The Roman Senate was a political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being established in the first days of the city of Rome, it survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC, the fall of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC, the division of the Roman Empire in 395 AD, the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, the barbarian rule of Rome in the 5th, 6th, 7th centuries. During the days of the kingdom, it was little more than an advisory council to the king; the last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, was overthrown following a coup d'état led by Lucius Junius Brutus, who founded the Roman Republic. During the early Republic, the Senate was politically weak, while the various executive magistrates were quite powerful. Since the transition from monarchy to constitutional rule was most gradual, it took several generations before the Senate was able to assert itself over the executive magistrates. By the middle Republic, the Senate had reached the apex of its republican power.
The late Republic saw a decline in the Senate's power, which began following the reforms of the tribunes Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus. After the transition of the Republic into the Principate, the Senate lost much of its political power as well as its prestige. Following the constitutional reforms of the Emperor Diocletian, the Senate became politically irrelevant; when the seat of government was transferred out of Rome, the Senate was reduced to a purely municipal body. This decline in status was reinforced when the emperor Constantine the Great created an additional senate in Constantinople. After Romulus Augustulus was deposed in 476 the Senate in the West functioned under the rule of Odovacer, 476–489 and during Ostrogothic rule, 489–535, it was restored after the reconquest of Italy by Justinian I. However, the Senate in Rome disappeared at some point after AD 603. Despite this, the title "senator" was still used well into the Middle Ages as a meaningless honorific. However, the Eastern Senate survived in Constantinople, until the ancient institution vanished there, c. 14th century.
The senate was a political institution in the ancient Roman Kingdom. The word senate derives from the Latin word senex, which means "old man"; the prehistoric Indo-Europeans who settled Italy in the centuries before the legendary founding of Rome in 753 BC were structured into tribal communities, these communities included an aristocratic board of tribal elders. The early Roman family was called a gens or "clan", each clan was an aggregation of families under a common living male patriarch, called a pater; when the early Roman gentes were aggregating to form a common community, the patres from the leading clans were selected for the confederated board of elders that would become the Roman senate. Over time, the patres came to recognize the need for a single leader, so they elected a king, vested in him their sovereign power; when the king died, that sovereign power reverted to the patres. The senate is said to have been created by Rome's first king, Romulus consisting of 100 men; the descendants of those 100 men subsequently became the patrician class.
Rome's fifth king, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, chose a further 100 senators. They were chosen from the minor leading families, were accordingly called the patres minorum gentium. Rome's seventh and final king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, executed many of the leading men in the senate, did not replace them, thereby diminishing their number. However, in 509 BC Rome's first and third consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus and Publius Valerius Publicola chose from amongst the leading equites new men for the senate, these being called conscripti, thus increased the size of the senate to 300; the senate of the Roman Kingdom held three principal responsibilities: It functioned as the ultimate repository for the executive power, it served as the king's council, it functioned as a legislative body in concert with the people of Rome. During the years of the monarchy, the senate's most important function was to elect new kings. While the king was nominally elected by the people, it was the senate who chose each new king.
The period between the death of one king and the election of a new king was called the interregnum, during which time the Interrex nominated a candidate to replace the king. After the senate gave its initial approval to the nominee, he was formally elected by the people, received the senate's final approval. At least one king, Servius Tullius, was elected by the senate alone, not by the people; the senate's most significant task, outside regal elections, was to function as the king's council, while the king could ignore any advice it offered, its growing prestige helped make the advice that it offered difficult to ignore. Only the king could make new laws, although he involved both the senate and the curiate assembly in the process; when the Republic began, the Senate functioned as an advisory council. It consisted of 300–500 senators, who were patrician and served for life. Before long, plebeians were admitted, although they were denied the senior magistracies for a longer period. Senators were entitled to wear a toga with a broad purple stripe, maroon shoes, an iron ring.
