In architecture, a cupola /ˈkjuːpələ/ is a small, most often dome-like, structure on top of a building. Often used to provide a lookout or to light and air. The word derives, via Italian, from the lower Latin cupula small cup indicating a vault resembling an upside down cup. The cupola is a development during the Renaissance of the oculus, an ancient device found in Roman architecture, the chhatri, seen in Indian architecture, fits the definition of a cupola when it is used atop a larger structure. Cupolas often appear as small buildings in their own right and they often serve as a belfry, belvedere, or roof lantern above a main roof. In other cases they may crown a spire, tower, or turret, barns often have cupolas for ventilation. The square, dome-like segment of a North American railroad train caboose that contains the second-level or angel seats is called a cupola. Some armored fighting vehicles have cupolas, called commanders cupola, which is a dome or cylinder with armored glass to provide 360-degree vision around the vehicle
Romanesque Architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the date of the Romanesque style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the late 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style, marked by pointed arches, examples of Romanesque architecture can be found across the continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman Architecture. The Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture, each building has clearly defined forms, frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan, the overall appearance is one of simplicity when compared with the Gothic buildings that were to follow. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics, Many castles were built during this period, but they are greatly outnumbered by churches. The most significant are the great churches, many of which are still standing, more or less complete.
The largest groups of Romanesque survivors are in areas that were less prosperous in subsequent periods, including parts of southern France, northern Spain and rural Italy. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word Romanesque means descended from Roman and was first used in English to designate what are now called Romance languages, Romance language is not degenerated Latin language. Latin language is degenerated Romance language, Romanesque architecture is not debased Roman architecture. Roman architecture is debased Romanesque architecture, the first use in a published work is in William Gunns An Inquiry into the Origin and Influence of Gothic Architecture. The term is now used for the more restricted period from the late 10th to 12th centuries, Many castles exist, the foundations of which date from the Romanesque period. Most have been altered, and many are in ruins. By far the greatest number of surviving Romanesque buildings are churches, the scope of Romanesque architecture Romanesque architecture was the first distinctive style to spread across Europe since the Roman Empire.
In the more northern countries Roman building styles and techniques had never been adopted except for official buildings, although the round arch continued in use, the engineering skills required to vault large spaces and build large domes were lost. There was a loss of continuity, particularly apparent in the decline of the formal vocabulary of the Classical Orders. In Rome several great Constantinian basilicas continued in use as an inspiration to builders, the largest building is the church, the plan of which is distinctly Germanic, having an apse at both ends, an arrangement not generally seen elsewhere. Another feature of the church is its regular proportion, the plan of the crossing tower providing a module for the rest of the plan. These features can both be seen at the Proto-Romanesque St. Michaels Church, Hildesheim, 1001–1030, the style, sometimes called First Romanesque or Lombard Romanesque, is characterised by thick walls, lack of sculpture and the presence of rhythmic ornamental arches known as a Lombard band
San Sisto, Pisa
San Sisto is a church in Pisa, Italy. It was consecrated in 1133 but previously it had already used as the seat of the most important notary act of the Pisan commune. It was built in a Pisane-Romanesque style in stone, the façade is divided in three parts divided by pilaster strips, with a mullioned window and arches in the upper part which continues on the whole exterior. Notable is the typical local decoration with Islamic ceramic basins from the 10th-11th centuries, the interior has a nave and two aisles, divided by columns with ancient Roman capitals, with hut-shaped ceiling. It houses an Arabic tombstone, the copy of a 14th-century Madonna with Child, page with detailed photo of the decoration
Pisa is a city in Tuscany, Central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its tower, the city of over 90,834 residents contains more than 20 other historic churches, several medieval palaces. Much of the architecture was financed from its history as one of the Italian maritime republics. The origin of the name, Pisa, is a mystery, while the origin of the city had remained unknown for centuries, the Pelasgi, the Greeks, the Etruscans, and the Ligurians had variously been proposed as founders of the city. Archaeological remains from the 5th century BC confirmed the existence of a city at the sea, trading with Greeks, the presence of an Etruscan necropolis, discovered during excavations in the Arena Garibaldi in 1991, confirmed its Etruscan origins. Ancient Roman authors referred to Pisa as an old city, strabo referred Pisas origins to the mythical Nestor, king of Pylos, after the fall of Troy.
