Richard Edgcumbe, 1st Baron Edgcumbe
Richard Edgcumbe, 1st Baron Edgcumbe, of Mount Edgcumbe was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1701 until 1742 when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Edgcumbe. Edgcumbe was the son of Sir Richard Edgcumbe and Lady Anne Montagu, daughter of the Earl of Sandwich, he was admitted at Trinity College, Cambridge in 1697. In June 1701 Edgcumbe was returned unopposed as Member of Parliament for Cornwall at a by-election but never took his seat as Parliament had been prorogued. At the general election that year he was returned unopposed as MP for St Germans, he was elected MP for Plympton Erle in 1702 and remained the MP there through successive general elections until 1734. In that year he was returned as MP for Plympton Erle and Lostwithiel and chose to sit for Lostwithiel, he was elected again for Plympton Erle at the 1741 general election until he was raised to the peerage in 1742. On two occasions Edgcumbe served as a lord of the treasury. Edgcumbe was a faithful follower of the Whig Sir Robert Walpole, in whose interests he managed the elections for the Cornish boroughs, his elevation to the peerage was designed to prevent him from giving evidence about Walpole's expenditure of the secret service money.
Edgcumbe married Matilda Furnese, the daughter of Sir Henry Furnese of Waldershare in Kent who died in 1721. They had four children of. Richard was succeeded by his eldest surviving son and after the latter's death, by his second surviving son George. Richard Edgcumbe, 1st Baron Edgcumbe is the namesake of North Carolina. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Edgecumbe". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Stephen, Leslie, ed.. "Edgcumbe, Richard". Dictionary of National Biography. 16. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Baker, Anne Pimlott. "Edgcumbe, second earl of Mount Edgcumbe". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/8474. Http://www.twickenham-museum.org.uk/detail.php?aid=233&ctid=1&cid=17
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking the Prime Minister. The Lord Chancellor is outranked only by the Lord High Steward, another Great Officer of State, appointed only for the day of coronations; the Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister. Prior to the Union there were separate Lord Chancellors for England and Wales, for Scotland and for Ireland; the Lord Chancellor is a member of the Cabinet and, by law, is responsible for the efficient functioning and independence of the courts. In 2007, there were a number of changes to the legal system and to the office of the Lord Chancellor; the Lord Chancellor was the presiding officer of the House of Lords, the head of the judiciary in England and Wales and the presiding judge of the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice, but the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 transferred these roles to the Lord Speaker, the Lord Chief Justice and the Chancellor of the High Court respectively.
The current Lord Chancellor is David Gauke, Secretary of State for Justice. One of the Lord Chancellor's responsibilities is to act as the custodian of the Great Seal of the Realm, kept in the Lord Chancellor's Purse. A Lord Keeper of the Great Seal may be appointed instead of a Lord Chancellor; the two offices entail the same duties. Furthermore, the office of Lord Chancellor may be exercised by a committee of individuals known as Lords Commissioners of the Great Seal when there is a delay between an outgoing Chancellor and their replacement; the seal is said to be "in commission". Since the 19th century, only Lord Chancellors have been appointed, the other offices having fallen into disuse; the office of Lord Chancellor of England may trace its origins to the Carolingian monarchy, in which a Chancellor acted as the keeper of the royal seal. In England, the office dates at least as far back as the Norman Conquest, earlier; some give the first Chancellor of England as Angmendus, in 605. Other sources suggest that the first to appoint a Chancellor was Edward the Confessor, said to have adopted the practice of sealing documents instead of signing them.
A clerk of Edward's, was named "chancellor" in some documents from Edward's reign. In any event, the office has been continuously occupied since the Norman Conquest; the staff of the growing office became separate from the king's household under Henry III and in the 14th century located in Chancery Lane. The chancellor headed chancery; the Lord Chancellor was always a churchman, as during the Middle Ages the clergy were amongst the few literate men of the realm. The Lord Chancellor performed multiple functions—he was the Keeper of the Great Seal, the chief royal chaplain, adviser in both spiritual and temporal matters. Thus, the position emerged as one of the most important ones in government, he was only outranked in government by the Justiciar. As one of the King's ministers, the Lord Chancellor attended Royal Court. If a bishop, the Lord Chancellor received a writ of summons; the curia regis would evolve into Parliament, the Lord Chancellor becoming the prolocutor of its upper house, the House of Lords.
