15th Expeditionary Mobility Task Force
The Fifteenth Expeditionary Mobility Task Force was one of two ETFs assigned to the United States Air Force Air Mobility Command and was headquartered at Travis Air Force Base, California. The 15 ETF was deactivated on 20 March 2012 and its functions and responsibilities assumed by Eighteenth Air Force.15 ETF provided strategic and theater airlift for all United States Department of Defense agencies as well as air refueling for the Air Force in both peace and wartime. Primary aircraft assigned to its units were the C-5 Galaxy, C-9 Nightingale, C-17 Globemaster III, C-21, C-130 Hercules, KC-10 Extender, KC-135 Stratotanker. Established on 1 November 1943, Fifteenth AF was a United States Army Air Forces combat air force deployed to the European Theater of World War II, engaging in strategic bombardment operations from bases in southern Italy and engaging in air-to-air fighter combat against enemy aircraft. During the Cold War, 15 AF was one of three Numbered Air Forces of the United States Air Force Strategic Air Command, commanding USAF strategic bombers and missiles on a global scale.
Elements of 15th Air Force engaged in combat operations during the Korean War. 15 ETF was a redesignation of Fifteenth Air Force, effective 1 October 2003. Fifteenth Air Force was established on 1 November 1943 in Tunis, Tunisia as part of the United States Army Air Forces in the World War II Mediterranean Theater of Operations as a strategic air force and commenced combat operations the day after it was formed; the first commander was General Jimmy Doolittle. 15th AF resulted from a reorganization of Doolittle's Twelfth Air Force into the 15th with Doolittle in command, the Ninth Air Force with Lewis H. Brereton in command; the new air force was activated with a strength of ninety B-24 Liberators and 210 B-17 Flying Fortresses, inherited from the Twelfth Air Force and Ninth Air Force. In December, new groups, most of which were equipped with B-24s soon started arriving from the United States. 13 new groups were added. It was hoped that the 15th AF — stationed in the Mediterranean — would be able to operate when the Eighth Air Force in England was socked in by bad English weather.
The 9th AF would move to England to serve as a tactical unit to take part in the invasion of Europe. Once bases around Foggia in Italy became available, the 15th was able to reach targets in southern France, Poland and the Balkans, some of which were difficult to reach from England. 5th Bombardment Wing "Y" Tail CodeTransferred from: Twelfth Air Force Headquartered: Foggia, Italy, 13 December 1943 – 2 November 1945 Airfields: Amendola Airfield, Celone Airfield, Cerignola Airfield, Lucera Airfield, Maricianise, Torotella 47th Bombardment Wing "The Pyramidiers" "Triangle" Tail CodeTransferred from Ninth Air Force Headquartered: Manduria, Italy, 11 November 1943 – May 1945 Airfields: Brindisi, Lecce, San Pancrazio 49th Bombardment Wing "Red Tail"Transferred from Greenville AAB, South Carolina 6 April 1944 Headquartered: Bari Airfield, Italy, 6 April 1944 – 16 October 1945 Airfields: Gioia del Colle, San Pancrazio, Torretta 55th Bombardment Wing "Yellow/Black Tail"Transferred from: MacDill Field, Florida Headquartered: Taranto, March 1944 – July 1945 Airfields: Gioia, Spinazzola Airfield, Venosa Airfield 304th Bombardment Wing "Black Diamond"Activated in Italy Headquartered: Cerignola Airfield, Italy, 29 December 1943 – September 1945 Airfields: Giulia Airfield, San Giovanni Airfield 305th Fighter Wing Transferred from Twelfth Air Force, 1943 Headquartered: Airfields: Gioia del Colle Airfield, Salosa, Triolo Airfield, Vincenzo Airfield 306th Fighter Wing Activated in Italy Headquartered: Airfields: Capodichino, Madna Airfield, Montecorvino, Ramitelli, Vincenzo Airfield.* Sent to Aghione, Corsica from 10–21 August 1944 for Operation DRAGOON 15th Special Group Reported directly to Fifteenth Air Force Assigned to 15th Air Force in June 1944 Stationed at Brindisi Re-designated 2641st Special Group 859th BS flew Carpetbagger operations out of England until September 1944 before being moved to MTO 885th BS was known as 122nd BS assigned to 68th Reconnaissance Group operating B-17s in the MTO.
