Minnesota State Highway 30
Minnesota State Highway 30 is a highway in southwest and southeast Minnesota, which runs from South Dakota Highway 34 at the South Dakota state line near Airlie, west of Pipestone, continues to its eastern terminus at its intersection with Minnesota Highway 43 in Rushford. Highway 30 is 266 miles in length. State Highway 30 serves as an east–west route between Pipestone, Slayton, St. James, Stewartville and Rushford. Highway 30 parallels U. S. Highway 14 and Interstate Highway 90 throughout its route; the Pipestone National Monument is located north of Highway 30 in Pipestone. Lake Shetek State Park is located near Highway 30 in Murray County on the shore of Lake Shetek; the park is located north of the town of Currie and northeast of Slayton. Highway 30 passes through the Richard J. Dorer Memorial Hardwood State Forest in Olmsted and Fillmore counties. State Highway 30 was established in 1933 running from Highway 15 to Rushford, it replaced former State Highway 41 from Blooming Prairie to Hayfield.
The road was gravel at this time except where it overlapped other highways. By 1946, the road was still unpaved except for short sections near some towns; the first extended paving was done from Cummingsville to Rushford in 1948 and 1949. The remainder of the highway was paved throughout the 1950s. In 1955, the highway was re-routed east of Chatfield to overlap with Highway 74. In 1961, Highway 30 was extended westward, along the route of what had been State Highway 47; this extension was paved except for the section between U. S. 71 and the Cottonwood-Watonwan county line. Highway 47 was established November 2, 1920 from Pipestone to Slayton, it was extended west to the South Dakota state line and east to Highway 4 north of St. James in 1933; the entire highway was gravel at this time. In 1939, it was realigned to take a direct route to Darfur from U. S. 71, bypassing Comfrey. By 1940, the roadway was paved from the state line to Westbrook. Paving from Westbrook to U. S. 71 was performed in 1950 and 1951, through Watonwan County in 1955.
In the late 1970s, Highway 30's overlap with Highway 60 was upgraded to a four-lane expressway. There are plans to reroute the highway into the City of Rochester to better serve the Rochester International Airport and improve conditions on U. S. 63. Highway 30 at The Unofficial Minnesota Highways Page
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Rock County, Minnesota
Rock County is a county at the southwestern corner of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,687, its county seat is Luverne. The county was formed on May 23, 1857 by act of the territorial legislature, but was not organized at that time; the area was designated as Pipestone County, the name Rock County was attached to the present Pipestone. In 1862 the Minnesota state legislature changed the designations, attaching the present names to the present counties. On March 5, 1870, the state legislature approved an act which finalized the county's organization, designated Luverne as the county seat; the county's name came from the Rock River, which in turn is named for a prominent rocky outcrop of reddish-gray quartzite, about 3 miles north of Luverne. This mound forms an impressive contrast to the low surrounding prairie. Another source attributes the county name to its rocky soil. Rock County lies at the SW corner of Minnesota, its west border abuts the east border of the state of South Dakota and its south border abuts the north border of the state of Iowa.
The Rock River flows southward through the east central part of the county, Beaver Creek flows southward through the west central part of the county. The county consists of low rolling hills, carved with drainages; the area is devoted to agriculture. The terrain slopes to the south, with its highest point near the midpoint of its north boundary, at 1,759' ASL; the county has a total area of 483 square miles, of which 482 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. The entire county falls in the hot summer humid continental climate zone. One of Minnesota's nicknames is "Land of 10,000 Lakes", it is speckled from one end to the other with bodies of water large and small. However, four of the state's counties do not contain a natural lake. Rock County did host a manmade lake from 1938 until 2014: A WPA work project constructed a small dam on Blue Mounds Creek in 1938, creating a small lake in Blue Mounds State Park; this continued until June 2014, when the dam was damaged by rain and floodwaters, allowing the pond to drain.