As was confirmed by a statute passed during the reign of Henry VIII, a Lord Chancellor could preside over the House of Lords if not a Lord himself. The Lord Chancellor's judicial duties evolved through his role in the curia regis. Petitions for justice were addressed to the King and the curia, but in 1280, Edward I instructed his justices to examine and deal with petitions themselves as the Court of King's Bench. Important petitions were to be sent to the Lord Chancellor for his decision. By the reign of Edward III, this chancellery function developed into a separate tribunal for the Lord Chancellor. In this body, which became known as the High Court of Chancery, the Lord Chancellor would determine cases according to fairness instead of according to the strict principles of common law; the Lord Chancellor became known as the "Keeper of the King's Conscience." Churchmen continued to dominate the Chancellorship until the 16th century. In 1529, after Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, Lord Chancellor and Archbishop of York, was dismissed for failing to procure the annulment of Henry VIII's first marriage, laymen tended to be more favoured for appointment to the office.
Ecclesiastics made a brief return during the reign of Mary I, but thereafter all Lord Chancellors have been laymen. Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury was the last Lord Chancellor, not a lawyer, until the appointment of Chris Grayling in 2012; the three subsequent holders of the position, Michael Gove, Elizabeth Truss and David Lidington are not lawyers. However, the appointment of David Gauke in January 2018 meant that once again the Lord Chancellor was a lawyer; when the office was held by ecclesiastics, a "Keeper of the Great Seal" acted in the Lord Chancellor's absence. Keepers were appointed when the office of Lord Chancellor fell vacant, discharged the duties of the office until an appropriate replacement could be found; when Elizabeth I became queen, Parliament passed an Act providing that a Lord Keeper of the Great Seal would be entitled to "like place, pre-eminence, juri
William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire
William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire, styled Lord Cavendish before 1729 and Marquess of Hartington between 1729 and 1755, was a British Whig statesman and nobleman, nominal Prime Minister of Great Britain. He was the first son of William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire and his wife, the former Catherine Hoskins, he was elected MP for Derbyshire in 1741 and 1747. Devonshire was a supporter of Sir Robert Walpole and, after Walpole's fall from power, of the Pelhams. Henry Pelham wrote to Devonshire's father that he was "our mainstay among the young ones, of themselves liable to wander". Horace Walpole described him as "a favourite by descent of the Old Whigs" and as "errant bigot to the Pelham faction as Jacques Clément was to the Jesuits", he had been offered the post of governor to the Prince of Wales but he declined. Pelham appointed him Master of the Horse, a post he held until 1755 and which necessitated his leaving the House of Commons for the House of Lords by writ of acceleration as Baron Cavendish and joining the Privy Council.
Devonshire supported the Duke of Newcastle after Henry Pelham's death in 1754 and was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 2 April 1755 until 3 January 1757 in Newcastle's administration. In April 1755 Devonshire was one of the Lords Justices of the realm upon the King's absence in Hanover. Devonshire succeeded his father as Duke of Devonshire in December 1755 after his death; the Seven Years' War was going badly for Britain under the leadership of the Duke of Newcastle and when he resigned in October 1756, George II asked Devonshire to form an administration. Devonshire accepted on the condition that his tenure would last only until the end of the parliamentary session. Devonshire believed his duty to the King required an administration capable of prosecuting the war successfully. Devonshire was given the Garter and appointed First Lord of the Treasury in November 1756, he served as First Lord until May 1757 in an administration run by William Pitt. Devonshire's administration secured increased money for the war, troops were sent to America and a Militia Act was passed.
