Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
Great Victoria Desert
The Great Victoria Desert, an interim Australian bioregion, is a sparsely populated desert area in Western Australia and South Australia. The Great Victoria is the largest desert in Australia and consists of many small sandhills, grassland plains, areas with a closely packed surface of pebbles and salt lakes. It is over 700 kilometres wide and covers an area of 348,750 square kilometres from the Eastern Goldfields region of Western Australia to the Gawler Ranges in South Australia, average annual rainfall is low and irregular, ranging from 200 to 250 mm per year. Thunderstorms are relatively common in the Great Victoria Desert, with an average of 15–20 thunderstorms per annum, summer daytime temperatures range from 32 to 40 °C while in winter, this falls to 18 to 23 °C. The majority of living in the region are Indigenous Australians from different groups including the Kogara, the Mirning. It is the part of Australia with the most populous and most healthy indigenous population, aboriginal populations have been increasing in this region.
Young Indigenous adults from the Great Victoria Desert region work in the Wilurarra Creative programs to maintain, despite its isolated location the Great Victoria is bisected by very rough tracks including the Connie Sue Highway and the Anne Beadell Highway. Human activity has included some mining and nuclear weapons testing, in 1875, British explorer Ernest Giles became the first European to cross the desert. He named the desert after the then-reigning British monarch, Queen Victoria, in 1891, David Lindseys expedition traveled across this area from north to south. Frank Hann was looking for gold in this area between 1903 and 1908, len Beadell explored the area in the 1960s. The Great Victoria desert is a World Wildlife Fund ecoregion and an Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia region of the same name. The nuclear weapons carried out by the United Kingdom at Maralinga and Emu Field in the 1950s and early 1960s have left areas contaminated with plutonium-239. Only the hardiest of plants can survive in much of this environment, Wildlife adapted to these harsh conditions includes few large birds or mammals.
One way to here is to burrow into the sands, as a number of the deserts animals, including the southern marsupial mole. Birds include the chestnut-breasted whiteface found on the edge of the desert. Predators of the include the dingo and two large monitor lizards, the perentie and the sand goanna. Deserts of Australia List of deserts by area Nullarbor Plain Tallaringa Conservation Park Online natural history of Great Victoria Desert
Lake Amadeus is a large salt lake in the southwest corner of Australias Northern Territory, about 50 km north of Uluru. The smaller Lake Neale is adjacent to the northwest and it is part of the Amadeus Basin that was filled with the erosion products of the Petermann Orogeny. Due to the aridity of the area, the surface of Lake Amadeus is usually a dry salt crust, in times of sufficient rainfall, it is part of an east-flowing drainage system that eventually connects to the Finke River. Lake Amadeus is 180 kilometres long and 10 kilometres wide, making it the largest salt lake in the Northern Territory, Lake Amadeus contains up to 600 million tonnes of salt, harvesting it has not proved viable, owing to its remote location. Nearby landmarks are Uluru, Kata Tjuta, and Mount Conner, the first European to discover the lake, the explorer Ernest Giles, encountered it in 1872. Giles originally intended to honour his benefactor Baron Ferdinand von Mueller with the eponym Lake Ferdinand, Mueller prevailed upon Giles to instead honour King Amadeo I of Spain, who had previously bestowed honour on him.
The next year, William Gosse climbed and named both rises, list of lakes in Australia Post-abdication and legacy of Amadeo of Spain
It commonly refers to the radioactive dust and ash created when a nuclear weapon explodes, but such dust can originate from a damaged nuclear plant. Fallout may get entrained with the products of a pyrocumulus cloud and this radioactive dust, usually consisting of fission products mixed with bystanding atoms that are neutron activated by exposure, is a highly dangerous kind of radioactive contamination. An air burst can eventually produce worldwide fallout, a ground burst can produce possibly much more severe, local fallout. These particles may be drawn up into the stratosphere, particularly if the explosive yield exceeds 10 kt. Initially little was known about the dispersion of nuclear fallout on a global scale, the AEC assumed that fallout would be dispersed evenly across the globe by atmospheric winds and gradually settle to the Earths surface after weeks and even years as worldwide fallout. This hazard is less pertinent than local fallout, which is of much greater immediate operational concern, in a land or water surface burst, heat vaporizes large amounts of earth or water, which is drawn up into the radioactive cloud.