Virgil, in his Aeneid, states that Pisa was already a center by the times described. The Virgilian commentator Servius wrote that the Teuti, or Pelops, the maritime role of Pisa should have been already prominent if the ancient authorities ascribed to it the invention of the naval ram. Pisa took advantage of being the port along the western coast from Genoa to Ostia. Pisa served as a base for Roman naval expeditions against Ligurians, Gauls, in 180 BC, it became a Roman colony under Roman law, as Portus Pisanus. In 89 BC, Portus Pisanus became a municipium, Emperor Augustus fortified the colony into an important port and changed the name in Colonia Iulia obsequens. It is supposed that Pisa was founded on the shore, due to the alluvial sediments from the Arno and the Serchio, whose mouth lies about 11 kilometres north of the Arnos, the shore moved west. Strabo states that the city was 4.0 kilometres away from the coast, currently, it is located 9.7 kilometres from the coast. However it was a city, with ships sailing up the Arno.
In the 90s AD, a complex was built in the city. During the years of the Roman Empire, Pisa did not decline as much as the cities of Italy, probably thanks to the complexity of its river system. After Charlemagne had defeated the Lombards under the command of Desiderius in 774, Pisa went through a crisis, politically it became part of the duchy of Lucca
A Madonna is a representation of Mary, either alone or with her child Jesus. These images are central icons for both the Catholic and Orthodox churches, the word is from Italian ma donna, meaning my lady. Or descriptive of the posture, as in Hodegetria, Eleusa. The term Madonna in the sense of picture or statue of the Virgin Mary enters English usage in the 17th century, in an Eastern Orthodox context, such images are typically known as Theotokos. Madonna may be used of representations of Mary, with or without the infant Jesus, is the focus and central figure of the image. Other types of Marian imagery have a context, depicting scenes from the Life of the Virgin. The earliest depictions of Mary date still to Early Christianity, found in the Catacombs of Rome and these are in a narrative context. The Theotokos iconography as it developed in the 6th to 8th century rose to importance in the high medieval period both in the Eastern Orthodox and in the Latin spheres. Liturgy depicting Mary as powerful intercessor was brought from Greek into Latin tradition in the 8th century, the Greek title of Δεσποινα was adopted as Latin Domina Lady.
The medieval Italian Ma Donna pronounced reflects Mea Domina, while Nostra Domina was adopted in French and these names signal both the increased importance of the cult of the virgin and the prominence of art in service to Marian devotion during the late medieval period. Madonna was meant more to people of the theological concept which is placing such a high value on purity or virginity. This is represented by the color of her clothing, the color blue symbolized purity and royalty. In this sense, a Madonna, or a Madonna with Child is used of works of art. There are several types of representation of the Madonna. One type of Madonna shows Mary alone, and standing, generally glorified and with a gesture of prayer and this type of image occurs in a number of ancient apsidal mosaics. Full-length standing images of the Madonna more frequently include the infant Jesus, the most famous Byzantine image, the Hodegetria was originally of this type, though most copies are at half-length. There are a number of paintings that depict the Madonna in this manner.
The Madonna enthroned is a type of image that dates from the Byzantine period and was used widely in Medieval and these representations of the Madonna and Child often take the form of large altarpieces
San Martino (Pisa)
San Martino is a Roman Catholic church in Pisa, region of Tuscany, facing piazza San Martino, on the left bank of the Arno river. Documents from 1067 cite a church of San Martino in Guazzolongo and it was rebuilt in 1331, under the commission of Bonifacio Novello della Gherardesca, who wished to endow a convent a nuns of an Order of Saint Clare. From 1395, it was considered cappella del Santissimo Sacramento, the lower façade dates from this epoch, while the superior portion was not completed until 1610. The rectangular shape is typical of Franciscan order churches of its time, such as the churches of San Francesco. The remains of a bell-tower are visible, the polychrome ceramic baptismpal font is now found in the Museo Nazionale di San Matteo. The Marble facade has a copy of the bas relief of San Martino and the man attributed to Andrea Pisano. On the wall are stories of the virgin by Antonio Veneziano, the altars contain a number of prominent works of 17th century painters including Palma il Giovane, Orazio Riminaldi, Jacopo Ligozzi, il Domenico Passignano and dei Melani.
The church contains the monument of Marchese Francesco Del Testa by Giovanni Antonio Cybei with a portrait in marble relief
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture and its characteristics include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the cathedrals, abbeys. It is the architecture of many castles, town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings, for this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals and churches. A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th-century Europe and continued, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, the term Gothic architecture originated as a pejorative description. Hence, François Rabelais, of the 16th century, imagines an inscription over the door of his utopian Abbey of Thélème, Here enter no hypocrites, slipping in a slighting reference to Gotz and Ostrogotz.
Authorities such as Christopher Wren lent their aid in deprecating the old medieval style, the Company disapproved of several of these new manners, which are defective and which belong for the most part to the Gothic. Gothic architecture is the architecture of the medieval period, characterised by use of the pointed arch. As an architectural style, Gothic developed primarily in ecclesiastical architecture, the greatest number of surviving Gothic buildings are churches. The Gothic style is most particularly associated with the cathedrals of Northern France. At the end of the 12th century, Europe was divided into a multitude of city states, norway came under the influence of England, while the other Scandinavian countries and Poland were influenced by trading contacts with the Hanseatic League. Angevin kings brought the Gothic tradition from France to Southern Italy, throughout Europe at this time there was a rapid growth in trade and an associated growth in towns. Germany and the Lowlands had large flourishing towns that grew in comparative peace, in trade and competition with other, or united for mutual weal.
Civic building was of importance to these towns as a sign of wealth. England and France remained largely feudal and produced grand domestic architecture for their kings and bishops, the Catholic Church prevailed across Europe at this time, influencing not only faith but wealth and power. Bishops were appointed by the lords and they often ruled as virtual princes over large estates. The early Medieval periods had seen a growth in monasticism, with several different orders being prevalent. Foremost were the Benedictines whose great abbey churches vastly outnumbered any others in France, a part of their influence was that towns developed around them and they became centers of culture and commerce
Pisa Cathedral is a medieval Roman Catholic cathedral dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, in the Piazza dei Miracoli in Pisa, Italy. It is an example of Romanesque architecture, in particular the style known as Pisan Romanesque. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Pisa, construction on the cathedral began in 1063 by the architect Buscheto, and expenses were paid using the spoils received fighting against the Muslims in Sicily in 1063. It includes various elements, Lombard-Emilian, Byzantine. Marks Basilica began its reconstruction in Venice, evidence of a rivalry between the two maritime republics to see which could create the most beautiful and luxurious place of worship. The church was erected outside Pisas high middle age-era walls, to show that Pisa that was so powerful, it had no fear of being attacked. The chosen area had already used in the Lombard era as a necropolis and at the beginning of the 11th century a church had been erected here, but never finished. Buschetos grand new church, was initially called Santa Maria Maggiore until it was officially named Santa Maria Assunta, in 1092 the cathedral was declared a primatial church, archbishop Dagobert having been given the title of Primate by Pope Urban II.
The cathedral was consecrated in 1118 by Pope Gelasius II, who belonged to the Caetani family which was both in Pisa and in Rome. The exact date of the work is unclear, according to some the work was done right after the death of Buscheto about the year 1100, though others say it was done closer to 1140. In any case, work was finished in 1180, as documented by the date written on the bronze knockers made by Bonanno Pisano found on the main door, the structures present appearance is the result of numerous restoration campaigns that were carried out in different eras. In the early 18th century began the redecoration of the walls of the cathedral with large paintings. These works were made by the artists of the era. The presence of two raised matronea in the nave, with their solid, monolithic columns of granite, is a sign of Byzantine influence. Buscheto welcomed Islamic and Armenian influence, in the early 19th century the original sculpture, which can now be seen in the cathedral museum, was removed from the roof and replaced with a copy.
The high arches show Islamic and southern Italian influence, the blind arches with lozenge shapes recall similar structures in Armenia. The facade of grey and white marble, decorated with colored marble inserts, was built by Master Rainaldo, above the three doorways are four levels of loggia divided by cornices with marble intarsia, behind which open single and triple windows. The heavy bronze doors of the facade were made by different Florentine artists in the 17th century
Pulpit is a raised stand for preachers in a Christian church. The origin of the word is the Latin pulpitum, the traditional pulpit is raised well above the surrounding floor for audibility and visibility, accessed by steps, with sides coming to about waist height. From the late medieval period onwards, pulpits have often had a known as the sounding board or abat-voix above and sometimes behind the speaker. Though sometimes highly decorated, this is not purely decorative, most pulpits have one or more book-stands for the preacher to rest his or her bible, notes or texts upon. The pulpit is generally reserved for clergy and this is mandated in the regulations of the Roman Catholic church, and several others. Even in Welsh Nonconformism, this was appropriate, and in some chapels a second pulpit was built opposite the main one for lay exhortations, testimonials. Many churches have a second, smaller stand called the lectern, which can be used by lay persons, equivalent platforms for speakers are the bema of Ancient Greece and Jewish synagogues, and the minbar of Islamic mosques.
From the pulpit is often used metaphorically for something which is said with official church authority, in many Christian churches, there are two speakers stands at the front of the church. Often, the one on the left is called the pulpit, since the Gospel lesson is often read from the pulpit, the pulpit side of the church is sometimes called the gospel side. In both Catholic and Protestant churches the pulpit may be located closer to the congregation in the nave, either on the nave side of the crossing. This is especially the case in churches, to ensure the preacher can be heard by all the congregation. Fixed seating for the congregation came relatively late in the history of church architecture, fixed seating facing forward in the nave and modern electric amplification has tended to reduce the use of pulpits in the middle of the nave. Outdoor pulpits, usually attached to the exterior of the church, if attached to the outside wall of a church, these may be entered from a doorway in the wall, or by steps outside.
The other speakers stand, usually on the right, is known as the lectern, the word lectern comes from the Latin word lectus, past participle of legere, meaning to read, because the lectern primarily functions as a reading stand. It is typically used by lay people to read the lessons, to lead the congregation in prayer. Because the epistle lesson is read from the lectern, the lectern side of the church is sometimes called the epistle side. In other churches, the lectern, from which the Epistle is read, is located to the congregations left, though unusual, movable pulpits with wheels were found in English churches. A portable outside pulpit of wood and canvas was used by John Wesley, modern synagougue bemas are often similar in form to centrally-placed pulpits in Evangelical churches
Santi Jacopo e Filippo (Pisa)
Santi Jacopo e Filippo or Santi Iacopo e Filippo is an ancient church found in Via San Michele degli Scalzi in Pisa, Italy. Documents exist as belonging to an Augustinian abbey by 1110, the Romanesque architecture includes a half-finished facade. Restored in the 17th and 18th century, the interior was frescoed by Francesco and his brother Giuseppe Melani with stories of the saints
Santa Caterina (Pisa)
Santa Caterina dAlessandria is a Gothic-style, Roman Catholic church in Pisa, region of Tuscany, Italy. It is mentioned for the first time in 1211, associated with a hospital, the current edifice was built between 1251 and 1300, commissioned by Saint Dominic himself, and entrusted to the friars of his order. The façade has a shape with white and grey marble, with, in the upper section. The interior, after a fire in 1651, is on a large hall. Also notable is the tomb of Gherardo Compagni, decorated with a late-16th century Pietà statue, the wooden pulpit from the 17th century, according to the tradition, was that from which St Thomas Acquinas preached. In 1320, Simone Martini executed for church the Saint Catherine of Alexandria Polyptych. The painting has moved to the San Matteo Museum in Pisa. The church is flanked by a tower with mullioned windows
Sant'Andrea Forisportam (Pisa)
SantAndrea Forisportam is a church building, now deconsecrated, in Pisa, Italy. A church on the site is documented as early as 1104, the church served as a parish church until 1839, under the jurisdiction of the church of San Pietro in Vinculis. In that year, it was deconsecrated and used as a fish-market, in 1847, it became the chapter of the Union of the Sacred Heart of Holy Mary for the Conversion of the Sinful. The church was damaged during World War II, and restored and reopened to the public in 1948. It is not longer consecrated, and is used for performances as site of Teatro SantAndrea. The simple structure consists of a nave with two lesser flanking ones. The font is a copy of the original Islamic ceramic from the 11th century, the capitals on the internal columns were derived from ancient Roman originals