The administration was brought down for a variety of reasons including the opposition of George II and the alleged mishandling of the trial and execution of Admiral John Byng. It was replaced by the Pitt–Newcastle ministry headed by the Duke of Newcastle and including Pitt, Henry Fox and the Duke of Bedford; this government steered Britain through most of the Seven Years' War leading the country to ultimate victory. Devonshire was Lord Chamberlain in Newcastle's government and his relations with him were close. George II died in October 1760 and was succeeded by his grandson George III, suspicious of Devonshire and Newcastle; when Newcastle resigned in May 1762 Devonshire said that he would attend Lord Bute's Councils. When in October George III requested that he attend a Cabinet meeting on peace terms, Devonshire declined, claiming he had inadequate knowledge of the subject. On 28 October, travelling from Kew to London, the King overtook Devonshire and Newcastle's coach in the belief that the two dukes were plotting and that Devonshire was coming to tender his resignation.
He had come to give his leave to the King. When Devonshire arrived, George III refused to see him, as he wrote: "I ordered the page to tell him I would not see him, on which he bid him ask me with whom he should leave his wand... I said he would receive my orders... On the Duke of Devonshire's going away he said to the page, God bless you, it will be long before you see me here again At a meeting of the Privy Council four days the King struck out Devonshire's name from the list of Privy Councillors. In the opinion of one of his biographers, John Brooke, "Few things in King George III's long life show him in so poor a light". Devonshire resigned his Lord Lieutenancy of Derbyshire in solidarity with Newcastle and Rockingham when they were dismissed from their Lord Lieutenancies. For a long time he had a weak constitution and he grew more ill during these years, he died in the Austrian Netherlands where he had gone to take the waters at Spa. His death was a large political loss to his allies, the Whig magnates such as the Duke of Newcastle.
Dying at the age of 44 years and 147 days, he remains. Devonshire was buried at Derby Cathedral, he married Lady Charlotte Elizabeth Boyle, 6th Baroness Clifford, the daughter and heiress of Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington of the first creation, a famous architect and art collector. Through her, the Devonshires inherited Burlington House in London; the Duke employed Capability Brown to landscape the garden and park at Chatsworth House, his main residence. He hired James Paine to design the new stable block; the Duke had four children: William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire Lady Dorothy Cavendish. Married William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, who became Prime Minister. Through her, the 4th Duke of Devonshire is the great-great-great-great grandfather of Queen Elizabeth II. Lord Richard Cavendish George Augustus Henry Cavendish, created 1st Earl of Burlington of the second creation. Lord Burlington's grandson, the 2nd Earl of Burlington, would inherit the Devonshire dukedom as 7th Duke of Devonshire.
Horace Walpole described Devonshire as possessing "an impatience to do everything, a fear to do anything, he was alway
Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland
Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, PC, of Holland House in Kensington and of Holland House in Kingsgate, was a leading British politician. He identified with the Whig faction, he held the posts of Secretary at War, Southern Secretary and Paymaster of the Forces, from which latter post he enriched himself. Whilst tipped as a future Prime Minister, he never held that office, his third son was the Whig statesman Charles James Fox. He was the second son of Sir Stephen Fox and his second wife the former Christiana Hope, inherited a large share of his father's wealth, he squandered most of it soon after attaining his majority, went to Continental Europe to escape from his creditors. There he made the acquaintance of a woman of fortune, who became his patroness and was so generous to him that, after several years’ absence, he was in a position to return home. In 1744 he eloped with and married the much younger Lady Caroline Lennox, the eldest daughter of Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, an illegitimate grandson of King Charles II.