Assigned to the 15th Special Group in January 1945.305th Bombardment WingActivated in Italy, 29 December 1943, No units assigned until 13 June 1945 Headquarters: Torremaggiore, December 1944 – September 1945 The 15th Air Force began its operations on 2 November 1943, attacking the Messerschmitt factory at Wiener Neustadt, Austria. On 1 December 1943, the Headquarters was moved to Italy. On 4 January 1944, the Fifteenth, along with Twelfth Air Force, were organized into Mediterranean Allied Air Forces, along with the Royal Air Force 205 Group. MAAF was the southern component of U. S. Strategic Air Forces, the overall USAAF command and control organization in Europe; the first major operation carried out by Fifteenth Air Force was bombing missions in support of the Anzio Landings in Italy, Operation Shingle beginning on 22 January 1944
Paris Orly Airport referred to as Orly, is an international airport located in Orly and in Villeneuve-le-Roi, 7 NM south of Paris, France. It serves as a secondary hub for domestic and overseas territories flights of Air France and as the homebase for Transavia France. Flights operate to destinations in Europe, the Middle East, the Caribbean, North America, East Asia and Southeast Asia. Prior to the opening of Charles de Gaulle Airport in March 1974, Orly was the main airport of Paris. With the shift of most international traffic to Charles de Gaulle Airport, Orly remains the busiest French airport for domestic traffic and the second busiest French airport overall in passenger traffic, with 33,120,685 passengers in 2018; the airport is operated by Groupe ADP under the brand Paris Aéroport. Since February 2018, the CEO of the airport has been Régis Lacote. Orly Airport covers 15.3 square kilometres of land. The airport area, including terminals and runways, spans over two départements and seven communes: Essonne département: communes of Paray-Vieille-Poste, Athis-Mons, Chilly-Mazarin, Morangis.
Management of the airport, however, is under the authority of Aéroports de Paris, which manages Charles de Gaulle Airport, Le Bourget Airport, several smaller airports in the suburbs of Paris. Known as Villeneuve-Orly Airport, the facility was opened in the southern suburbs of Paris in 1932 as a secondary airport to Le Bourget. Before this two huge airship hangars had been built there by the engineer Eugène Freyssinet from 1923 on; as a result of the Battle of France in 1940, Orly Airport was used by the occupying German Luftwaffe as a combat airfield, stationing various fighter and bomber units at the airport throughout the occupation. As a result, Orly was attacked by the Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Forces, destroying much of its infrastructure, leaving its runways with numerous bomb craters to limit its usefulness to the Germans. After the Battle of Normandy and the retreat of German forces from the Paris area in August 1944, Orly was repaired by USAAF combat engineers and was used by Ninth Air Force as tactical airfield A-47.
The 50th Fighter Group flew P-47 Thunderbolt fighter-bomber aircraft from the airport until September liaison squadrons used the airfield until October 1945. The USAAF diagram from March 1947 shows the 6140-foot 27/207 runway with 5170-foot 81/261 runway crossing it at its north end; the November 1953 Aeradio diagram shows four concrete runways, all 197 feet wide: 03L 7874 ft, 03R 6069 ft, 08L 5118 ft and 08R 6627 ft. The American United States Army Air Forces 1408th Army Air Force Base Unit was the primary operator at Orly Field until March 1947 when control was returned to the French Government.. The Americans left in 1967 as a result of France's withdrawal from NATO's integrated military command, all non-French NATO forces were asked to leave France. In May 1958 Pan Am Douglas DC-7Cs flew to Los Angeles in 21 hr 56 min. Air France flew to Tokyo in 31 hr 5 min via Anchorage or 44 hr 45 min on a seven-stop Lockheed Constellation via India. Air France's ten flights a day to London were all Vickers Viscounts.