This material becomes radioactive when it condenses with fission products and other radiocontaminants that have become neutron-activated, the table below summarizes the abilities of common isotopes to form fallout. Some radiation taints large amounts of land and drinking water causing formal mutations throughout animal and human life. The larger particles spill out of the stem and cascade down the outside of the fireball in a downdraft even as the cloud rises, more than half the total bomb debris lands on the ground within about 24 hours as local fallout. Chemical properties of the elements in the control the rate at which they are deposited on the ground. Severe local fallout contamination can extend far beyond the blast and thermal effects, the ground track of fallout from an explosion depends on the weather from the time of detonation onwards. In stronger winds, fallout travels faster but takes the time to descend, so although it covers a larger path. Thus, the width of the pattern for any given dose rate is reduced where the downwind distance is increased by higher winds.
The total amount of activity deposited up to any time is the same irrespective of the wind pattern. But thunderstorms can bring down activity as rain more rapidly than dry fallout, particularly if the cloud is low enough to be below, or mixed with. There are two considerations for the location of an explosion and surface composition. A nuclear weapon detonated in the air, called an air burst, in case of water surface bursts, the particles tend to be rather lighter and smaller, producing less local fallout but extending over a greater area. The particles contain mostly sea salts with some water, these can have a cloud seeding effect causing local rainout and areas of high local fallout
The Maralinga Tjarutja is the corporation representing the traditional Anangu owners of the remote western areas of South Australia known as the Maralinga Tjarutja lands. It is one of the four local government areas of South Australia classified an Aboriginal Council. This indigenous Australian people whose historic rights over the area have been officially recognized belong to the branch of the Pitjantjatjara people. The term maralinga is not of local origin, the land was covered in spinifex grasses and good red soil furnishing fine camping. Waterholes have a prominent function in their mythology, they are inhabited by children and thought of as birth places. Ooldea or Yuldi/Yutulynga/Yooldool sits on a permanent underground aquifer, the area is thought to have been originally part of Wirangu land, lying on its northern border, though it fell within the boundaries of a Kokatha emu totem group. It served several indigenous tribes, furnishing aborigines with a site, trade node. Among the tribes that congregated there were tribes from the Kokatha and Ngalea language speaking north groups and Wirangu of south east, by the time Daisy Bates took up residence there it was thought that earlier groups had disappeared, replaced by an influx of spinifex people from the north.
By her time, the Trans-Australian Railway route had just been completed, Traditional life still continued since Ooldea lay on the fringe of the desert, and incoming aborigines could return to their old hunting style. Road blocks, and soldiers barred any return, between 1956 and 1957,7 atomic bombs were exploded on Maralinga land. In further minor trials from 1957 to 1962, plutonium was dispersed widely over much of the area, compensation in 1993 of $13.5 million was determined after 3 elders flew to London and presented samples of the contaminated soil in London in October 1991. In 1962, the long-serving Premier of South Australia, Sir Thomas Playford made a promise that their lands would be restored to the people displaced at Yalata sometime in the future. Under the administration of his successor Frank Walsh, short two-week long bush trips were permitted, as negotiations got underway in the 1980s, the native peoples started setting up outstations near their original lands. They completed a move back into Oak Valley in March 1985, in 2003 South Australian Premier Mike Rann opened a new school, costing $2,000,000 at Oak Valley.