The marriage caused a great scandal in high society. She was created Baroness Holland, "of Holland in the County of Lincoln". To his wife he bequeathed £2,000 per annum, with Holland House, his plate, etc. but charged with various other legacies. As his residuary legatee it was estimated that she would be worth £120,000 in government securities, besides her jointure. However, she did not long survive him. By his wife he had children including: Stephen Fox, 2nd Baron Holland, eldest son and heir, of delicate health in his early childhood. Like his younger brother he was a notorious gambler, his father bequeathed him £ 5,000 per annum and £ 20,000 cash. Henry Charles Fox, second son, died in infancy. Charles James Fox, third but second surviving son, the noted Whig statesman and notorious gambler, he was born in Conduit Street, Mayfair, as his father's new home of Holland House in Kensington, leased in 1746, was being redecorated. His father bequeathed him his Sheppy and Thanet estates in Kent, including Kingsgate, £900 per annum, £20,000 cash.
General Henry Edward Fox, youngest son, to whom his father bequeathed an estate in the North, £500 per annum, £10,000 cash. In 1735 he entered Parliament as Member for Hindon in Wiltshire, he became a protégé and devoted supporter of Sir Robert Walpole, the long-standing Prime Minister, achieving unequalled and unenviable proficiency in the worst political arts of his master and model. He earned particular notice with a speech in parliament calling on Britain to support its European allies, principally Austria, he aligned with the government Whigs rather than the Patriot Whig faction that opposed them. Until 1742 this afterward, it was the government of Henry Pelham. A skilled speaker, he was able to hold his own against Pitt himself; this helped him progress in the House of Commons, becoming an indispensable member of several administrations. He served as Surveyor-General of Works from 1737 to 1742, as Member for Windsor from 1741 to 1761 and as a Lord of the Treasury in 1743, he had eloped with and married the much younger Lady Caroline Lennox, daughter of the Duke of Richmond, in 1744.
She was created Baroness Holland, of Holland in the County of Lincoln. The noted Whig politicians Charles James Fox and the 3rd Baron Holland were his son and grandson, respectively. Another son was the general Henry Edward Fox, he was known for his tendency to spoil his children, whom he allowed to mingle with the numerous public figures who came to dine at the Fox household. Charles would grow up to be a politician of equal note to his father, many of whose policies and friendships he subsequently adopted although he tended more toward radicalism than the elder Fox. Fox was appointed Secretary at War and member of the Privy Council in 1746, at a time when Britain was engaged in the War of the Austrian Succession. At the time much of the nation's foreign policy was dominated by the Duke of Newcastle, who served as a de facto Defence Minister, with Fox acting as a deputy and being called upon to defend the government's defence policy in the House of Commons. During these years he became a close friend and confidante of the Duke of Cumberland, the King's third and youngest son, who had become notorious in Britain for his suppression of the Jacobite rebellion of 1745 after the Battle of Culloden.
He had gained fame on the Continent as military commander of Britain's forces there. He had built himself a notable political following in London and most to Fox, offered a channel of communication to King George II of Great Britain. Fox soon grew to be a favourite of George II as well, who would in the future support his inclusion in governments in much the same way he would oppose Pitt's membership. By the early 1750s, Fox and Pitt were both viewed as future leaders of the country; this pushed their rivalry to yet further lengths. Fox through his office as War Secretary was closer to the top office while Pitt languished in opposition. In 1754, the sudden death of Pelham brought their rivalry to a head; the new Prime Minister, Pelham's brother, the Duke of Newcastle, needed a strong figure to represent him in the House of Commons. This job would command immense prestige and influence, Pitt and Fox were considered the outstanding favourites to attain it. Newcastle, fearing the relentless ambitions of both men chose neither and instead selected Sir Thomas Robinson.
