The French Revolution of 1830 known as the July Revolution, Second French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French, led to the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, the ascent of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would be overthrown in 1848. It marked the shift from one constitutional monarchy, under the restored House of Bourbon, to another, the July Monarchy. Supporters of the Bourbon would be called Legitimists, supporters of Louis Philippe Orléanists. Upon Napoleon's abdication in 1815, continental Europe, France in particular, was in a state of disarray; the Congress of Vienna met to redraw the continent's political map. Many European countries attended the Congress, but decision-making was controlled by four major powers: the United Kingdom, represented by its Foreign Secretary Viscount Castlereagh. France's foreign minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand attended the Congress. Although considered an enemy state, Talleyrand was allowed to attend the Congress because he claimed that he had only cooperated with Napoleon under duress.
He suggested that France be restored to her "legitimate" borders and governments—a plan that, with some changes, was accepted by the major powers. France was returned to its 1791 borders; the House of Bourbon, deposed by the Revolution, was restored to the throne in the person of Louis XVIII. The Congress, forced Louis to grant a constitution, La Charte constitutionnelle. On 16 September 1824, after a lingering illness of several months, the 68-year-old Louis XVIII died childless. Therefore, his younger brother, aged 66, inherited the throne of France. On 27 September Charles X made his state entry into Paris to popular acclaim. During the ceremony, while presenting the King the keys to the city, the comte de Chabrol, Prefect of the Seine, declared: "Proud to possess its new king, Paris can aspire to become the queen of cities by its magnificence, as its people aspire to be foremost in its fidelity, its devotion, its love."Eight months the mood of the capital had worsened in its opinion of the new king.
The causes of this dramatic shift in public opinion were many, but the main two were: The imposition of the death penalty for anyone profaning the Eucharist. The provisions for financial indemnities for properties confiscated by the 1789 Revolution and the First Empire of Napoleon—these indemnities to be paid to anyone, whether noble or non-noble, declared "enemies of the revolution."Critics of the first accused the king and his new ministry of pandering to the Catholic Church, by so doing violating guarantees of equality of religious belief as specified in La Charte. The second matter, that of financial indemnities, was far more opportunistic than the first; this was because, since the restoration of the monarchy, there had been demands from all groups to settle matters of property ownership: to reduce, if not eliminate, the uncertainties in the real estate market both in Paris and in the rest of France. But opponents, many of whom were frustrated Bonapartists, began a whispering campaign that Charles X was only proposing this in order to shame those who had not emigrated.
Both measures, they claimed, were nothing more than clever subterfuge meant to bring about the destruction of La Charte. Up to this time, thanks to the popularity of the constitution and the Chamber of Deputies with the people of Paris, the king's relationship with the élite—both of the Bourbon supporters and Bourbon opposition—had remained solid. This, was about to change. On 12 April, propelled by both genuine conviction and the spirit of independence, the Chamber of Deputies roundly rejected the government's proposal to change the inheritance laws; the popular newspaper Le Constitutionnel pronounced this refusal "a victory over the forces of counter-revolutionaries and reactionism."The popularity of both the Chamber of Peers and the Chamber of Deputies skyrocketed, the popularity of the king and his ministry dropped. This became unmistakable when on 16 April 1827, while reviewing the Garde Royale in the Champ de Mars, the king was greeted with icy silence, many of the spectators refusing to remove their hats.
Charles X "later told Orléans that,'although most people present were not too hostile, some looked at times with terrible expressions'."Because of what it perceived to be growing and vitriolic criticism of both the government and the Church, the government of Charles X introduced into the Chamber of Deputies a proposal for a law tightening censorship in regard to the newspapers. The Chamber, for its part, objected so violently that the humiliated government had no choice but to withdraw its proposals. On 17 March 1830, the majority in the Chamber of Deputies passed a motion of no confidence, the Address of the 221, against the king and Polignac's ministry; the following day, Charles dissolved parliament, alarmed the Bourbon opposition by delaying elections for two months. During this time, the liberals championed the "221" as popular heroes, whilst the government struggled to gain support across the country as prefects were shuffled around the departments of France; the elections that followed returned an overwhelming majority.
This came after another
A prefect in France is the State's representative in a department or region. Sub-prefects are responsible for the subdivisions of arrondissements; the office of a prefect is known as that of a sub-prefect as a subprefecture. Prefects are appointed by a decree of the President of the Republic in the Council of Ministers, following the proposal of the Prime Minister and the Minister of the Interior, they can be replaced at any meeting of the Council. From 1982 to 1988 prefects were called commissaires de la République and the sub-prefects commissaires adjoints de la République; the main role of the prefects are defined in article 72 of the Constitution of France: In the local governments of the Republic, the representative of the State, representing each member of the Government, is in charge of national interests, of administrative checks, the respect of Law. The exact role and attributions are defined in decrees, most notably decrees of 1964, 1982, 2004, each replacing the preceding one; the prefect of the département containing the chef-lieu de région is the préfet de région, or the prefect of the région.