A development project voted in 2012 planned to merge the airport's south and west terminals with the construction of an 80,000 m2 building to create one great terminal. On 14 April 2016, the Groupe ADP rolled out the Connect 2020 corporate strategy and the commercial brand Paris Aéroport was applied to all Parisian airports, including the Orly airport. Paris-Orly Airport features two separate passenger terminal buildings, Terminal 4 and Terminals 1 and 2: On 19 March 2019, Terminal Ouest became Terminals 1 and 2, Terminal Sud became Terminal 4. A new junction building, to be known as Terminal 3, will be opened on 16 April 2019; the western terminal has a different layout than Terminal Sud, consisting of two floors and a gate area of four "fingers" rather than a brick-style layout. The ground level 0 features the arrivals facilities including 8 baggage reclaim belts as well as several service facilities and shops; the departures area is located on level 1 with more restaurants located here. This central departures area is connected to four gate areas named halls 1-4 which contain departure gates 10A-10P, 20A-20L, 31A-31F and 40A-40G respectively.
23 stands at this terminal are equipped with jet-bridges, with several of them able to handle wide-body aircraft. The innovative 1961 steel-and-glass southern terminal building consists of six floors. While the smaller basement level -1 as well as the upper levels 2, 3 and 4 contain only some service facilities and office space, level 0 features the arrivals facilities as well as several shops and service counters; the airside area and departure gates are located on the upper level 1. The waiting area, which features several shops as well, houses gates A1-A10 and A40-A42 and is furthermore connected to the gate areas Hall A and Hall B to each side of the building. 15 of the terminal's departure gates are equipped with jet-bridges, some of them are able to handle wide-body aircraft. AOM French Airlines had
Berlin Tegel Airport
Berlin Tegel "Otto Lilienthal" Airport is the main international airport of Berlin, the federal capital of Germany. It served West Berlin; the airport is named after Otto Lilienthal and is the fourth busiest airport in Germany, with 20.5 million passengers in 2017 and about 22 million in 2018. The airport is a hub for Eurowings as well as a base for EasyJet, it features flights to several European metropolitan and leisure destinations as well as some intercontinental routes. It is situated in Tegel, a section of the northern borough of Reinickendorf, 8 km northwest of the city centre of Berlin. Tegel Airport is notable for its hexagonal main terminal building around an open square, which makes walking distances as short as 30 m from the aircraft to the terminal exit; the area of today's airport was part of Jungfernheide forest, which served as a hunting ground for the Prussian nobility. During the 19th century, it was used as an artillery firing range. Aviation history dates back to the early 20th century, when the Royal Prussian Airship battalion was based there and the area became known as Luftschiffhafen Reinickendorf.
In 1906, a hangar was built for testing of Parseval type airships. Soon after the outbreak of World War I, on 20 August 1914, the area was dedicated to military training of aerial reconnaissance crews. Following the war, all aviation industry was removed as a consequence of the Treaty of Versailles, which prohibited Germany from having any armed aircraft. On 27 September 1930, Rudolf Nebel launched an experimental rocket testing and research facility on the site, it became known as Raketenschießplatz Tegel and attracted a small group of eminent aerospace engineers, which included German rocket pioneer Wernher von Braun. In 1937, the rocket pioneers left Tegel in favour of the secret Peenemünde army research centre. During World War II, the area served once again as a military training area for Flak troops, it was destroyed in Allied air raids. Plans for converting the area into allotment gardens were shelved due to the Berlin Blockade, which began on 24 June 1948. In the ensuing US-led Berlin Airlift, it turned out that Berlin's existing main airport at Tempelhof was not big enough to accommodate all relief aircraft.
As a consequence, the French military authorities in charge of Tegel at that time ordered the construction of a 2,428 m long runway, the longest in Europe at the time, as well as provisional airport buildings and basic infrastructure. Groundbreaking took place on 5 August 1948, only 90 days on 5 November, a United States Air Force Douglas C-54 Skymaster became the first aircraft to land at the new airport; the United States Air Forces in Europe commander-in-chief, General Cannon, the chief-of-staff of the Anglo-American airlift, General Tunner, arrived at Tegel on this aircraft. British Dakota and Hastings aircraft carrying essential goods and raw materials began using Tegel on a regular basis from 17 November 1948. Regular cargo flights with American C-54s followed from 14 December 1948; the former carried food and fuel while the latter were loaded with coal. December 1948 saw three Armée de l'Air Junkers Ju 52/3m transport planes participating in the airlift for the first time. However, the Armée de l'Air contributed to the overall airlift effort in a small and symbolic way only.