To try to assuage Fox, Newcastle had first offered the post to him but with unacceptable conditions attached so that Fox would refuse the post, allowing
John Ligonier, 1st Earl Ligonier
Field Marshal John Ligonier, 1st Earl Ligonier, was a British soldier. He enjoyed a distinguished career as an active officer, became a leading official of the Pitt–Newcastle ministry that led Britain during the Seven Years' War exercising extensive control over Britain's army as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces; the son of Louis de Ligonier, a member of a Huguenot family of Castres in the south of France that had emigrated to England in 1697, Louise Ligonier, John Ligonier was educated in France and Switzerland. He joined a Regiment in Flanders commanded by Lord Cutts in 1702, he fought, with distinction, in the War of the Spanish Succession and was one of the first to mount the breach at the siege of Liège in October 1702. After becoming a captain in the 10th Foot on 10 February 1703, he commanded a company at the battles of Schellenberg in July 1704 and Blenheim in August 1704, was present at Menen where he led the storming of the covered way as well as Ramillies in May 1706, Oudenarde in July 1708 and Malplaquet in September 1709 where he received twenty-three bullets through his clothing yet remained unhurt.
In 1712, he became governor of Menorca. During the War of the Quadruple Alliance in 1719 he was adjutant-general of the troops employed in the Vigo expedition, where he led the stormers of Pontevedra. Two years he became colonel of the Black Horse, he was made a brigadier general in 1735, major general in 1739, accompanied Lord Stair in the Rhine Campaign of 1742 to 1743. He was promoted to lieutenant general on 26 February 1742 and George II made him a Knight of the Bath on the field of Dettingen in June 1743. At Fontenoy in May 1745, Ligonier commanded the British and Hessian infantry. During the Jacobite rising of 1745 he was called home to command the British army in the Midlands. In November 1745 he led a column of troops sent to Lancashire to oppose the rebels. Having been promoted to the rank of general of horse on 3 January 1746, he was placed at the head of the British and British-paid contingents of the Allied army in the Low Countries in June 1746, he was present at Rocoux in October 1746 and, having been made Lieutenant-General of the Ordnance on 19 March 1747, he fought at Lauffeld in July 1747, where he led the charge of the British cavalry.
He did this with such vigour. In this encounter his horse was killed and he was taken prisoner by Louis XV, but was exchanged within a few days; the official despatch reported:"it is impossible to commend too much the conduct of the generals both horse and foot. Sir John Legonier, who charged at the head of the British dragoons with that skill and spirit that he has shown on so many occasions, in which he was so well seconded..." He became Member of Parliament for Bath in March 1748 and colonel of the 2nd Dragoon Guards in 1749. From 1748 to 1770 he was governor of the French Hospital. On 6 April 1750 he was appointed Governor of Guernsey and on 3 February 1753 he became colonel of the Royal Horse Guards. In September 1757, following the disgrace of the Duke of Cumberland who had signed the Convention of Klosterzeven, Ligonier was made Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, he worked with the Pitt–Newcastle ministry who sought his strategic advice in connection with the Seven Years' War, underway at this time.
Ligonier was made a field marshal on 3 December 1757, Colonel of the 1st Foot Guards on the same date and a peer of Ireland on 10 December 1757 under the title of Viscount Ligonier of Enniskillen. He was notionally given command of British forces in the event of a planned French invasion in 1759 though it never occurred, he became Master-General of the Ordnance. He was given a further Irish peerage on 1 May 1762 as Viscount Ligonier of Clonmell and on 19 April 1763 he became a Baron, on 6 September 1766 an Earl, in the British peerage, he spent his years at Cobham Park in Cobham, which he bought around 1750. He was buried in Cobham Church. There is a monument to him, sculpted by John Francis Moore in Westminster Abbey; the earldom became extinct but the Irish viscountcy and Cobham Park passed to his nephew Edward, who would be created Earl Ligonier six years later. Ligonier's younger brother, was a distinguished soldier; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Ligonier, John Ligonier, Earl". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. P. 679. DNB00: "Ligonier, John" Albemarle, George. Fifty Years Of My Life. BiblioBazaar. ISBN 978-1103473823. Browne, James. A history of the Highlands and of the Highland clans, Volume 4. A. Fullarton & Co. Clarke; the Georgian Era: Military and Naval Commanders. Judges and Barristers. Physicians and Surgeons. BiblioBazaar. ISBN 978-1143366468. Combes, Émile. J. L. Ligonier, une étude. Castres. Guy, Alan. Oeconomy and discipline: officership and administration in the British army, 1714-1763. Manchester University Press. Heathcote, Tony; the British Field Marshals 1736-1997. Pen & Sword Books Ltd. ISBN 0-85052-696-5. Kimber, Edward; the new peerage, or, present state of the nobility of England and Ireland, Volume 1. Retrieved 3 May 2012. Mayo, Lawrence Shaw. Jeffrey Amherst: A Biography. London. Murdoch, Tessa; the French Hospital in England: Its Huguenot History and Collections. Cambridge: John Adamson. ISBN 978-0-9524322-7-2. Pilkington, Laetitia.