Prefects operate under the Minister of the Interior. Their main missions include. Representing the state to local governments. Prefects may issue administrative orders in areas falling within the competency of the national government, including general safety. For instance, they may prohibit the use of certain roads without special tyres in times of snow; the prohibition on smoking or leaving the motor running while filling the fuel tank of a motor vehicle is another example of a matter decided by a prefectoral administrative order. On official occasions, prefects wear uniforms. Prefects had extensive powers of supervision and control over departmental affairs; this was true during the First and Second Empires, when the most trivial local matter had to be referred to the prefect. Since 1982, local government has been progressively decentralized, the prefect's role has been limited to preventing local policies from conflicting with national policy. In New Caledonia and French Polynesia, the prefect's roles, with certain differences in status, are fulfilled by a high commissioner.
The French Southern and Antarctic Lands used to be run by a superior administrator, but since 2004 are run by a prefect. The prefect, however, is not in Réunion. Paris, both a city and a department, is an exception. While it has a prefect, prefect of the Île-de-France region, another prefect handles law enforcement in Paris and some surrounding areas, as well many other administrative duties: the Prefect of Police of Paris. In Paris, the law enforcement powers exercised in other French cities and towns by the mayor belong to the Prefect of Police. In 2012, a Prefecture of Police of the Bouches-du-Rhône was created, seated at Marseille, with similar powers; the authority of the state over the sea is exercised by the Maritime Prefect of the relevant region. In Québec, a prefect is an unelected administrator of a Municipalité régionale de comté. There is no equivalent of French arrondissements, instead, the word "arrondissement" always refers to a submunicipal division with an elected leader. Decree of March 14, 1964, regarding the powers of prefects Decree of May 10, 1982, regarding the powers of prefects Decree of April 29, 2004, regarding the powers of prefects Prefect Prefectures in France
A composting toilet is a type of toilet that treats human excreta by a biological process called composting. This process turns human excreta into compost, it is carried out by microorganisms under controlled aerobic conditions. Most composting toilets use no water for flushing and are therefore "dry toilets". In many composting toilet designs, carbon additives such as sawdust, coconut coir, or peat moss is added after each use; this practice creates air pockets in the human excreta to promote aerobic decomposition. This improves the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and reduces potential odor. Most composting toilet systems rely on mesophilic composting. Longer retention time in the composting chamber facilitates pathogen die-off; the end product can be moved to a secondary system – another composting step – to allow more time for mesophilic composting to further reduce pathogens. Composting toilets, together with the secondary composting step, produce a humus-like endproduct that can be used to enrich soil if local regulations allow this.
Some composting toilets have urine diversion systems in the toilet bowl to collect the urine separately and control excess moisture. A "vermifilter toilet" is a composting toilet with flushing water where earthworms are used to promote decomposition to compost. Composting toilets do not require a connection to septic tanks or sewer systems unlike flush toilets. Common applications include national parks, remote holiday cottages, ecotourism resorts, off-grid homes and rural areas in developing countries; the term "composting toilet" is used quite loosely, its meaning varies by country. For example, in Germany and Scandinavian countries, composting always refers to a predominantly aerobic process; this aerobic composting may take place with an increase in temperature due to microbial action, or without a temperature increase in the case of slow composting or cold composting. If earth worms are used there is no increase in temperature. Composting toilets differ from pit latrines and arborloos, which use less controlled decomposition and may not protect groundwater from nutrient or pathogen contamination or provide optimal nutrient recycling.
They differ from urine-diverting dry toilets where pathogen reduction is achieved through dehydration and where the feces collection vault is kept as dry as possible. Composting toilets aim to have a certain degree of moisture in the composting chamber. Composting toilets can be used to implement an ecological sanitation approach for resource recovery, some people call their composting toilet designs "ecosan toilets" for that reason. However, this is not recommended. Composting toilets have been called "sawdust toilets", which can be appropriate if the amount of aerobic composting taking place in the toilet's container is limited; the "Clivus multrum" is a type of composting toilet which has a large composting chamber below the toilet seat and receives undigested organic material to increase the carbon to nitrogen ratio. Alternatives with smaller composting chambers are called "self-contained composting toilets" since the composting chamber is part of the toilet unit itself. Composting toilets can be suitable in areas such as a rural area or a park that lacks a suitable water supply and sewage treatment.
