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Pixel

In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device. Each pixel is a sample of an original image; the intensity of each pixel is variable. In color imaging systems, a color is represented by three or four component intensities such as red and blue, or cyan, magenta and black. In some contexts, pixel refers to a single scalar element of a multi-component representation, while in yet other contexts it may refer to the set of component intensities for a spatial position; the word pixel is a portmanteau of el. The word pix appeared in Variety magazine headlines in 1932, as an abbreviation for the word pictures, in reference to movies. By 1938, "pix" was being used in reference to still pictures by photojournalists; the word "pixel" was first published in 1965 by Frederic C. Billingsley of JPL, to describe the picture elements of scanned images from space probes to the Moon and Mars.

Billingsley had learned the word from Keith E. McFarland, at the Link Division of General Precision in Palo Alto, who in turn said he did not know where it originated. McFarland said it was "in use at the time"; the concept of a "picture element" dates to the earliest days of television, for example as "Bildpunkt" in the 1888 German patent of Paul Nipkow. According to various etymologies, the earliest publication of the term picture element itself was in Wireless World magazine in 1927, though it had been used earlier in various U. S. patents filed as early as 1911. Some authors explain pixel as picture cell, as early as 1972. In graphics and in image and video processing, pel is used instead of pixel. For example, IBM used it in their Technical Reference for the original PC. Pixels, abbreviated as "px", are a unit of measurement used in graphic and web design, equivalent to 1⁄96 inch; this measurement is used to make sure a given element will display as the same size no matter what screen resolution views it.

Pixilation, spelled with a second i, is an unrelated filmmaking technique that dates to the beginnings of cinema, in which live actors are posed frame by frame and photographed to create stop-motion animation. An archaic British word meaning "possession by spirits", the term has been used to describe the animation process since the early 1950s. A pixel is thought of as the smallest single component of a digital image. However, the definition is context-sensitive. For example, there can be "printed pixels" in a page, or pixels carried by electronic signals, or represented by digital values, or pixels on a display device, or pixels in a digital camera; this list is not exhaustive and, depending on context, synonyms include pel, byte, bit and spot. Pixels can be used as a unit of measure such as: 2400 pixels per inch, 640 pixels per line, or spaced 10 pixels apart; the measures dots per inch and pixels per inch are sometimes used interchangeably, but have distinct meanings for printer devices, where dpi is a measure of the printer's density of dot placement.

For example, a high-quality photographic image may be printed with 600 ppi on a 1200 dpi inkjet printer. Higher dpi numbers, such as the 4800 dpi quoted by printer manufacturers since 2002, do not mean much in terms of achievable resolution; the more pixels used to represent an image, the closer the result can resemble the original. The number of pixels in an image is sometimes called the resolution, though resolution has a more specific definition. Pixel counts can be expressed as a single number, as in a "three-megapixel" digital camera, which has a nominal three million pixels, or as a pair of numbers, as in a "640 by 480 display", which has 640 pixels from side to side and 480 from top to bottom and therefore has a total number of 640 × 480 = 307,200 pixels, or 0.3 megapixels. The pixels, or color samples, that form a digitized image may or may not be in one-to-one correspondence with screen pixels, depending on how a computer displays an image. In computing, an image composed of pixels is known as a raster image.

The word raster originates from television scanning patterns, has been used to describe similar halftone printing and storage techniques. For convenience, pixels are arranged in a regular two-dimensional grid. By using this arrangement, many common operations can be implemented by uniformly applying the same operation to each pixel independently. Other arrangements of pixels are possible, with some sampling patterns changing the shape of each pixel across the image. For this reason, care must be taken when acquiring an image on one device and displaying it on another, or when converting image data from one pixel format to another. For example: LCD screens use a staggered grid, where the red and blue components are sampled at different locations. Subpixel rendering is a technology which takes advantage of these differences to improve the rendering of text on LCD screens; the vast majority of color digital cameras use a Bayer filter, res

Unbroken: A World War II Story of Survival, Resilience, and Redemption

Unbroken: A World War II Story of Survival and Redemption is a 2010 non-fiction book by Laura Hillenbrand. Unbroken is a biography of World War II hero Louis Zamperini, a former Olympic track star who survived a plane crash in the Pacific theater, spent 47 days drifting on a raft, survived more than two and a half years as a prisoner of war in three brutal Japanese prisoner-of-war camps. Unbroken has spent more than four years on The New York Times best seller list, including 14 weeks at number one, it is the 5th longest-running nonfiction best seller of all time. Hillenbrand was interested in SeaBiscuit from an early age, as one of her favorite childhood books was Come on SeaBiscuit, which became the inspiration for her 2001 novel Seabiscuit: An American Legend. While researching information for the writing of Seabiscuit, Hillenbrand came across a 1938 newspaper article headlining the name of Louis Zamperini. Hillenbrand grew interested with the story and decided to pursue the creation of Unbroken, telling the story of WWII from the eyes of Zamperini.