Memoirs of Laetitia Pilkington, Volume 1. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 978-08
Henry Bilson-Legge was an English statesman. He notably served three times as Chancellor of the Exchequer in the 1760s. Bilson-Legge was the fourth son of William Legge, 1st Earl of Dartmouth, by his wife Lady Anne, daughter of Heneage Finch, 1st Earl of Aylesford, he was educated at Oxford. He became private secretary to Sir Robert Walpole. In 1739 was appointed Chief Secretary for Ireland by the Lord Lieutenant, William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire. Legge only shared temporarily in the downfall of Walpole, became in quick succession Surveyor-General of Woods and Forests, a Lord of the Admiralty, a Lord of the Treasury. In 1748 he was sent as envoy extraordinary to Frederick the Great, although his conduct in Berlin was censured by George II, he became Treasurer of the Navy soon after his return to England. In April 1754 he joined the ministry of the duke of Newcastle as chancellor of the Exchequer, the king consenting to this appointment although refusing to hold any intercourse with the minister.
Twelve months he returned to his post at the exchequer in the administration of Pitt and the 4th Duke of Devonshire, retaining office until April 1757 when he shared both the dismissal and the ensuing popularity of Pitt. When, in conjunction with the Duke of Newcastle, Pitt returned to power in the following July, Legge became chancellor of the exchequer for the third time, he imposed new taxes upon houses and windows, the king refused to make him a peer. In 1754 Legge took the additional name of Bilson on secondarily succeeding to the West Mapledurham estate in Buriton near Petersfield, Hampshire of his cousin, Leonard Bilson MP upon the death of the original heir, Thomas Bettesworth, without issue.. In 1759 he obtained the sinecure position of surveyor of the petty customs and subsidies in the port of London, having in consequence to resign his seat in parliament he was chosen one of the members for Hampshire, a proceeding which incensed the earl of Bute, who desired this seat for one of his friends.
Having thus incurred Bute's displeasure Legge was again dismissed from the exchequer in March 1761, but he continued to take part in parliamentary debates until his death at Tunbridge Wells in 1764. Pitt called Legge, the child, deservedly the favourite child, of the Whigs. Horace Walpole said he was of a creeping, underhand nature, aspired to the lion's place by the manoeuvre of the mole, but afterwards he spoke in high terms of his talents, he "was a person of great abilities, both as a statesman and financier, went through most of the great offices of government with reputation and integrity, quitted them to the great regret of the nation in general." Henry Bilson-Legge married Mary Stawell and heiress of Edward Stawell, 4th and last Baron Stawell. In 1760, made 1st Baroness Stawell of the second creation, bore Henry Bilson-Legge's only child, who became the 2nd Baron Stawell on his mother's death in 1780; when the 2nd Baron Stawell died without sons the title became extinct again. His only daughter, married John Dutton, 2nd Baron Sherborne.