In June 2016 the Minnesota Division of Natural Resources announced its decision to not rebuild the dam. Blue Mounds State Park Northern Tallgrass Prairie National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 9,721 people, 3,843 households, 2,705 families in the county; the population density was 20.2/sq. Mi.. There were 4,137 housing units at an average density of 8.58/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 97.27% White, 0.53% Black or African American, 0.43% Native American, 0.62% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.53% from other races, 0.59% from two or more races. 1.28% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 41.4% were of German, 23.8% Dutch and 16.5% Norwegian ancestry. There were 3,843 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.10% were married couples living together, 5.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.60% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.01. The county population contained 26.30% under the age of 18, 7.20% from 18 to 24, 24.10% from 25 to 44, 22.00% from 45 to 64, 20.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 97.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,102, the median income for a family was $44,296. Males had a median income of $28,776 versus $22,166 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,411. About 5.50% of families and 8.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.10% of those under age 18 and 8.90% of those age 65 or over. Ash Creek Kanaranzi Manley Bruce Carnegie Much of the second season of Fargo is set in Luverne and Rock County. Like all counties in Minnesota, Rock is governed by an elected and nonpartisan board of commissioners; each of the five commissioners represents a fifth of the county's population.
Commissioners as of January 24, 2018: Rock County voters have traditionally voted Republican. In no national election since 1964 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Rock County, Minnesota Rock County government website The Rock County Star Herald newspaper website
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Split Rock Creek State Park
Split Rock Creek State Park is a state park of Minnesota, USA, located in Ihlen, or just south of Pipestone. The Works Progress Administration built a dam in 1938 to create a lake, which provided an opportunity for water recreation in an area of the state with few natural lakes; the dam was constructed of Sioux Quartzite, a hard red rock found in the area. A nearby bridge, Split Rock Creek Bridge, was built by the WPA of Sioux quartzite in 1938; the bridge carries County Road 54 over the creek. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the Minnesota Masonry-Arch Highway Bridges MPS. Split Rock Creek State Park
Catlinite is a type of argillite brownish-red in color, which occurs in a matrix of Sioux Quartzite. Because it is fine-grained and worked, it is prized by Native Americans those of the Plains nations for use in making ceremonial pipes such as chanunpas. Pipestone quarries are located and preserved in Pipestone National Monument outside Pipestone, Minnesota, in Pipestone County, at the Pipestone River in Ontario, Canada; the term Catlinite came into use after the American painter George Catlin visited the quarries in Minnesota in 1835. Minnesota catlinite is buttery smooth and can be cut with a regular hacksaw or a knife, it comes out of the ground a pinkish color with a cream layer protecting it from the hard quartzite. It is more subject to breaking under stress than Utah pipestone. Most catlinite deposits exist beneath the level of groundwater or are in deep enough layers where the soil is moist as the iron compounds which give catlinite its red color convert into iron oxides when exposed to the elements and the stone degrades and breaks down.
The red catlinite from the Pipestone, Minnesota quarries is a soft claystone bed which occurs between layers of hard Sioux Quartzite. Only hand tools are used to reach the catlinite. Only enrolled Native Americans are allowed to quarry for the stone at the Pipestone National Monument, thus it is protected from over-mining. Another quarry is located near Hayward, Wisconsin on the reservation, which the Ojibwa have used for centuries; the stone there is harder than the stone from Pipestone National Monument. Utah pipestone has a more variable range of hard and soft forms, since it occurs as layers between deposits of harder slates. Utah pipestone is a by-product of slate mining in Delta and several natural deposits have been mined and used for pipemaking by Native Americans in the area for millennia; the Canadian quarry is no longer used, although there are quarries in Canada where another type of pipestone, black stone, is gleaned. The Ojibwe use both the black stone for their sacred pipes. Catlinite is used to make the hollow tubes in pipeclay triangles.
A large range of pipestones exist, not just those in Minnesota, numerous Native American tribes use a variety of materials in addition to catlinite for pipemaking. Smoking pipes molded from wet clay are different from those where the bowl is carved from solid pipestone and fitted with a wooden stem; the Eastern Band Cherokee are social smokers, use molded clay pipes for this purpose. In the United Kingdom, since the 17th century "pipe-clay" has meant a whitish clay; the Oxford English Dictionary defines it as "fine white kind of clay, which forms a ductile paste with water". It is traditionally used for all sorts of polishing and whitening purposes as well as for making tobacco pipes and pottery. Sigstad, John S. "A Field Test for Catlinite". American Antiquity 35:3. Pp. 377–382. Mississippi Valley Archaeology Center at the University of Wisconsin - La Crosse: Describes the process of making pipes from Catlinite Pipestone Artifacts from Upper Mississippi Valley Sites by J. T. Penman and J. N. Gundersen in the Plains Anthropologist