In 2010, Hillenbrand wrote and published her next novel, Unbroken: A World War II Story of Survival and Redemption in a biographical manner to share the story of Louis Zamperini’s experience as a POW during WWII. Her second novel became a New York Times Bestseller novel, four years after publication the novel was taken to film; as a young boy, Louis Zamperini grew up in a strict Christian home but Louis was a troublemaker in his hometown of Torrance, California. He steals food from neighbors and stores, stashed liquor and cigarettes in little hideouts, got bullied for his Italian background. Louis gets caught by law enforcement and is taken straight home, the cop reminds Louis that the only reason he is still not locked up was to save his family's reputation. Louis’ father beats him as a form of discipline, however this does not stop Louis and he continues with his bad habits. Pete, his older brother, pushes him to develop his love of running. At first Louis isn't convinced that running is for him, he believes he won't be able to make the High School track team but his brother insists.

Everyday after school, Pete rode a bike alongside Louis as he ran racing home, whenever Pete encourage Louis to go fast he would ring his bike’s bell, this source of positive reinforcement stuck with Louis as his brother continued to instill his faith in running. After joining the track team, Louis runs up in ranks during competitions and soon enough he is known as the Torrance Tornado, being the fastest High School runner yet. Louie trains eventually making the U. S. Olympic Team and competes at the Olympic Games in Berlin in 1936. Pete walks Louis to the train station for his departure to Germany, while at the station Louis says that this first Olympic game will just be a “try out” for the next Olympics 4 years, said to be held in Tokyo, Japan. Right before departure, Pete tells Louis to never forget that “ a moment of pain is worth a lifetime of glory”. Once at the Olympics, Louis stands in the welcoming ceremony overlooking the Olympic Torch leg, in this he glances over to a Japanese contestant who politely nods at him.

Louis is a contestant in the 5k meter run against experience Olympic stars, at first Louis seems as if he is falling behind during the first lap but once the second lap bell is rung he remembers his training with his brother and is able complete the race. Louis replaces the previous record for the 5k meter run at 69.2 seconds with a glorious 56 seconds, through this he earns the title of the youngest 5k champion. His running career, ends abruptly as World War II begins. Louie enlists in the United States Army Air Corps. Louie and his crew grow close during this time, their plane, the Super-Man, takes on various plane strike attacks after bombing a Japanese military station and still continues to fly until it gets shot over five hundred times. All the crew, except for one, survive the ordeal. With broken brakes, the crew is able to land the plane back at base but in doing so wreck the entire plane. During the time between the wreck of Super-Man and their next mission, Louis continues to train for his love of running trying to beat his own record.

The plane is replaced with the Green Hornet. Much of the crew and the Lieutenants at the camp understand that the Green Hornet is a scrap plane but they insist that it is still viable for flight. A new crew is arrange, a new search mission is given aboard the Green Hornet; when assigned the Green Hornet, Louis repeats the fact that the mission is under “a lot of ocean”, this becomes the third foreshadowing present within the story. The Green Hornet ends up crashing immediately due to mechanical difficulties while on a search mission some 850 miles south of Oahu, killing eight of the 11 men aboard. Not only does most of the crew die, but the three that survive the crash, Louie and Mac, are wounded and face a grave future. Phil become depressed and Mac goes through various mental breakdowns and eats all their calorie-filled chocolate, they all become devising ways to get clean water and food. After the first day at sea, they attempt to signal a plane with no luck; the men are able to capture a seagull and attempt to eat it for food, but after having a rancid outcome they decide to use the seagull meat for fishing.

Once they are able to catch a fish they begin to eat it raw, Phil casually makes a remark stating how the Japanese eat their fi

Cláudio Adão

Cláudio Adalberto Adão, or Cláudio Adão, is a former Brazilian football player. A gifted forward, Adão was the top-scorer of every championship he's played, his first professional club was Santos FC, where he arrived in 1972. When Pelé left Santos in 1974, the club predicted a brilliant future ahead for Adão as Pelé's natural replacement, but they couldn't predict Adão would suffer a serious injury that would leave him off of the pitch for several months. Physicians believed Adão's career to be prematurely ended when Flamengo's coach, Cláudio Coutinho asked his club to sign Adão. Santos let; the results were fantastic and Adão became an idol. Not only at Flamengo, but in every other club he has played for until he retired, hundreds of goals at 40 years old. In Brazil, Adão played for Botafogo, Fluminense, Portuguesa-SP, Bangu, EC Bahia, Portuguesa-RJ, Campo Grande-RJ, Ceará SC, Santa Cruz, Volta Redonda FC, Rio Branco-RJ and Desportiva-ES, his international career included Al Ain FC, Benfica and Sport Boys.

Adão further represented Brazil in the 1989 edition of the World Cup of Masters, scoring a hat trick in the final against Uruguay. After retirement, he managed several clubs, CSA, Ceará, Rio Branco-ES, Volta Redonda FC, his current club; as Rio Branco-ES manager, he won the 2001 Campeonato Capixaba. Felipe Adão his son