Pithoragarh is a western Himalayan town with a Municipal Board in Pithoragarh district in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. It is the largest organised semi-urbanised to urbanised town and village cluster in the hills of Uttarakhand. One of the most developed districts in Uttarakhand, the town has all the facilities including an airport; this is best known for few of best education hubs in the state. "The district is named after Pithoragarh. Tradition has it that during the reign of the Chand Rajas of Kumaon, one Piru called Prithvi Gosain, built a fort here and named it Prithvigarh which, in the course of time, got changed to Pithoragarh." Pithoragarh city and its surrounding areas were part of the Manaskhand region, which extended from the Kailash Mountain in the north to Bhabar & Terai in the south, as mentioned in the Skanda Purana. The Asuras and Nagas appear to be the earliest inhabitants of the region, who were superseded by the Kiratas and the Kunindas; the Kuninda Kings of the region may have became the feudatories of The Kushana Kings, who held their sway over the region in the last quarter of the 1st century AD.
The region subsequently came under the Katyuri Kings, who had their capital first at Jyotirmath and at Karikeyapura in the Katyur Valley. Upon the disintegration of the Katyuris in 13th century, Pithoragarh came under the rule of Bam kings of Sor; the Bam kings were feudal to the Rainkas of Doti, had their capital at Udaipur near Pithoragarh, the Rajas used to come down to Rameshwar and Bailorkol during the winter months. The Bam kings, who ruled over Sor are: Pithoragarh is located at 29.58°N 80.22°E / 29.58. It lies in the revenue Division of Kumaon and is located 188 km northeast of Nainital, the administrative headquarters of Kumaon, it has an average elevation of 1,514 metres. It is situated in the centre of the western half of the Shor Valley; the valley is spread across around 50 square kilometers. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, on a scale ranging from I to V in order of increasing susceptibility to earthquakes, the city lies inside seismic zone V, it is declared a No Flood Zone.
Saradotsav has played a significant role in sharing Pithorgarh's unique culture. It showcases local culture through music and dance featuring performances in the Kumaoni language; the small town was extensively described in a novel by American author Bradley Swift, From Pithoragarh to Pittsburg. Major parts of the bollywood film Sandeep Aur Pinky Faraar have been shot in the city. Pithoragarh is not connected by any direct train services, however it is well connected by road, it has an airport; the National Highway 9 passes through Pithoragarh. Landslides and cloudbursts, caused by heavy rains that fall during the summer monsoon interrupt transportation networks; the Pithoragarh Airport known as the Naini Saini Airport, is located about 5 kilometres north-east of the city. The airport, constructed in 1991 for administrative use, was mainly used by the Indian Air Force for defence purposes; the airport was upgraded in 2016 at an estimated cost of Rs 64.91 crore. Pithoragarh is connected to all over Uttarakhand by all weather motorable roads.
The total road length in Pithoragarh is 80 Km. Haldwani and Tanakpur are two entry points for entering Pithoragarh by road. Both are connected by the nearest railway stations being Tanakpur and Kathgodam. Regular state bus transport services along with private taxi services are available at both places. Buses, which are the most used mode of transport, are run by government agencies and private operators. Agencies operating long-distance bus services include Uttarakhand Transport Corporation, K. M. O. U and various private operators. Schools in Pithoragarh are run by the state government or private organisations, many of which are religious. Hindi and English are the primary languages of instruction. Schools in Pithoragarh follow the "10+2+3" plan. After completing their secondary education, students enroll in Inter Colleges that have a higher secondary facility and are affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education, CISCE or the Department of Education of the Government of Uttarakhand, they choose a focus on liberal arts, business, or science.
As of 2011, Pithoragarh had 17 primary schools, 20 middle schools, 22 secondary schools, 14 senior secondary schools, 1 degree college. Before independence, during the middle of the 19th century when Pithoragarh was part of Almora, there were only two middle schools in Pithoragarh. LSM Govt. Post Graduate College is the only government college in the town providing studies up to post-graduation, it is affiliated to Nainital. With the growing impact of I. T. the government opened SIT Pithoragarh in 2011. A dozen of owned computer centres opened up in the town. A few of the IT centres which are in Pithoragarh town are NIIT, Aptech,UpHill Computers, Info. Park, Sri Calculation and Care Computer. Khadg Singh Valdiya Vinod Kapri Hemant Pandey Surender Singh Waldia General B. C. Joshi Pithoragarh website Pithoragarh at wikimapia
Thai President Foods PCL is a Bangkok-based Thai company established 18 April 1972. It makes the internationally marketed instant noodle brand "MAMA". Thai President Foods is the largest instant noodle manufacturer in Thailand as of 2015, with a 53% share of the market. Since 1978, the company's shares have been traded on the Stock Exchange of Thailand; as of 2008, 3,824 people were employed by Thai President FoodsIn its 2014 Annual Report TPF declared that two company 10-year targets were to grow total income to 20,000 million baht and to move to a ratio of 50:50 from its present 80:20. As of 2015, Thai President Foods is the largest instant noodle manufacturer in Thailand, with a 53% share of the market. A Stock Exchange of Thailand ruling in October 2017 approved the delisting of securities for Thai President Foods PLC and President Rice Products and allowed shares of the amalgamated firm to be traded on the SET using the ticker symbol TFMAMA. Under the new shareholding structure, TFMAMA is 25% held by SET-listed Saha Pathana Inter-Holding, the investment holding firm of Saha Group, 16% by Nissin Holdings and the rest by the Chokwatana, Tatiyakawee and Paniengvait families.