The Senate of the Roman Republic passed decrees called senatus consulta, which in form constituted "advice" from the senate to a magistrate. While these decrees did not hold legal force, they were obeyed in practice. If a senatus consultum conflicted with a
Gaius Musonius Rufus
Gaius Musonius Rufus was a Roman Stoic philosopher of the 1st century AD. He taught philosophy in Rome during the reign of Nero, as consequence of which he was sent into exile in 65 AD, only returning to Rome under Galba, he was allowed to stay in Rome when Vespasian banished all the other philosophers from the city in 71 AD, although he was banished anyway, only returning after Vespasian's death. A collection of extracts from his lectures still survives, he is remembered for being the teacher of Epictetus. The son of a Roman eques of the name of Capito, Musonius Rufus was born in Volsinii, Etruria about 20-30 AD. By the time of Nero, he was famous in Rome, where he taught Stoic philosophy, he was associated with the Stoic Opposition against the perceived tyranny of Nero. He followed Rubellius Plautus into exile, he returned to Rome after Plautus' death, but as a consequence of his practising and teaching Stoicism, he became an object of suspicion and dislike at Nero's court, was accordingly banished to the island of Gyarus on a trumped-up charge of participation in the Pisonian conspiracy.
He returned under Galba. When Marcus Antonius Primus, the general of Vespasian, was marching upon Rome, he joined the ambassadors that were sent by Vitellius to the victorious general, going among the soldiers of the latter, preached about the blessings of peace and the dangers of war, but was soon made to stop; when the party of Vitellius gained the upper hand, Musonius was able to accuse, obtain the conviction of, Publius Egnatius Celer, the Stoic philosopher who had condemned Barea Soranus. It was about this time that Musonius taught Epictetus, his most famous student. So was Musonius esteemed in Rome that Vespasian allowed him to remain in Rome when the other philosophers were banished from the city, but he was exiled anyway, only returning after Vespasian's death; as to his death, we know only that he was dead by 101 AD, when Pliny speaks of his son-in-law Artemidorus. The Suda states that there are "speeches about philosophy bearing his name," and mentions letters to Apollonius of Tyana.
The letters that survive are not authentic. It is unknown, his philosophical opinions were collected by two of his students. One collection of Discourses, by a certain Lucius, form the basis of the 21 lengthy extracts preserved by Stobaeus. A second collection was compiled by one Pollio; the titles of the 21 discourses are as follows: That There is No Need of Giving Many Proofs for One Problem That Man is Born with an Inclination Toward Virtue That Women Too Should Study Philosophy Should Daughters Receive the Same Education as Sons? Which is more Effective, Theory or Practice? On Training That One Should Disdain Hardships That Kings Also Should Study Philosophy That Exile is not an Evil Will the Philosopher Prosecute Anyone for Personal Injury? What means of Livelihood is Appropriate for a Philosopher? On Sexual Indulgence What is the Chief End of Marriage Is Marriage a Handicap for the Pursuit of Philosophy? Should Every Child, Born be Raised? Must One Obey One's Parents under all Circumstances?
What is the Best Viaticum for Old Age? On Food On Clothing and Shelter On Furnishings On Cutting the Hair His philosophy, in many respects identical with that of his pupil, Epictetus, is marked by its strong practical tendency; the philosophy he would have everyone cultivate is not a mere matter of words, of instruction, or of the school. Still, he considers it becoming in a philosopher to wear the philosopher's robe, to allow the hair to grow, to retire from general society. At the same time he is convinced of the power of philosophy over the minds of people, his philosophy consists of the rules for the conduct of life. He does not reject logic: he regards it as a proof of a weak mind to decline to examine the fallacy which perplexes it, he gives only a little attention to the physical doctrines of the Stoics. The human soul he considers to be akin to the gods, agrees with other Stoics that the soul is material, which after being corrupted by bodily influence, may be again purified and cleansed.
He asserts the liberty of the rational soul. Musonius pays much more attention to ethics than physics, he requires that all people, both men and women, should cultivate philosophy as the only sure road to virtue. He agrees that it is easy to follow one's own nature, the only great impediment which he can find to a moral life is the prejudices with which the mind is filled from childhood, the evil habits confirmed by practices, thus he regards philosophy as the mental art of healing, lays great stress on the practice of virtue, preferring practice to precept. He distinguishes two kinds of practice: the exercise of the mind in reflection and the adoption of good rules in life, the endurance of bodily pains which affect both the soul and the body. A life lived according to nature consists in social
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Nero was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He became Claudius' heir and successor. Like Claudius, Nero became emperor with the consent of the Praetorian Guard. Nero's mother, Agrippina the Younger, was implicated in Claudius' death and Nero's nomination as emperor, she dominated Nero's early life and decisions. Five years into his reign, he had her murdered. During the early years of his reign, Nero was content to be guided by his mother, his tutor Lucius Annaeus Seneca and his Praetorian prefect, Sextus Afranius Burrus; as time passed, he started to play a more active and independent role in government and foreign policy. During his reign, the redoubtable general Corbulo conducted a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire, his general Suetonius Paulinus crushed a major revolt in Britain, led by the Iceni Queen Boudica. The Bosporan Kingdom was annexed to the empire, the First Jewish–Roman War began. Nero focused much of his attention on diplomacy and the cultural life of the empire, ordering theatres built and promoting athletic games.