Barker, George Fisher Russell. "Legge, Henry Bilson-". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 32. London: Smith, Elder & Co. John Butler, Bishop of Hereford; some Account of the Character of the late Rt. Hon. H. Bilson-Legge. London. Horace Walpole. G. G. R. Barker, ed. Memoirs of the Reign of George II. London. G. F. R. Barker, ed.. Memoirs of the ReIgn of George III. London. W. E. H. Lecky. History of England and the memoirs and collections of correspondence of the time. Vol. ii. London. Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs
Richard Grenville-Temple, 2nd Earl Temple
Richard Grenville-Temple, 2nd Earl Temple, was a British politician. He is best known for his association with his brother-in-law William Pitt who he served with in government during Britain's participation in the Seven Years War between 1756 and 1761, he resigned along with Pitt in protest at the cabinet's failure to declare war on Spain. The eldest son of Richard Grenville of Wotton Underwood, of Hester Countess Temple, he was educated at Eton College, in 1734 was returned to Parliament as member for the borough of Buckingham. In 1752, on the death of his mother, he inherited her titles together with the rich estates of Stowe and Wotton; the turning point in his political fortunes was the marriage of his sister Hester in 1754 to William Pitt Earl of Chatham. Although Lord Temple had no outstanding qualities, his political career became linked with that of his brother-in-law. In November 1756 Temple became First Lord of the Admiralty in the ministry of Pitt, he was intensely disliked by George II, who dismissed both him and Pitt from office in April 1757.
But when the memorable coalition cabinet of Newcastle and Pitt was formed in June of the same year, Temple received the office of privy seal. He was the only member of the cabinet who supported Pitt's proposal to declare war with Spain in 1761, they resigned together on 5 October. From this time Temple became one of the most violent and factious of politicians, it is difficult to account for the influence he exerted over his illustrious brother-in-law, he himself is said to have avowed that "he loved faction, had a great deal of money to spare." He was on bad terms with his younger brother, George Grenville, when the latter became first lord of the treasury in April 1763, he had no place in that ministry. A few weeks the king offered the most liberal terms to induce Pitt to form or join an administration. Without his co-operation Pitt could not, or would not proceed, Temple refused to take office in the foremost place." Pitt's continued refusal to join the first Rockingham administration was no doubt due to the same disastrous influence, though before the close of 1765 the old friendship between the brothers-in-law was dissolving.
Temple began to libel Pitt. After George Grenville's death in 1770 Lord Temple retired completely from public life. Lord Temple was a great intriguer, is said to have been the author of several anonymous libels, the inspirer of many more. Macaulay's well-known comparison of him with a mole working below "in some foul, crooked labyrinth whenever a heap of dirt was flung up," which perpetuates the spleen of Horace Walpole exceeds the justice of the case. In private life he used his great wealth with generosity to his relations and dependents. Pitt was under pecuniary obligation to him, he was the principle backer behind The North Briton weekly newspaper, he paid the costs incurred by John Wilkes in litigation. He provided Wilkes with the freehold qualification which enabled him to stand for Middlesex in the famous election of 1768. Although known as a man given to confrontation and strife, Earl Temple did get involved with one of London's most fashionable charities of his time, he served as a vice president for the Foundling Hospital from 1760 to 1768, dedicated to the salvation of the large number of children abandoned by their parents in London each day.
It can not be ruled out. However, it is possible that it had to do with the achievement of status and access to other notable supporters, such as the Duke of Bedford, Lord Vere Beauclerk, the Earl of Dartmouth, among others. In addition to the estates he inherited, Temple gained a considerable fortune by his marriage in 1737 with Anne, daughter and co-heiress of Thomas Chambers of Hanworth, Middlesex. Like his friend George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax, Grenville was keen on cricket; the earliest surviving record of his involvement in the sport comes from August 1741 when, as the patron and captain of the Buckinghamshire county team, he and Halifax organised the Northamptonshire v Buckinghamshire match at Cow Meadow, Northampton. Earl Temple died early in September aged 67, after a fall from his phaeton; the only issue of his marriage being a daughter who died in infancy, Temple was succeeded in the earldom by his nephew George Nugent-Temple-Grenville. Grenvillite Bellot, Leland J. "Grenville, second Earl Temple".
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/11495. Maun, Ian. From Commons to Lord's, Volume One: 1700 to 1750. Roger Heavens. ISBN 978