As a result of committing the small French transport fleet to the growing war effort in Indochina, as well as the joint Anglo-American decision to employ only four-engined planes for the remainder of the airlift to increase the number of flights and the amount of cargo carried on each flight by taking advantage of those aircraft's higher speeds and greater capacities, the French participation ceased. Following the end of the Berlin Airlift in May 1949, Tegel became the Berlin base of the Armée de l'Air leading to the establishment of base 165 at Berlin Tegel on 1 August 1964. In the late 1950s, the runways at West Berlin's city centre Tempelhof Airport had become too short to accommodate the new-generation jet aircraft such as the Aérospatiale Caravelle, Boeing 707, de Havilland Comet, Douglas DC-8, without imposing payload or range restrictions that made commercial operations unviable. West Berlin's special legal status during the Cold War era meant that all air traffic through the Allied air corridors linking the exclave with West Germany was restricted to airlines headquartered in the United States, the United Kingdom, or France – three of the four victorious powers of World War II.
In addition, all flightdeck crew flying aircraft into and out of West Berlin were required to hold American, British, or French passports. During that period, the majority of Tegel's regular commercial flights served West German domestic routes, hub airports in Frankfurt, Paris, points in the United States, popular holiday resorts in the Mediterranean and Canary Islands. All commercial flights used the original terminal building, situated to the North of the runway, at what is today the military part of the airport. In 1988, Berlin Tegel was named after German aviation pioneer Otto Lilienthal. Air France was the first airline to commence regular commercial operations at Tegel on 2 January 1960. On that day, Air France, which had served Düsseldorf, Munich and its main base at Paris Le Bourget/Orly during the previous decade from Tempelhof with Douglas DC-4, Sud-Est Languedoc, Lo
East Midlands Airport
East Midlands Airport is an international airport in the East Midlands of England, close to Castle Donington, between Loughborough and Nottingham. East Midlands Airport has established itself as a hub for low-fare airlines such as Jet2.com and Ryanair and tour operators like TUI Airways, which serve a range of domestic and European short-haul destinations. It is a base for Flybe and Thomas Cook Airlines. Passenger numbers peaked in 2008 at 5.6 million but had declined to around 4.5 million in 2015, making it the 11th-busiest airport in the UK by passenger traffic. A major air cargo hub, it was the second-busiest UK airport for freight traffic in 2016, after London Heathrow; the airport is owned by the Manchester Airports Group, the largest British-owned airport operator, controlled by the ten metropolitan borough councils of Greater Manchester, with Manchester City Council retaining the controlling stake. The airport was a Royal Air Force station, RAF Castle Donington, decommissioned in 1946.
The site was purchased by a consortium of local government authorities in 1964, when a major programme of building work and runway investment was begun. The airfield was renamed East Midlands Airport to reflect the area it served, it opened for passengers in April 1965; until 1982, when the head office moved to Donington Hall, British Midland had its head office on the airport property. BMI had its maintenance base at the airport. Go Fly established a hub at East Midlands, the operation has been strengthened since the airline's absorption by easyJet; the majority of BMI operations were ceded to a new low-cost subsidiary, bmibaby, in 2002. In 2004 the airport was controversially renamed Nottingham East Midlands Airport; the name change, did not last long, on 8 December 2006 the airport's name was reverted to East Midlands Airport. A major development towards the long-haul programme came in 2005 with the introduction of holiday flights to the Dominican Republic and Cancún by First Choice Airways.
Following increasing overcrowding at the terminal building, the airport facilities were extended and remodelled. There are new short-stay car parks; the arrivals hall has been extended, a new transport interchange has been created and a new pier has been built to reduce across-tarmac walking to aircraft. EasyJet ceased operating from the airport on 5 January 2010. However, it was announced on 13 April 2011 that Bmibaby would close its Manchester and Cardiff bases, moving an additional service to East Midlands Airport with increased frequencies and new routes for summer 2012, it was announced only just over a year on 3 May 2012, that Bmibaby would close down and cease all operations in September 2012, with a number of services being dropped from June. The parent company, International Airlines Group, cited heavy losses and the failure to find a suitable buyer as the reasons for the decision. In light of the announcement and Monarch Airlines announced they would establish a base at the airport, low-cost airline Jet2.com confirmed they would expand their operations from the airport, with new routes and an additional aircraft from summer 2013.