They can help increase the resilience of existing sanitation systems in the face of possible natural disasters such as climate change, earthquakes or tsunami. Composting toilets can reduce or eliminate the need for a septic tank system to reduce environmental footprint; these types of toilets can be used for resource recovery by reusing sanitized feces and urine as fertilizer and soil conditioner for gardening or ornamental activities. A composting toilet consists of two elements: a place to sit or squat and a collection/composting unit; the composting unit consists of four main parts: storage or composting chamber a ventilation unit to ensure that the degradation process in the toilet is predominantly aerobic and to vent odorous gases a leachate collection or urine diversion system to remove excess liquid an access door for extracting the compostMany composting toilets collect urine in the same chamber as feces, thus they do not divert urine. Adding small amounts of water, used for anal cleansing is no problem for the composting toilet to handle.
Some composting toilets divert urine to prevent the creation of anaerobic conditions that can result from over saturation of the compost, which leads to odors and vector problems. This requires all users to use the toilet in a seated position. Offering a waterless urinal in addition to the toilet can help keep excess amounts of urine out of the composting chamber. Alternatively, in rural areas and boys may be encouraged just to find a tree; the composting chamber can be constructed below ground level. It can include a separate superstructure. A drainage system removes leachate. Otherwise, excess moisture can impede decomposition. Urine diversion can improve compost quality, since urine contains large amounts of ammonia that inhibits microbiological activity. Composting toilets reduce human waste volumes through psychrophilic, thermophilic or mesophilic composting. Keeping the composting chamber insulated and warm protects the composting process from slowing due to low temperatures; the following gases may be emitted during the composting process that takes place in compostin
A toilet is a piece of hardware used for the collection or disposal of human urine and feces. In other words: "Toilets are sanitation facilities at the user interface that allow the safe and convenient urination and defecation". Toilets can be without flushing water, they can be set up for a squatting posture. Flush toilets are connected to a sewer system in urban areas and to septic tanks in less built-up areas. Dry toilets are connected to a pit, removable container, composting chamber, or other storage and treatment device. Toilets are made of ceramic, plastic, or wood. In private homes, the toilet, bath, or shower may be in the same room. Another option is to have one room for body washing and a separate room for the toilet and handwashing sink. Public toilets consist of one or more toilets. Portable toilets or chemical toilets may be brought in for temporary gatherings. Many poor households in developing countries use basic, unhygienic toilets, for example simple pit latrines and bucket toilets which are placed in outhouses.
Globally, nearly one billion people have no access to a toilet at all, are forced to do open defecation. Diseases transmitted via the fecal-oral route or via water, such as cholera and diarrhea, can be spread by open defecation, they can be spread by unsafe toilets which cause pollution of surface water or groundwater. Sanitation has been a concern from the earliest stages of human settlements; the Sustainable Development Goal Number 6 calls for "adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation by 2030". The number of different types of toilets used on a worldwide level is large. Toilet types can be grouped by: Having a water seal or not Being used in a sitting or squatting position Being located at a household level or in public People use different toilet types based on the country that they are in. In developing countries, access to toilets is related to people's socio-economic status. Poor people in low-income countries have no toilets at all and resort to open defecation instead.
This is part of the sanitation crisis which international initiatives such as World Toilet Day draw attention to. A typical flush toilet is a ceramic bowl connected on the "up" side to a cistern that enables rapid filling with water, on the "down" side to a drain pipe that removes the effluent; when a toilet is flushed, the sewage should flow into a septic tank or into a system connected to a sewage treatment plant. However, in many developing countries, this treatment step does not take place; the water in the toilet bowl is connected to a pipe shaped like an upside-down U. One side of the U channel is arranged as a siphon tube longer; the siphon tube connects to the drain. The bottom of the drain pipe limits the height of the water in the bowl before it flows down the drain; the water in the bowl acts as a barrier to sewer gas entering the building. Sewer gas escapes through a vent pipe attached to the sewer line; the amount of water used by conventional flush toilets makes up a significant portion of personal daily water usage.
However, modern low flush toilet designs allow the use of much less water per flush. Dual flush toilets allow the user to select between a flush for urine or feces, saving a significant amount of water over conventional units; the flush handle on these toilets is pushed up for one kind of flush and down for the other. Another design is to have one for urination and the other for defecation. In some places, users are encouraged not to flush after urination. Flushing toilets can be plumbed to use greywater rather than potable water; some modern toilets pressurize the water in the tank, which initiates flushing action with less water usage. Another variant is the pour-flush toilet; this type of flush toilet has no cistern but is flushed manually with a few liters of a small bucket. The flushing can use as little as 2–3 litres; this type of toilet is common in many Asian countries. The toilet can be connected to one or two pits, in which case it is called a "pour flush pit latrine" or a "twin pit pour flush to pit latrine".