He made public appearances as an actor, poet and charioteer. In the eyes of traditionalists, this undermined the dignity and authority of his person and office, his extravagant, empire-wide program of public and private works was funded by a rise in taxes, much resented by the middle and upper classes. Various plots against his life were revealed. In 68 AD Vindex, governor of the Gaulish territory Gallia Lugdunensis, rebelled, he was supported by the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis. Vindex's revolt failed in its immediate aim, but Nero fled Rome when Rome's discontented civil and military authorities chose Galba as emperor, he committed suicide on June 9, 68 AD, when he learned that he had been tried in absentia and condemned to death as a public enemy, making him the first Roman Emperor to commit suicide. His death ended the Julio-Claudian dynasty, sparking a brief period of civil wars known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Nero's rule is associated with tyranny and extravagance. Most Roman sources, such as Suetonius and Cassius Dio, offer overwhelmingly negative assessments of his personality and reign.
Suetonius tells that many Romans believed that the Great Fire of Rome was instigated by Nero to clear the way for his planned palatial complex, the Domus Aurea. According to Tacitus he was said to have seized Christians as scapegoats for the fire and burned them alive motivated not by public justice but by personal cruelty; some modern historians question the reliability of the ancient sources on Nero's tyrannical acts. A few sources paint Nero in a more favorable light. There is evidence of his popularity among the Roman commoners in the eastern provinces of the Empire, where a popular legend arose that Nero had not died and would return. At least three leaders of short-lived, failed rebellions presented themselves as "Nero reborn" to enlist popular support. Nero was born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus on 15 December 37 AD in Antium, he was the only son of Agrippina the Younger. His maternal grandparents were Agrippina the Elder, he was Augustus' great-great grandson, descended from the first Emperor's only daughter, Julia.
The ancient biographer Suetonius, critical of Nero's ancestors, wrote that Augustus had reproached Nero's grandfather for his unseemly enjoyment of violent gladiator games. According to Jürgen Malitz, Suetonius tells that Nero's father was known to be "irascible and brutal", that both "enjoyed chariot races and theater performances to a degree not befitting their position."Nero's father, died in 40. A few years before his death, Domitius had been involved in a political scandal that, according to Malitz, "could have cost him his life if Tiberius had not died in the year 37." In the previous year, Nero's mother Agrippina had been caught up in a scandal of her own. Caligula's beloved sister Drusilla had died and Caligula began to feel threatened by his brother-in-law Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Agrippina, suspected of adultery with her brother-in-law, was forced to carry the funerary urn after Lepidus' execution. Caligula banished his two surviving sisters and Julia Livilla, to a remote island in the Mediterranean Sea.
According to The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, Agrippina was exiled for plotting to overthrow Caligula. Nero's inheritance was taken from him and he was sent to live with his paternal aunt Domitia Lepida, the mother of Claudius' third wife Valeria Messalina. Caligula's reign lasted from 37 until 41, he died from multiple stab wounds in January of 41 after being ambushed by his own Praetorian Guard on the Palatine Hill. Claudius succeeded Caligula as Emperor. Agrippina became his fourth wife. By February 49, she had persuaded Claudius to adopt her son Nero. After Nero's adoption, "Claudius" became part of his name: Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus. Claudius had gold coins issued to mark the adoption. Classics professor Josiah Osgood has written that "the coins, through their distribution and imagery alike, showed that a new Leader was in the making." David Shotter noted that, despite events in Rome, Nero's step-brother Britannicus was more prominent in provincial coinages during the early 50s.
Nero formally entered public life as an adult in 51 AD—he was around 14 years old. When he turned 16, Nero married Claudius' daughter (
The term girdle, meaning "belt" refers to the liturgical attire that closes a cassock in many Christian denominations, including the Anglican Communion, Methodist Church and Lutheran Church. The girdle, in the 8th or 9th century, was said to resemble an ancient Levitical Jewish vestment, in that era, was not visible. In 800 AD, the girdle began to be worn by Christian deacons in the Eastern Church; the girdle, for men, symbolizes preparation and readiness to serve, for women, represents chastity and protection. For example, the hagiographical account of Saint George and the Dragon mentions the evildoer being tamed with the sign of the cross and a girdle handed to Saint George by a virgin. Since the 20th century, the word "girdle" has been used to define an undergarment made of elasticized fabric, worn by women, it is a form-fitting foundation garment that encircles the lower torso extending below the hips, worn to shape or for support. It may be worn for medical reasons. In sports or medical treatment, a girdle may be worn as a compression garment.
This form of women's foundation wear replaced the corset in popularity, was in turn to a large extent surpassed by the pantyhose in the 1960s. The men among the Greeks and Romans wore the girdle upon the loins, it served them to confine the tunic, hold the purse, instead of pockets, which were unknown; the Strophium, Taenia, or Mitra occurs in many figures. In the small bronze Pallas of the Villa Albani, in figures on the Hamilton Vases, are three cordons with a knot, detached from two ends of the girdle, fixed under the bosom; this girdle forms under the breast a knot of ribbon, sometimes in the form of a rose, as occur on the two handsomest daughters of Niobe. Upon the youngest the ends of the girdle pass over the shoulders, upon the back, as they do upon four Caryatides found at Monte Portio; this part of the dress the ancients called, at least in the time of Isidore, Succinctorium or Bracile. The girdle was omitted by both sexes in mourning; when the tunic was long, would otherwise be entangled by the feet, it was drawn over the girdle in such a way as to conceal the latter underneath its folds.
It is not uncommon to see two girdles of different widths worn together, one high up, the other low down, so as to form between the two in the tunic, a puckered interval. The tunic of the Greek males was always confined by a girdle. Girdles of iron, to prevent obesity, were worn by some of the Britons. From the Druidical eras the cure of diseases those of difficult parturition, were ascribed to wearing certain girdles. Among the Anglo-Saxons, it was used by both sexes. We find it richly embroidered, of white leather; the leather strap was chiefly worn by monks. As a Christian liturgical vestment, the girdle is a long, rope-like cord tied around the waist over the alb or cassock; the Parson's Handbook describes the girdle as being made "generally of white linen rope, may have a tassel at each end. About 12 ft. 6 in. Long is a convenient size if it is used double, one end being turned into a noose and the tasselled ends slipped through; the girdle, may be coloured." Christian monastics would hang religious texts, such as the Bible or Breviary, from their girdles and these became known as girdle books.
In addition, they would knot the ends of the girdle thrice, in order to represent the "vows of poverty and obedience." As such, within the Christian Church, the girdle, in some contexts, represents chastity and within the Hebrew Bible, "Proverbs 31 provides biblical reference to the ancient practice of girdle making by virtuous chaste women". In the New Testament, "Christ referred to the girdle as a symbol of preparation and readiness for service": Be dressed ready for service and keep your lamps burning, like servants waiting for their master to return from a wedding banquet, so that when he comes and knocks they can open the door for him, it will be good for those servants. I tell you, he will dress himself to serve, will have them recline at the table and will come and wait on them, it will be good for those servants whose master finds them ready if he comes in the middle of the night or toward daybreak. Saint Paul, in Ephesians 6:14 references the term, stating "Stand therefore, first fastening round you the girdle of truth and putting on the breastplate of uprightness", further buttressing the concept of the girdle as a symbol of readiness.
Many Christian clergy, such as Anglican priests and Methodist ministers, use the following prayer when wearing the girdle: Gird me, O Lord, with the girdle of purity, quench in me the fire of concupiscence that the grace of temperance and chastity may abide in me. By the 8th century AD, the girdle became established as a liturgical vestment "in the strict sense of the word." Although the general word "cincture" is sometimes used as a synonym for the girdle, liturgical manuals distinguish between the two, as the "girdle is a long cord or rope while the cincture is a wide sash. An alb is closed with a girdle, an Anglican-style double-breasted cassock is closed with a cincture, a Roman cassock is closed with either one." In the Vajrayana iconography of the Hevajra Tantra, the'girdle', one of the'Five Bone Ornaments' symbolizes Amoghasiddhi and the'accomplishing pristine awareness', one of the'Five Wisdoms'. The i