From 2015, the airport announced jet2.com would base a seventh aircraft at East Midlands Airport in the summer period. Monarch Airlines shut down its base at East Midlands as well by spring 2015. Ryanair expanded its East Midlands base with a series of new routes and frequency increases on existing routes, it now serves the airport with 9 based aircraft, 41 destinations, over 320 weekly flights and 2.3 million passengers a year, making it the largest airline at the airport, accounting for about 50% of passenger traffic, with East Midlands now being Ryanair's third-largest UK airport, after London–Stansted and Manchester, both now owned by MAG. In 2016 Heathrow handled 1.54 million tonnes of freight and mail, compared with 300,100 tonnes at East Midlands. DHL Aviation have a large purpose-built facility at EMA, courier companies United Parcel Service and TNT use the airport as a base to import and export freight. Since July 2013, TUI Airways operates with their Boeing 787 Dreamliner aircraft out of East Midlands, serving the long-haul holiday destinations of Sanford and Cancun.
There are return flights to Jamaica and Barbados, operated once per year to join cruises and holidays. The following airlines operate regular scheduled and charter flights to and from East Midlands Airport: The airport has excellent connections to the motorway network, as it is near the M1, M42 and A50, bringing the airfield within easy reach of the major population centres of the Midlands; the airport introduced a charge of £1 to drop car passengers near the departure lounge in 2010. In May 2016, the charge was doubled to £2, with any stay in the area above ten minutes being charged at £1 per minute. Drivers needing longer can stay free for one hour in the long-term carpark, a five-minute bus ride from the terminal; the short-term parking charges £ 3.50 for 30 minutes. The airport has no direct access to the Nottingham tram network; the nearest railway station is East Midlands Parkway, 4 miles away, with regular services to Leicester, Sheffield and London. The original shuttle bus service linking the station and the airport ceased not long after it was introduced, but in 2015 an hourly minibus service was re-introduced by Elite Cars, restoring scheduled shuttle services to and from the airport.
Connections to the airport via taxi are available. Although still in the initial planning stages, a prop
Aer Lingus is the flag carrier airline of Ireland and the second-largest airline in the country after Ryanair. Founded by the Irish government, it was privatised between 2006 and 2015 and it is now a wholly owned subsidiary of International Airlines Group, the parent company of British Airways and Iberia; the airline's head office is on the grounds of Dublin Airport in County Dublin, Ireland. Formed in 1936, Aer Lingus is a former member of the Oneworld airline alliance, which it left on 31 March 2007. After the takeover by IAG, it was expected that Aer Lingus would re-enter Oneworld, however, at a press briefing on 15 November 2017 the airline's CEO Stephen Kavanagh stated that the airline has "no plans to join Oneworld"; the airline has codeshares with Oneworld, Star Alliance and SkyTeam members, as well as interline agreements with Etihad Airways, JetBlue Airways and United Airlines. Aer Lingus has a hybrid business model, operating a mixed fare service on its European routes and full service, two-class flights on transatlantic routes.
Ryanair owned over 29% of Aer Lingus stock and the Irish state owned over 25% before being bought out by IAG in 2015. The state had held an 85% shareholding until the Government's decision to float the company on the Dublin and London stock exchanges on 2 October 2006; the principal group companies include Aer Lingus Limited, Aer Lingus Beachey Limited, Aer Lingus Limited and Dirnan Insurance Company Limited, all of which are wholly owned. On 26 May 2015, after months of negotiations on a possible IAG takeover, the Irish government agreed to sell its 25% stake in the company. Ryanair retained a 30% stake in Aer Lingus which it agreed to sell to IAG on 10 July 2015 for €2.55 per share. In August 2015, Aer Lingus' shareholders accepted IAG's takeover offer. IAG subsequently assumed control of Aer Lingus on 2 September 2015. Aer Lingus was founded on 15 April 1936, with a capital of £100,000, its first chairman was Seán Ó hUadhaigh. Pending legislation for Government investment through a parent company, Aer Lingus was associated with Blackpool and West Coast Air Services which advanced the money for the first aircraft, operated with Aer Lingus under the common title "Irish Sea Airways".