It can be connected to a septic tank. Flush toilets on ships are flushed with seawater. "High-tech" toilets, which can be found in countries like Japan, include features such as automatic-flushing mechanisms. Others include medical monitoring features such as urine and stool analysis and the checking of blood pressure and blood sugar; some toilets have automatic lid operation, heated seats, deodorizing fans, or automated replacement of paper toilet-seat-covers. Interactive urinals have been developed in several countries; the "Toylet", produced by Sega, uses pressure sensors to detect the flow of urine and translates that into on-screen action. Astronauts on the International Space Station use a space toilet with urine diversion which can recover potable water. A vacuum toilet is a flush toilet that requires little flushing water and is connected to a vacuum sewer system. For example, they are used on trains. Many types of toilets without a water seal (also
A cistern is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids water. Cisterns are built to catch and store rainwater. Cisterns are distinguished from wells by their waterproof linings. Modern cisterns range in capacity from a few litres to thousands of cubic metres forming covered reservoirs. Waterproof lime plaster cisterns in the floors of houses are features of Neolithic village sites of the Levant at, for instance and Lebwe, by the late fourth millennium BC, as at Jawa in northeastern Lebanon, cisterns are essential elements of emerging water management techniques in dry-land farming communities. In the Middle Ages, cisterns were constructed in hill castles in Europe where wells could not be dug enough. There were two types: the filter cistern; such a filter cistern was built at the Riegersburg in Austrian Styria, where a cistern was hewn out of the lava rock. Rain water collected in the cistern; the filter enriched it with minerals. Cisterns are prevalent in areas where water is scarce, either because it is rare or has been depleted due to heavy use.
The water was used for many purposes including cooking and washing. Present-day cisterns are used only for irrigation due to concerns over water quality. Cisterns today can be outfitted with filters or other water purification methods when the water is intended for consumption, it is not uncommon for a cistern to be open in some manner in order to catch rain or to include more elaborate rainwater harvesting systems. It is important in these cases to have a system that does not leave the water open to algae or to mosquitoes, which are attracted to the water and potentially carry disease to nearby humans; some cisterns sit on the top of houses or on the ground higher than the house, supply the running water needs for the house. They are supplied not by rainwater harvesting, but by wells with electric pumps, or are filled manually or by truck delivery. Common throughout Brazil, for example, they were traditionally made of concrete walls, with a similar concrete top, with a piece that can be removed for water filling and reinserted to keep out debris and insects.
Modern cisterns are manufactured of plastic. These cisterns differ from water tanks in the sense that they are not enclosed and sealed with one form, rather they have a lid made of the same material as the cistern, removable by the user. To keep a clean water supply, the cistern must be kept clean, it is important to inspect them keep them well enclosed, to empty and clean them with a proper dilution of chlorine and to rinse them well. Well water must be inspected for contaminants coming from the ground source. City water has up to 1ppm chlorine added to the water to keep it clean, in many areas can be ordered to be delivered directly to the cistern by truck. If there is any question about the water supply at any point the cistern water should not be used for drinking or cooking. If it is of acceptable quality and consistency it can be used for toilets, housecleaning. Water of non-acceptable quality for the aforementioned uses may still be used for irrigation. If it is free of particulates but not low enough in bacteria boiling may be an effective method to prepare the water for drinking.
Many greenhouses rely on a cistern to help meet their water needs in the United States. Some countries or regions, such as Bermuda and the U. S. Virgin Islands, have strict laws requiring that rainwater harvesting systems be built alongside any new construction, cisterns can be used in these cases. Other countries, such as Japan and Spain offer financial incentives or tax credit for installing cisterns. Cisterns may be used to store water for firefighting in areas where there is an inadequate water supply; the city of San Francisco, maintains fire cisterns under its streets in case the primary water supply is disrupted. In many flat areas the use of cisterns is encouraged to absorb excess rainwater which otherwise can overload sewage or drainage systems by heavy rains. In some southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia showers are traditionally taken by pouring water over one's body with a dipper. Many bathrooms in modern houses are constructed with a small cistern to hold water for bathing by this method.