The land,1000 km Northwest of Adelaide and abutting the Western Australia border is now known as Mamungari Conservation Park and it includes the Serpentine Lakes and was the largest land return since Premier John Bannons hand over of Maralinga lands in 1984. The head office is at,43 McKenzie Street, the Maralinga Tjarutja and the Pila Nguru jointly own and administer the 21,357.85 km² Mamungari Conservation Park, which area is contained in the area total for the council area. Emu Field is now part of the area, too. The land surveyed and known as Section 400,120 square kilometres within the Taranaki Plumes, was returned to Traditional Ownership in 2007
Christianity is a Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, who serves as the focal point for the religion. It is the worlds largest religion, with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles Creed and his incarnation, earthly ministry and resurrection are often referred to as the gospel, meaning good news. The term gospel refers to accounts of Jesuss life and teaching, four of which—Matthew, Luke. Christianity is an Abrahamic religion that began as a Second Temple Judaic sect in the mid-1st century, following the Age of Discovery, Christianity spread to the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world through missionary work and colonization. Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization, throughout its history, Christianity has weathered schisms and theological disputes that have resulted in many distinct churches and denominations.
Worldwide, the three largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the denominations of Protestantism. There are many important differences of interpretation and opinion of the Bible, concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds. They began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. The Baptists have been non-creedal in that they have not sought to establish binding authoritative confessions of faith on one another. Also rejecting creeds are groups with roots in the Restoration Movement, such as the Christian Church, the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada, the Apostles Creed is the most widely accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists and this particular creed was developed between the 2nd and 9th centuries.
Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator, each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. The creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Most Christians accept the use of creeds, and subscribe to at least one of the mentioned above. The central tenet of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God, Christians believe that Jesus, as the Messiah, was anointed by God as savior of humanity, and hold that Jesus coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian concept of the Messiah differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish concept, having become fully human, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, but did not sin
British nuclear tests at Maralinga
British nuclear tests at Maralinga occurred between 1956 and 1963 at the Maralinga site, part of the Woomera Prohibited Area in South Australia and about 800 kilometres north-west of Adelaide. A total of seven tests were performed, with approximate yields ranging from 1 to 27 kilotonnes of TNT. Two major test series were conducted at the Maralinga site, Operation Buffalo, the site was used for hundreds of minor trials, many of which were intended to investigate the effects of fire or non-nuclear explosions on atomic weapons. The site was contaminated with radioactive materials and an initial cleanup was attempted in 1967 and it recommended another cleanup, which was completed in 2000 at a cost of $108 million. Debate continued over the safety of the site and the health effects on the traditional Aboriginal owners of the land. In 1994, the Australian Government paid compensation amounting to $13.5 million to the local Maralinga Tjarutja people, the Maralinga tests were subject to extreme secrecy, but by the late 1970s there was a marked change in how the Australian media covered the British nuclear tests.
Some journalists investigated the subject and political scrutiny became more intense, journalist Brian Toohey ran a series of stories in the Australian Financial Review in October 1978, based in part on a leaked Cabinet submission. In June 1993, New Scientist journalist Ian Anderson wrote an article titled Britains dirty deeds at Maralinga, in 2007, Australias Nuclear Waste Cover-up by Alan Parkinson documented the unsuccessful clean-up at Maralinga. Popular songs about the Maralinga story have been written by Paul Kelly, Midnight Oil, Bruford, Wakeman and Alistair Hulett. On 3 October 1952, the United Kingdom tested its first nuclear weapon, named Hurricane, a year the first nuclear test on the Australian mainland was Totem 1 at Emu Field in the Great Victoria Desert, South Australia, on 15 October 1953. Totem 2 followed two weeks on 27 October, the Supply Minister, Howard Beale, stated in 1955 that England has the know how, we have the open spaces, much technical skill and a great willingness to help the Motherland.
