: 970 lb Fuel capacity: 9 US gal Powerplant: 1 × Continental A-40-3 air-cooled flat-four, 37 hp Performance Maximum speed: 87 mph Cruise speed: 70 mph Range: 210 mi Service ceiling: 12,000 ft Rate of climb: 450 ft/min Roger W. Peperell and Colin M.
Smith, Piper Aircraft and their forerunners, 1987, Air-Britain, ISBN 0-85130-149-5, Page 18 to 22. "Specifications of American Airplanes". Aviation, March 1936, Vol. 35, No. 3. Pp. 82–85. Registration required
The Cessna 170 is a light, single-engined, general aviation aircraft produced by the Cessna Aircraft Company between 1948 and 1956. It is the predecessor of the Cessna 172, the most produced aircraft in history. In late 1948, Cessna began sales of the 170, with a metal fuselage and tail and fabric-covered constant-chord wings; these earliest 170s were four-seat versions of the popular 140 with a more powerful 145 hp Continental C145-2 and larger fuel tanks. Like the 140, they were constructed of metal with fabric-covered wings supported by a "V" strut. In 1949 Cessna began marketing the 170A, an all-metal 170 with zero-dihedral wing tapered outboard of the slightly-enlarged plain flaps, a single strut replacing the "V" strut of the 170; this and subsequent versions of the 170 shared the fin/rudder shape of the larger Cessna 190 and 195 models. In 1950, the United States Air Force and Marines began using the military variant of the 170, the Model 305, designated the L-19 and O-1 Bird Dog by the military.
It was used as a forward air reconnaissance aircraft. The Bird Dog was extensively redesigned from the basic 170 and included a revised tandem-seat fuselage and a wing with large modified Fowler flaps that deployed up to 60°. In 1952, the Cessna 170B was introduced, featuring a new wing tapered outboard of the flaps, incorporating dihedral similar to the military version; the B model was equipped with effective modified Fowler wing flaps which deflect up to 40°, adapted from the C-305/Bird Dog, a wing design that lives on in the Cessna light singles of today. The 170B model included a new tailplane, a revised tailwheel bracket, other refinements over the 170 and 170A, it was marketed in 1952 for $7245. In 1955, the elliptical rear side windows were changed to a squarer design; the 170 is equipped with conventional landing gear, more challenging to land than tricycle landing gear. In 1956, Cessna introduced a replacement for the 170, a nosewheel-equipped 170B with a square tailfin, designated the 172.
170 production was halted soon. Between 1951 and 1955 Cessna used modifications of the 170 and its derivative, the U. S. Army L-19, as test beds for Boundary layer control research, under contract to the Office of Naval Research and the Army Transportation Corps,designating them as the models 309 and 319; the project was done in conjunction with the University of Wichita which conducted extensive wind tunnel tests of the concept. The model 309 utilized the German World War II Arado lift-increasing system in which a jet pump inside the wing sucked in stagnant air from the flap area, energized it and blew the higher-speed air over the ailerons. Various chemicals and enhancements were used to power the jet pump. Better results were obtained by departing from the Arado jet pump method and using an engine-driven generator to power electric motors driving axial fans to move the internal air; this concept was adopted on the Model 319 but substituted an engine-driven hydraulic pump to drive hydraulic-powered axial fans.
This model was more successful and resulted in the highest lift capacity, as measured by the maximum lift coefficient recorded up to that time. The 319 demonstrated the capability of taking off in 190 ft, landing in 160 ft and clearing a 50 ft obstacle in 450 ft; the aircraft had a stall speed of 28 kn. The 309 and 319 were meant to be research aircraft only, no plans were developed to incorporate boundary layer control technology in then-current Cessna models. An adaptation of the concept, used only to improve landing performance, was incorporated in U. S. Cold War fighter aircraft like the United States Air Force Lockheed F-104 Starfighter and the multi-service McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II. Over 5,000 Cessna 170s were built and over 2,000 are still in service today. Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1955–56General characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 3 passengers Length: 24 ft 11 1⁄2 in Wingspan: 36 ft Height: 6 ft 7 in Wing area: 174 sq ft Aspect ratio: 7.46:1 Airfoil: NACA 2412 Empty weight: 1,205 lb Gross weight: 2,200 lb Fuel capacity: 42 US gal Powerplant: 1 × Continental C145-2 air-cooled flat-six, 145 hp Performance Maximum speed: 140 mph Cruise speed: 120 mph Stall speed: 52 mph Endurance: over 4.5 hours Service ceiling: 15,500 ft Rate of climb: 690 ft/min Related development Cessna 140 Cessna 172 Cessna O-1 Bird DogAircraft of comparable role and era Aeronca Sedan Piper PA-20 Pacer Stinson 108 Yakovlev Yak-12 Bridgman, Leonard.
Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1955–56. New York: The McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc. 1955. Media related to Cessna 170 at Wikimedia Commons