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Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette known as the PG, is the largest newspaper serving metropolitan Pittsburgh, United States. The Post-Gazette began its history as a four-page weekly called The Pittsburgh Gazette, first published on July 29, 1786, with the encouragement of Hugh Henry Brackenridge, it was the first newspaper published west of the Allegheny Mountains. Published by Joseph Hall and John Scull, the paper covered the start of the nation; as one of its first major articles, the Gazette published the newly adopted Constitution of the United States. In 1820, under publishers Eichbaum and Johnston and editor Morgan Neville, the name changed to Pittsburgh Gazette and Manufacturing and Mercantile Advertiser. David MacLean bought the paper in 1822, reverted to the former title. Under combative editor Neville B. Craig, whose service lasted from 1829 to 1841, the Gazette championed the Anti-Masonic movement. Craig turned the Gazette into the city's first daily paper, issued every afternoon except Sunday starting on July 30, 1833.

In 1844, shortly after absorbing the Advocate, the Gazette switched its daily issue time to morning. Its editorial stance at the time was conservative and favoring the Whig Party. By the 1850s the Gazette was credited with helping to organize a local chapter of the new Republican Party, with contributing to the election of Abraham Lincoln; the paper was one of the first to suggest tensions between North and South would erupt in war. After consolidating with the Commercial in 1877, the paper was again renamed and was known as the Commercial Gazette. In 1900, George T. Oliver acquired the paper, merging it six years with The Pittsburg Times to form The Gazette Times; the Pittsburgh Post first appeared on September 1842, as the Daily Morning Post. It had its origin in three pro-Democratic weeklies, the Mercury, Allegheny Democrat, American Manufacturer, which came together through a pair of mergers in the early 1840s; the three papers had for years engaged in bitter editorial battles with the Gazette.

Like its predecessors, the Post advocated the policies of the Democratic Party. Its political opposition to the Whig and Republican Gazette was so enduring that an eventual combination of the two rivals would have seemed unlikely; the 1920s were a time of consolidation in the long-overcrowded Pittsburgh newspaper market. In 1923, local publishers banded together to kill off the Dispatch and Leader. Four years William Randolph Hearst negotiated with the Olivers to purchase the morning Gazette Times and its evening sister, the Chronicle Telegraph, while Paul Block arranged to buy out the owner of the morning Post and evening Sun. After swapping the Sun in return for Hearst's Gazette Times, Block had both morning papers, which he combined to form the Post-Gazette. Hearst united the evening papers. Both new papers debuted on August 2, 1927. In 1960, Pittsburgh had three daily papers: the Post-Gazette in the morning, the Pittsburgh Press and the Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph in the evening and on Sunday.

The Post-Gazette moved into the Sun-Telegraph's Grant Street offices. The Post-Gazette tried to publish a Sunday paper to compete with the Sunday Press but it was not profitable. In November 1961, the Post-Gazette entered into an agreement with the Pittsburgh Press Company to combine their production and advertising sales operations; the Post-Gazette owned and operated its own news and editorial departments, but production and distribution of the paper was handled by the larger Press office. This agreement stayed in place for over 30 years; the agreement gave the Post-Gazette a new home in the Press building, a comfortable upgrade from the hated "Sun-Telly barn." Constructed for the Press in 1927 and expanded with a curtain wall in 1962, the building served as the Post-Gazette headquarters until 2015. On May 17, 1992, a strike by workers for the Press shut down publication of the Press. During the strike, the Scripps Howard company sold the Press to the Block family, owners of the Post-Gazette.

The Blocks did not resume printing the Press, when the labor issue was resolved and publishing resumed, the Post-Gazette became the city's major paper, under the full masthead name Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Sun-Telegraph/The Pittsburgh Press. The Block ownership did not take this opportunity to address labor costs, which had led to sale of the Press; this would come back to lead to financial problems. During the strike, publisher Richard Mellon Scaife expanded his paper, the Greensburg Tribune-Review, based in the county seat of adjoining Westmoreland County, where it had published for years. While maintaining the original paper in its facilities in Greensburg, he expanded it with a new Pittsburgh edition to serve the city and its suburbs. Scaife named this paper the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Scaife has invested significant amounts of capital into upgraded facilities, separate offices and newsroom on Pittsburgh's North Side and a state of the art production facility in Marshall Township north of Pittsburgh in Allegheny County.

Relations between the Post-Gazette and Tribune-Review, during its existence as a local print publication, were competitive and hostile, given Scaife's longstanding distaste for what he considered the Blocks' liberalism. On November 14, 2011, the Post-Gazette revived the Pittsburgh Press as an afternoon online newspaper. On February 12, 2014, the paper purchased a new distribution facility in suburban Findlay Township, Pennsylvania. In 2015, the paper moved into a new, state-of-the-art office building on the North

France Miniature

France Miniature is a miniature park tourist attraction in Élancourt, France featuring scale models of major French landmarks and monuments in an outdoor park. France Miniature is a 5-hectare outdoor park in the shape of France that contains about 160 outdoor 1/30-scale models of major French monuments and landmarks. Monuments are placed in the park to correlate with their real-world locations in France. Many of the models are animated, all of the country's best known landmarks are represented. A system of model trains runs through the park, animated boats ply the "Atlantic Ocean" and the "Mediterranean Sea". Visitors walk along paved paths to visit the various models. An indoor exhibition features detailed models of several indoor scenes; the park is closed during the winter. France Miniature is owned by the same group that operates the Parc Astérix amusement park north of Paris. Official site Google Maps satellite view

Swamp dewberry

Rubus hispidus, with the common names swamp dewberry, bristly dewberry, bristly groundberry, hispid swamp blackberry or running swamp blackberry, is North American species of dewberry in the rose family. The plant grows in moist or sometimes dry soils, swales or open woods in central and eastern North America, from Ontario and Minnesota east to Newfoundland, south to South Carolina and Mississippi. Rubus hispidus is a herb-like shrub up to 20 cm tall; the twigs have bristles. Flowers are in small clumps, each with five white rounded petals; the fruit are dark purple black. The plant is eaten by many mammals. A dull blue dye can be created from its berries; the fruit can be used as an astringent. The berries are rather bitter for culinary use, so this plant is not cultivated