The company has factories in Lamphun, Si Racha and two factories in Ratchaburi in Thailand. In addition to its Thailand factories, Thai President has factories in Myanmar; the Hungarian factory's two production lines have a capacity of 4.5 million noodle packs per shift per month. It produces "Thai Chef" and "Asia Gold" brand noodles for the European market; the company is building a second Myanmar factory in Mandalay, which will increase its Myanmar production to 400,000 packages per day. The company sees potential for growth in Myanmar as the per capita consumption of packaged noodles is only 11.1 packages per year compared with 49 packages per person in Thailand. Mama's Myanmar sales in 2018 were 657 million baht, projected to double by 2020; the firm is building a new factory in Cambodia to replace its existing factory. It expects to produce 80,000 cases of noodles per month there, worth 565 million baht per year in revenue by 2020. Total Thai sales of instant noodles of all brands in 2015 was estimated at 15.8 billion baht compared to 2014's 15.4 billion baht.
In 2014, when the political crisis slowed Thailand's economic growth to 0.9% and led to a military coup, the growth of MAMA noodle sales hit a low of 1%. In 2015, when the military government could not propel the country beyond an estimated 2.8% growth, sales of MAMA noodles only grew 0.4%—a 44 year record low. In spite of lacklustre growth in 2014, profits were 1.7 billion baht. Revenue in 2014 was 12 billion baht; the sales contraction in 2015 reflects the economic slowdown which has affected lower-income earners, the main consumers of instant noodles. Mr Wathit Chokewattana, vice president of the company, said that the growth rate of instant noodles has averaged 5–6% per year historically. In 2019 MAMA, traditionally the market leader, remained on top of the Thai instant noodle market, followed by Wai Wai at 23–24% and Ajinomoto's Yum Yum at 20–21%. Thai President's revenue in 2018 was 12.46 billion baht, up 5.5% over 2017. Net profit rose 9.4% to 2.5 billion baht. Thai President's product range is: Food Instant soups, including "oriental style instant noodles".
Flavours include pork, Thai Tom yum shrimp, vegetarian, Vietnamese Phở, Thai Pad kee mao, Thai curry and others. Packed in both individual packs and disposable cups. Parboiled rice Baked products confectionery Wheat flour, dry vegetables, rice noodles, seasonings. Soft drinks Fruit juice herbal juices Dairy products The food company's main products are flavoured instant noodles sold under the MAMA brand and other brands such as "Mamy", "Pama", "Papa", "Sai Keo" and "Honghow" which are distributed worldwide. In 2014, the company had an estimated daily capacity of six million packages. List of companies of Thailand List of instant noodle brands Food portal Official site finance.google.com — Information about Thai President Foods by Google Finance World Instant Noodles Association
Henry Aristippus of Calabria, sometimes known as Enericus or Henricus Aristippus, was a religious scholar and the archdeacon of Catania and chief familiaris of the triumvirate of familiares who replaced the admiral Maio of Bari as chief functionaries of the Kingdom of Sicily in 1161. While the historian of Norman Sicily, John Julius Norwich, believes him to have been of Norman extraction despite his Greek surname, Donald Matthew considers it self-evident, based on both his name and occupations, that he was Greek, he was first and foremost a scholar and if Greek, he was an adherent of the Latin church. Aristippus was an envoy to Constantinople when he received from the emperor Manuel I Comnenus a Greek copy of Ptolemy's Almagest. A student of the Schola Medica Salernitana tracked down Aristippus and his copy on Mount Etna and proceeded to give a Latin translation. Though this was the first translation of the Almagest into Latin, it was not as influential as a translation into Latin made by Gerard of Cremona from the Arabic.