The modern water closet or toilet utilises a cistern to reserve and hold the correct amount of water required to flush the toilet bowl. In earlier toilets, the cistern was located high above the toilet bowl and connected to it by a long pipe, it was necessary to pull a hanging chain connected to a release valve located inside the cistern in order to flush the toilet. Modern toilets may be close coupled, with the cistern mounted directly on the toilet bowl and no intermediate pipe. In this arrangement, the flush mechanism is mounted on the cistern. Concealed cistern toilets, where the cistern is built into the wall behind the toilet, ar
Seine was a department of France encompassing Paris and its immediate suburbs. Its capital was Paris and its official number was 75; the Seine department was abolished in its territory divided among four new departments. From 1929 to its abolition in 1968, the department consisted of the city of Paris and 80 suburban communes surrounding Paris, it had an area of 480 km², 22% of that area being the city of Paris, 78% being independent suburbs. It was divided into three arrondissements: Paris and Saint-Denis; the Seine department was created on March 1790, as the Paris department. In 1795, it was renamed the Seine department after the Seine River flowing through it. At the first census of the French Republic in 1801, the Seine department had 631,585 inhabitants and was the second most populous department of the vast Napoleonic Empire, more populous than the dense departments of what is now Belgium and the Netherlands. With the growth of Paris and its suburbs over the next 150 years, the population of the Seine department increased tremendously.
By 1968 it contained 5,700,754 residents. It was judged that the Seine department was now too large to be governed and so on January 1, 1968, it was split into four smaller departments: Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne; the break-up of the Seine department involved the following changes: The city of Paris was turned into a department in its own right, with no other communes inside this department. The official number 75, used for the Seine department was given to the new Paris department. To the south and southeast of the city, 29 communes of the Seine department were grouped with 18 communes of the Seine-et-Oise department to form the new Val-de-Marne department; the official number 94 was assigned to this department, a number used for the Territoires du Sud territory in the Saharan part of French Algeria. To the west of Paris, 27 communes of the Seine department were grouped with nine communes of Seine-et-Oise to form the new Hauts-de-Seine department; the official number 92 was assigned to this department, a number used for the department of Oran in French Algeria.
To the north and north-east the 24 remaining communes of the Seine department were grouped with 16 communes of the Seine-et-Oise department to form the new Seine-Saint-Denis department. The official number 93 was assigned to this department, a number used for the department of Constantine in French Algeria. Taken together, Hauts-de-Seine, Val-de-Marne, Seine-Saint-Denis, known in France as the petite couronne, plus the city of Paris, are larger than the former Seine department; the Métropole du Grand Paris is an administrative structure created in 2016, which comprises Paris and the three departments of the Petite Couronne, plus seven additional communes in the Grande Couronne. At the 2006 census, the population of the communes that had comprised the Seine department was 5,496,468; the population of the department peaked in 1968 at 5,700,754. It lost inhabitants until 1999 as residents relocated to the more distant suburbs of the metropolitan area of Paris, but since 1999 it has regained some inhabitants, with a population increase of 292,650 inhabitants between 1999 and 2006.
This new population growth after a long period of decline is comparable to what is observed in the central areas of other large Western metropolises such as Inner London. Of the new departments created in 1968, Paris was the most populous in 2006 with 2,181,371 inhabitants; the Paris department is the second-most populous of France behind that of Nord. Former departments of France
A bidet shower, is a hand-held triggered nozzle, placed near the toilet and delivers a spray of water used for anal cleansing and cleaning of the genitals after using the toilet for defecation and urination. The device is similar to that on a kitchen sink sprayer; the health faucet is a source of water for people who prefer using water rather than other methods of cleansing after defecation or urination. The shower is an alternative for the traditional sources of water for this action, such as the bidet, copper pot or bucket and mug, being more hygienic and compact. There is no contact between the spray of the used water drainage; the user grasps the faucet in the right hand and uses the thumb or forefinger to aim a spray of water at the anus or genitals to assist cleansing after using the toilet. The bidet shower is common in all predominantly Islamic countries and in most parts of Asia where water is considered essential for anal cleansing; this includes Egypt, Pakistan, Iran, Maldives, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Singapore and Cambodia.
In those countries it is installed in Western-style toilet installations. In Thailand, it is common in squat toilet installations; the bidet shower is similar in intent, if not method of use, to the Japanese washlet-style toilet seats, or so-called "electronic bidets". Bidet showers are used by Muslims in Muslim countries and all parts of the Arab world as well as in Asia in order to cleanse themselves with water after using the toilet. Here, water is used instead of, or together with, toilet paper for cleaning after defecation. In Europe, the bidet shower is used for example in Estonia. Bidets are more common bathroom fixtures in many southern European countries