Aer Lingus Teoranta was registered as an airline on 22 May 1936. The name Aer Lingus was proposed by Richard F O'Connor, County Cork Surveyor, as well as an aviation enthusiast. On 27 May 1936, five days after being registered as an airline, its first service began between Baldonnel Airfield in Dublin and Bristol Airport, United Kingdom, using a six-seater de Havilland DH.84 Dragon biplane, named Iolar. That year, the airline acquired its second aircraft, a four-engined biplane de Havilland DH.86 Express named "Éire", with a capacity of 14 passengers. This aircraft provided the first air link between Dublin and London by extending the Bristol service to Croydon. At the same time, the DH.84 Dragon was used to inaugurate an Aer Lingus service on the Dublin-Liverpool route. The airline was established as the national carrier under the Air Transport Act. In 1937, the Irish government created Aer Rianta, a company to assume financial responsibility for the new airline and the entire country's civil aviation infrastructure.
In April 1937, Aer Lingus became wholly owned by the Irish government via Aer Rianta. The airline's first General Manager was Dr J. F. Dempsey, a chartered accountant, who joined the company on secondment from Kennedy Crowley & Co as Company Secretary in 1936 and was appointed to the role of General Manager in 1937, he retired 30 years in 1967 at the age of 60. In 1938, a de Havilland DH.89 Dragon Rapide replaced Iolar, the company purchased a second DH.86B. Two Lockheed 14s arrived in Aer Lingus' first all-metal aircraft. In January 1940, a new airport opened in the Dublin suburb of Collinstown and Aer Lingus moved its operations there, it purchased a new DC-3 and inaugurated new services to Liverpool and an internal service to Shannon. The airline's services were curtailed during World War II with the sole route being to Liverpool or Barton Aerodrome Manchester depending on the fluctuating security situation. On 9 November 1945, regular services were resumed with an inaugural flight to London.
From this point Aer Lingus aircraft mostly Douglas DC-3s, were painted in a silver and green livery. The airline introduced its first flight attendants. In 1946, a new Anglo-Irish agreement gave Aer Lingus exclusive UK traffic rights from Ireland in exchange for a 40% holding by British Overseas Airways Corporation and British European Airways; because of Aer Lingus' growth the airline bought seven new Vickers Viking aircraft in 1947, these proved to be uneconomical and were soon sold. In 1947, Aerlínte Éireann came into existence with the purpose of operating transatlantic flights to New York City from Ireland; the airline ordered five new Lockheed L-749 Constellations, but a change of government and a financial crisis prevented the service from starting. John A Costello, the incoming Fine Gael Taoiseach, was not a keen supporter of air travel and thought that flying the Atlantic was too grandiose a scheme for a small airline from a small country like Ireland. During the late 1940s and early 1950s, Aer Lingus introduced routes to Brussels, Amsterdam via Manchester and to Rome.
Because of the expanding route structure the airline became one of the early purchasers of Vickers Viscount 700s in 1951, which were placed in service in April 1954. In 1952, the airline expanded its all-freight services and acquired a smal
Ryanair DAC is an Irish low-cost airline founded in 1984, headquartered in Swords, Ireland, with its primary operational bases at Dublin and London Stansted airports. It forms the largest part of the Ryanair Holdings family of airlines, has Ryanair UK, Ryanair Sun and Lauda as sister airlines. In 2016, Ryanair was the largest European budget airline by scheduled passengers flown, carried more international passengers than any other airline. Ryanair operates more than 400 Boeing 737-800 aircraft, with a single 737-700 used as a charter aircraft, but as a backup and for pilot training; the airline has been characterised by its rapid expansion, a result of the deregulation of the aviation industry in Europe in 1997 and the success of its low-cost business model. Ryanair's route network serves 37 countries in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East. Since its establishment in 1984, Ryanair has grown from a small airline, flying the short journey from Waterford to London Gatwick, into Europe's largest carrier.