The original manuscript is in the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice. Aristippus himself produced the first Latin translation of Plato's Phaedo and Meno and the fourth book of Aristotle's Meteorologica, he translated Gregory of Nazianzus at the request of William I of Sicily. In 1161, William appointed three familiares—Aristippus, Sylvester of Marsico, the Bishop Palmer—to replace the assassinated Maio. In 1162, Aristippus was imprisoned, he died soon after in that year. He may have helped himself to some of the royal concubines during the rebellion of 1161, he does not seem to have been a effective administrator. Sylvester of Marsico died at the same time and Matthew of Ajello and the caïd Peter replaced him and Aristippus in the "triumvirate." Hugo Falcandus. History of the Tyrants of Sicily at the Latin Library. Norwich, John Julius; the Kingdom in the Sun 1130-1194. Longman: London, 1970. Matthew, Donald; the Norman Kingdom of Sicily. Cambridge University Press: 1992. Houben, Hubert. Roger II of Sicily: A Ruler between East and West.
Trans. G. A. Loud and Diane Milbourne. Cambridge University Press: 2002
Amman New Camp or Al-Wehdat camp, locally known as Al-Wihdat, located in the Hay Al Awdah neighbourhood, in southeast Amman, the capital city of Jordan occupies a 0.48 km2, Of the ten recognized Palestinian refugee camps in Jordan, Al-Wehdat is the second largest, with a population of 57,000 registered refugees, which includes 8,400 students. The United Nation body responsible for administrating Palestinian refugee camps, is the Relief and Works Agency for Palestinian Refugees in the Near East. In 2010, Al-Wihdat was a part of Al-'Awd quarter of the Al-Yarmouk district of Amman. "In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s Al-Wihdat was synonymous with'Palestinian' in public life. Al-Widhat was one of four refugee camps set up by UNWRA to accommodate Palestine refugees who left Mandatory Palestine following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, it was established in 1955 with the arrival of 5,000 refugees from villages between Jaffa and Jerusalem. At first refugees lived in tents. In 1957, UNWRA built 1,260 shelters to add to the 1,400 shelters they built on an area of 0.48 km2, south of the outskirts of Amman at the time.
For fifteen years, until the 1970s most families were living in shelters and tents. After the Black September conflicts which lasted from 1970 to 1971, UNRWA worked with the Jordanian government to improve living conditions in Al-Widhat. In 1987-88, 17 percent of households in Wihdat lived in one-room dwellings, compared to 6 percent by 2011. By 2011, 44 percent of households in Wihdat lived in two room-dwellings. In terms of crowding, Fafo Foundation uses the square metre per capita, with Wihdat as one of the "lowest median per capita square metres of living space."During the late 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, Al-Wihdat in Jordan became a center of activity for Palestinian nationalists. The Al-Wihdat soccer club's matches were synonymous with the'Palestinian' identity in public life."The eastern quarters of Al-Wihdat developed a low-middle class housing areas with three- and four-storied buildings. There were slum-like areas in the southern quarters of the camp; the camp, not enclosed by walls or fences, was an open space with a thriving economic area.
Although there are several main roads in the camp, it is crisscrossed with "narrow passageways and twisting alleys." The eastern quarters of Al-Wihdat developed a low-middle class housing areas with three- and four-storied buildings. There were slum-like areas in the southern quarters of the camp, where heavy stones anchored zinc roofs. By the late 2000s, there were over 2,000 registered "shops and enterprises" offering a wide variety of goods and services operating in Al-Wehdat; the large souk in Al Wehdat attracted customers from outside the camp with its wide variety of goods, such as vegetables from the Jordan Valley, clothing from China, offered at lower prices than other markets in Amman. By 2010, there were 48,000 inhabitants which included about "8,000 local gypsies, Egyptian labor migrants, Iraqi refugees and other low-income non-Jordanian groups." By 2017, there were about 57,000 registered refugees, which includes 8,400 students in Al-Wihdat and 370,000 Palestine refugees in Jordan, which represents 18 per cent of Jordan's total.
Jordan accommodates the most Palestine refugees of all of the UNWRA locations. In Jordan, but not all, Palestine refugees have full citizenship. By 2017, of the 5 million registered Palestinian refugees in Jordan, Lebanon, the West Bank and Gaza, 2 million were in Jordan. UNRWA, established in 1949, provides funding for Palestine refugees to have access to education, "primary health care for more than 3.5 million patients and assistance to over 250,000 acutely vulnerable Palestine refugees." UNRWA services in Al-Wehdat includes 13 schools, a health center, a rehabilitation center, a women's programme center, an environmental health office and a camp services office. UNWRA ran a Teacher Training College in Amman. Seventy percent of UNRWA money funds go to the 700 UNRWA schools attended by 500,000 children and adolescents. In October 2017, the European Union voted to contribute an additional €9.5 million to UNRWA in response to a call "to help close a shortfall". UNRWA, cited a 2013 Fafo Foundation report, said that Amman New camp is ranked second out of the ten Palestine refugee camps in Jordan in terms of poverty and female employment.
The income of 34% of Palestine refugees there is below Jordan's national poverty line of JD 814. Only 24% of the women in the camp are employed. Eight percent of the camp's population have severe chronic health problems, making it the worst of all the ten. Sixty-six percent of the refugees there have no health insurance. There are no green areas or open play space in the camp, overcrowded. Many shelters are now in bad state of repair. Many needed to be torn down and replaced as "the building material is inadequate."UNRWA receives 30 percent of its budget from the United States. The US announced on January 16, 2018, that they will withhold $60 million of the $125 million it had planned to send to UNRWA in 2018. UNRWA funding is entirely from U. N. member states. According to Spiegel journalist Thore Schröder, who visited Al-Wehdat in January 2018, teachers and garbage collectors have been laid off and people who live in Al-Wehdat have rented pick-up trucks to manage garbage disposal. Schools are closed for the holidays.
Rae Desmond Jones was an Australian poet, short story writer and politician. Jones was born in the mining town of Broken Hill in the far West of New South Wales. Although many of his poems and stories are concerned with urban experience, he always felt that desert landscapes were central to his language and perception, he wrote in colloquial language, which sometimes exploded in powerful narratives packed with ambiguous sexual and violent imagery in his earlier poems and some of his novels. His original and bleak vision was mediated by gusts of earthy humour and unexpected sensitivity and honesty, he became a popular mayor of Ashfield, an inner Sydney Municipality, from 2004 to 2006, during that period held together a broad coalition of Labor Party and Independent representatives. He said that for him "poetry and politics are mutually contradictory, he finds consolation from each in the arms of the other." Poetry Orpheus With A Tuba, Makar Press, 1973. The Mad Vibe, Saturday Centre, 1975. Shakti, Makar Press, 1977.
The Palace of Art, Makar Press, 1981. Blow Out, Island Press, 2008. Baygone and other poems, Picaro Press, 2011. Thirteen Poems from the Dead, Polar Bear Press 2011. Decline and Fall, Flying Islands Press, 2011; the Selected Your Friendly Fascist, Rochford Press, 2012. It Comes From All Directions: New and Selected Poems, Grand Parade Poets, 2013; the End of the Line, Rochford Press, 2019. Novels The Lemon Tree, Angus & Robertson, 1990. Wisdom, Blackwattle Press, 1995. Short stories Walking The Line, Red Press, 1979. Video/DVD Rae Jones: Poet With A Tuba, Vanguard 1985. Author Page at Australian Literary Resources Interview at Stylus Poetry note left under a magnet on a fridge door in a field Poem Review of Blow Out Review of Thirteen Poems for the Dead "The Mad Vibe - An Interview With Rae Desmond Jones", Makar Magazine, Vol 10, Number 2, September 1974. "The Shield of Achilles", Southerly Vol. 65 Number 3. 2005
The Motion Picture Guide is a film reference work first published by Cinebooks in 1985. It was written by Jay Robert Nash, Stanley Ralph Ross, Robert B. Connelly, it was annually updated through new volumes and had a CD-ROM version, incorporated into Microsoft Cinemania. The Motion Picture Guide was first published in 1985 through Cinebooks. From 1992 through 1997, it was published in CD-ROM format; this data was incorporated into Microsoft Cinemania. The Motion Picture Guide series was discontinued after the 1999 Annual edition; the American Library Association cited it as an Outstanding Reference Source for 1985. Writing in the Los Angeles Times, Charles Champlin called the 1986 edition "the film fan reference book to end all reference books". Dan Greenberg, in Film Quarterly, criticized the 1987 volume's positive reviews, saying that reviewers had overlooked poor research and errors in favor of its marketing, which highlighted its scope. Howard H. Prouty of the Journal of Film and Video wrote that the 1987 fails to live up to its hype as an authoritative source, instead synthesizing data from common secondary sources and ending up with contradictory information.
Emma Webster of Variety called the 1995 CD-ROM version "a valuable tool for film buffs and industry people", criticizing its lack of comprehensiveness but praising its depth. Reviewing the 1995 CD-ROM, Peter M. Nichols of The New York Times highlighted its depth compared to competing discs from Blockbuster and Video Hound, though he said it lacks their features