Between us we should help to build the defences of the free world, the British government formally requested a permanent test facility on 30 October 1953. The new site was announced in May 1955 and it was developed as a joint, co-funded facility between the British and Australian governments. Prior to selection, the Maralinga site was inhabited by the Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara Aboriginal people, many were relocated to a new settlement at Yalata, and attempts were made to curtail access to the Maralinga site. Two major test series were conducted at the Maralinga site, Operation Buffalo, Operation Buffalo commenced on 27 September 1956. The operation consisted of the testing of four nuclear devices, codenamed One Tree, Marcoo and Breakaway respectively. One Tree and Breakaway were exploded from towers, Marcoo was exploded at ground level and this was the first drop of a British nuclear weapon from an aircraft. The fallout from these tests was measured using sticky paper, air sampling devices, all four Buffalo tests were criticised by the 1985 McClelland Royal Commission, which concluded that they were fired under inappropriate conditions
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, and the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2016, Adelaide had a resident population of 1,326,354 million. South Australia, with a total of 1, the demonym Adelaidean is used in reference to the city and its residents. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, and 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, Colonel William Light, one of Adelaides founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area originally inhabited by the Kaurna people. Lights design set out Adelaide in a layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares. Early Adelaide was shaped by prosperity and wealth—until the Second World War, it was Australias third-largest city and it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties.
It has been known as the City of Churches since the mid-19th century, as South Australias seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street. Today, Adelaide is noted for its festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts. It ranks highly in terms of liveability, being listed in the Top 10 of The Economist Intelligence Units Worlds Most Liveable Cities index in 2010,2011,2012 and 2015. It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011,2012 and 2013, prior to its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language was almost completely destroyed within a few decades of the European settlement of South Australia in 1836, extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both language and culture.
South Australia was officially proclaimed as a new British colony on 28 December 1836, the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light. Adelaide was established as a colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution. Wakefields idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen
Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara
Aṉangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara is a large Aboriginal local government area located in the remote north west of South Australia. It consists of the Pitjantjatjara and Ngaanyatjarra aṉangu, and has a population of around 2500 people, the Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara people had lived in this area for many thousands of years. In 1921, with white settlement now beginning to encroach on the traditional land. This Reserve consisted of most is what is now known as the APY Lands, with the exception of the part of the APY Lands. In 1937, the Presbyterian Church established the Ernabella Mission on the Lands at the place that is now known as the community of Pukatja. By the 1950s, many aṉangu were living at the Ernabella Mission, while others lived at camps on pastoral leases on what are now the Lands, or nearby. Those pastoral leases included Granite Downs, Everard Park, Victory Downs, De Rose Hill, Kenmore Park, in 1961, to prevent overcrowding at Ernabella Mission, the Church established what became the community of Amata, but which was originally known as Musgrave Park.
At the same time the Church established what is now the community of Kaltjiti, at that time, the surrounding area was excised from pastoral leases and declared the Indulkana Aboriginal Reserve. Ara Irititja is a project of the APY, commenced in 1994 to identify and its purpose is to prevent the loss of the history, and to allow the teaching of it to others in the community. The peoples of the region have not had any major development, apart from tourism. The Mintabie opal fields are located in the area but separate, the Musgrave Block in the Pitjantjatjara Lands, in South Australias far north-west, has been viewed as having billions of dollars in potential mineral deposits and petroleum. But the Yankunytjatjara Pitjantjatjara people have been wary of opening up the area to mining, concerned about the impact on sacred sites, mining companies are conducting discussion to try to allay these worries. For decades two major issues throughout the APY Lands have been the low standard of care and drug abuse, namely alcohol, petrol sniffing, cannabis.
Part of the difficulty in reducing alcohol and illicit drug use has been the straddling of the area by three jurisdictions, South Australia, Western Australia and the Northern Territory. The jurisdictional crossover has made police enforcement of drug trafficking laws difficult, $25m will be spent on improving housing and most of the remaining $8m on law enforcement in Amata and Pukatja. I have heard that sexual abuse of children on the Lands has been throughout the communities for many years. In December 2009 the South Australian Parliament belatedly passed the Aṉangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Land Rights Amendment Bill, the 2006 ABS identified that the APY Lands had 2,230 residents,50. 6% of whom were female and 84. 5% of whom were Indigenous Australians. 98% of the residents were Australian-born,58. 6% of residents listed Pitjantjatjara as the language spoken at home, whilst 14. 3% listed Yankunytjatjara as their spoken language