Ryanair now has over 13,000 people working for the company. Most employees are contracted by multiple agencies to fly on Ryanair aircraft. Or, as is the case for pilots, the vast majority are either agency employed or self-employed, their services are contracted to Ryanair. After the growing airline went public in 1997, the money raised was used to expand the airline into a pan-European carrier. Revenues have risen from €231 million in 1998 to €1,843 million in 2003 and to €3,013 million in 2010. Net profits have increased from €48 million to €339 million over the same period. Ryanair was founded in 1984 as "Danren Enterprises" by Christopher Ryan, Liam Lonergan, Irish businessman Tony Ryan, founder of Guinness Peat Aviation; the airline was shortly thereafter renamed "Ryanair". It began operations in 1985 flying a 15-seat Embraer Bandeirante turboprop aircraft between Waterford and Gatwick Airport with the aim of breaking the duopoly on London-Ireland flights at that time held by British Airways and Aer Lingus.
In 1986, the company added a second route–flying Dublin to Luton, thus directly competing with the Aer Lingus/British Airways duopoly for the first time. Under partial EU deregulation, airlines could begin new international intra-EU services, as long as one of the two governments gave approval; the Irish government at the time refused its approval to protect Aer Lingus, but Britain–under Margaret Thatcher's deregulating Conservative government–approved the service. With two routes and two planes, the fledgling airline carried 82K passengers in one year. In 1986, the directors of Ryanair took an 85% stake in London European Airways. From 1987, this provided a connection with the Luton Ryanair service onward to Amsterdam and Brussels. In 1987, Ryan hired Michael O'Leary as his personal financial and tax advisor. In 1988, London European operated as Ryanair Europe and began to operate charter services. Ryanair passenger numbers continued to increase, but the airline ran at a loss and, by 1991, was in need of restructuring, including the closure of Ryanair Europe/London European.
O´Leary was charged with the task of making the airline profitable. O'Leary decided that the keys to profitability were low fares, quick turn-around times for aircraft, "no frills", no business class, operating a single model of aircraft. In 1989, a Short Sandringham was operated with Ryanair sponsorship titles but never flew revenue-generating services for the airline. O'Leary returned from a visit to U. S. Southwest Airlines convinced that Ryanair could make huge inroads into the European air market, at that time dominated by national carriers, which were subsidised to various degrees by their parent countries, he competed with the major airlines by providing a "no-frills", low-cost service. Flights were scheduled into regional airports, which offered lower landing and handling charges than larger established international airports. O'Leary as Chief Executive took part in a publicity stunt where he helped out with baggage handling on Ryanair flights at Dublin Airport. By 1995, after the consistent pursuit of its low-cost business model, Ryanair celebrated its 10th birthday by carrying 2.25 million passengers.
In 1992, the European Union's deregulation of the air industry in Europe gave carriers from one EU country the right to operate scheduled services between other EU states and represented a major opportunity for Ryanair. After a successful flotation on the Dublin Stock Exchange and the NASDAQ Stock exchanges, the airline launched services to Stockholm, Sandefjord Airport, Beauvais–Tillé and Charleroi near Brussels. In 1998, flush with new capital, the airline placed a massive US$2 billion order for 45 new Boeing 737-800 series aircraft; the airline launched its website in 2000, with online booking said to be a small and unimportant part of the software supporting the site. The online booking contributed to the aim of cutting flight prices by selling directly to passengers and excluding the costs imposed by travel agents. Within a year, the website was handling three-quarters of all bookings. Ryanair launched a new base of operation in Charleroi Airport in 2001; that year, the airline ordered 155 new 737-800 aircraft from Boeing at what was believed to be a substantial discount, to be delivered over eight years from 2002 to 2010.
100 of these aircraft had been delivered by the end of 2005, although there were slight delays in late 2005 caused by production disruptions arising from a Boeing machinists' strike. In April 2003, Ryanair acquired its ailing competitor Buzz from KLM. During 2004, Michael O'Leary warne
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo