Pizza is a savory dish of Italian origin, consisting of a round, flattened base of leavened wheat-based dough topped with tomatoes and various other ingredients baked at a high temperature, traditionally in a wood-fired oven. A small pizza is sometimes called a pizzetta. In Italy, pizza served in formal settings, such as at a restaurant, is presented unsliced and eaten with the use of a knife and fork. In casual settings it is cut into wedges to be eaten; the term pizza was first recorded in the 10th century in a Latin manuscript from the Southern Italian town of Gaeta in Lazio, on the border with Campania. Modern pizza was invented in Naples, the dish and its variants have since become popular in many countries, it has become one of the most popular foods in the world and a common fast food item in Europe and North America, available at pizzerias, restaurants offering Mediterranean cuisine, via pizza delivery. Many companies sell ready-baked frozen pizzas to be reheated in an ordinary home oven.
The Associazione Verace Pizza Napoletana is a non-profit organization founded in 1984 with headquarters in Naples that aims to promote traditional Neapolitan pizza. In 2009, upon Italy's request, Neapolitan pizza was registered with the European Union as a Traditional Speciality Guaranteed dish, in 2017 the art of its making was included on UNESCO's list of intangible cultural heritage; the word "pizza" first appeared in a Latin text from the central Italian town of Gaeta still part of the Byzantine Empire, in 997 AD. Suggested etymologies include: Byzantine Greek and Late Latin pitta > pizza, cf. Modern Greek pitta bread and the Apulia and Calabrian pitta, a round flat bread baked in the oven at high temperature sometimes with toppings; the word pitta can in turn be traced to either Ancient Greek πικτή, "fermented pastry", which in Latin became "picta", or Ancient Greek πίσσα, "pitch", or pḗtea, "bran". The Etymological Dictionary of the Italian Language explains it as coming from dialectal pinza "clamp", as in modern Italian pinze "pliers, tongs, forceps".
Their origin is from Latin pinsere "to pound, stamp". The Lombardic word bizzo or pizzo meaning "mouthful", brought to Italy in the middle of the 6th century AD by the invading Lombards. Foods similar to pizza have been made since the Neolithic Age. Records of people adding other ingredients to bread to make it more flavorful can be found throughout ancient history. In the 6th century BC, the Persian soldiers of Achaemenid Empire during the rule King Darius I baked flatbreads with cheese and dates on top of their battle shields and the ancient Greeks supplemented their bread with oils and cheese. An early reference to a pizza-like food occurs in the Aeneid, when Celaeno, queen of the Harpies, foretells that the Trojans would not find peace until they are forced by hunger to eat their tables. In Book VII, Aeneas and his men are served a meal that includes round cakes topped with cooked vegetables; when they eat the bread, they realize. Modern pizza evolved from similar flatbread dishes in Naples, Italy, in the 18th or early 19th century.
Prior to that time, flatbread was topped with ingredients such as garlic, lard and basil. It is uncertain when tomatoes were first added and there are many conflicting claims; until about 1830, pizza was sold from open-air stands and out of pizza bakeries, antecedents to modern pizzerias. A popular contemporary legend holds that the archetypal pizza, pizza Margherita, was invented in 1889, when the Royal Palace of Capodimonte commissioned the Neapolitan pizzaiolo Raffaele Esposito to create a pizza in honor of the visiting Queen Margherita. Of the three different pizzas he created, the Queen preferred a pizza swathed in the colors of the Italian flag — red and white; this kind of pizza was named after the Queen, although research cast doubt on this legend. An official letter of recognition from the Queen's "head of service" remains on display in Esposito's shop, now called the Pizzeria Brandi. Pizza was brought to the United States with Italian immigrants in the late nineteenth century and first appeared in areas where Italian immigrants concentrated.
The country's first pizzeria, Lombardi's, opened in 1905. Following World War II, veterans returning from the Italian Campaign, who were introduced to Italy's native cuisine, proved a ready market for pizza in particular. Pizza is sold fresh or frozen, whole or as portion-size slices or pieces. Methods have been developed to overcome challenges such as preventing the sauce from combining with the dough and producing a crust that can be frozen and reheated without becoming rigid. There are frozen pizzas with self-rising crusts. Another form of uncooked pizza is available from bake pizzerias; this pizza is assembled in the store sold to customers to bake in their own ovens. Some grocery stores sell fresh dough along with sauce and basic ingredients, to complete at home before baking in an oven. Pizza preparation In restaurants, pizza can be baked in an oven with stone bricks above the heat source, an electric deck oven, a conveyor belt oven, or, in the case of more expensive restaurants, a wood or coal-fired
Richard Mortimer Chitwood was a Democrat from Sweetwater, who represented District 117 in the Texas House of Representatives from 1923 to 1925. His district encompassed Fisher and Nolan counties in West Texas. In his first House term from 1921 to 1923, he represented the same counties as District 121. A native of Alabama, Chitwood was a son of the former Laura Lyon, he was educated at Morgan Park Academy in the Morgan Park section of Illinois. In 1923, Chitwood, as a second term member of the legislature, was the chairman of the House Education Committee; that year State Senator William H. Bledsoe of Lubbock and Representative Roy Alvin Baldwin of Slaton in south Lubbock County pushed to passage Senate Bill 103, with a $1 million appropriation, to establish a four-year educational institution in West Texas with an emphasis on agricultural research; the school would be separate from Texas A&M University in College Station, which had a similar mission and whose leadership opposed the new institution.
Bledsoe confessed to having drawn up the requirements for the host city to fit only Lubbock, selected over thirty-six other locations, including Chitwood's Sweetwater in Nolan County, San Angelo, Plainview, Lampasas, Big Spring, Boerne in Kendall County northwest of San Antonio. Vernon west of Wichita Falls claimed. Though the site selection committee traveled to all the communities seeking to become the location of the new college, but the fix was in from the start. To win the competition, Lubbock was allowed to amend its initial application to account for eighty more acres so that it could meet the two thousand acres required in the legislation for the chosen location. In time, Texas Tech Texas Technological College, helped to make Lubbock the largest city of West Texas, excluding El Paso in the far southwestern corner of the state. Chitwood thought Sweetwater far better suited for the new institution as the "central" location of West Texas; when Lubbock was chosen, Chitwood was given a patronage consolation as business manager of the new institution.
Chitwood died of angina pectoris at the age of forty-eight at the Baker Hotel in Dallas, after just fifteen months as the Texas Tech business manager. He is interred at Sweetwater Cemetery; the Daily Toreador, the Texas Tech newspaper, wrote upon Chitwood's passing that there was one "no more big hearted" than the former college business manager. The Lubbock Avalanche-Journal referred to Chitwood's death in its edition of November 23, 1926, as "A Loss to Texas and to Tech College."
Community newspapers in Hollywood, have included the Hollywood Sentinel, Hollywood Inquirer, Hollywood Citizen, Hollywood News, Hollywood Citizen-News. In 1903, veteran publisher A. A. Bynon sold his interest in a newspaper called the Hollywood Sentinel to G. P. Sullivan, who became the paper's editor; the Sentinel received the Hollywood city contract for printing legal advertising in December 1903. In 1904 C. N. Whitaker, former editor of the Monrovia Messenger, bought the business, but on November 1 Morris & Ponay of Portland, took it over. In 1905 Charles Mosteller of Los Angeles was the new owner of the Hollywood Sentinel, it was still being published in 1907 and 1909. In 1909 Mosteller, identified as the Sentinel's managing editor, said the newspaper would begin a daily edition in June, which would compete with the Hollywood Citizen, it was explained that the legal advertising for the City of Hollywood had to be published in a daily newspaper, so both journals were switching from weekly to daily publication in order to bid on the contract.
The Los Angeles Herald commented that each paper would try to underbid the other for the city's advertising and that: The fight, which promises to be a hot one, will result in the city's printing being done at a reduced figure below cost, in forcing the losing paper to the wall. In 1909, the Sentinel office was the scene of a fist fight occasioned by the refusal of editor Herbert F. Clark to print the poetry of W. D. Cowley unless it were paid for as advertising. Cowley, the caretaker at the home of Los Angeles Times publisher Harrison Gray Otis, refused to do so, Clark thereupon wrote a column "casting reflections upon the character of Cowley's poetry," according to a report in the Tacoma Times. "Cowley called at the Sentinel office to whip the editor and lost the battle," the Tacoma newspaper said. In 1911 E. E. Brown purchased both the Hollywood Sentinel and the Hollywood Citizen and was to combine the two newspapers. "By so doing," wrote the Alma Record, "he will have control of the newspaper business in a town of 7,000 people only 10 miles from Los Angeles."
A newspaper called the Hollywood Inquirer was owned and published by Herschel Spencer Lander until 1914. The first edition of the Hollywood Citizen appeared as a four-page, six-column weekly on Sunday, April 23, 1905, measuring 16 by 22 inches; the Los Angeles Times said that "its neat appearance caused much favorable comment."The Citizen was established by Ezekial Dunton Taylor, a veteran newspaperman from Ohio, who came to Los Angeles in 1902, his son-in-law, W. C. Parcher. Taylor was editor until 1910. Harlan G. Palmer was editor of the Citizen in 1917. Ira C. Copley of Aurora, purchased the Hollywood News and the Glendale Daily Press from F. W. Kellogg and his son, W. S. Kellogg, effective February 15, 1928, he bought the Alhambra Post-Advocate, Pasadena Evening Post, Monrovia Evening Post, Eagle Rock Daily Press, Burbank Daily Press, San Fernando Valley News, Sawtelle Evening Tribune, Santa Monica Evening Outlook, Venice Evening Vanguard, Culver City Star-News, Redondo Daily Breeze, Hermosa Daily Breeze and the San Pedro Daily News, effective September 1, 1928.
These latter papers were to be taken over and operated by the Southern California Newspapers Associated, of which Samuel G. McClure would become president and general manager. To make the transaction, Copley said, he assumed shares of ownership in the new group. McClure said that the Hollywood News would be expanded, but that no changes would be made in the other papers. Copley said that a holding company to be known as the Copley Press would be created by the succeeding September and that F. W. Kellogg would have an interest in it; the Hollywood Citizen-News was a "flourishing medium-sized daily, concentrating its coverage on Hollywood," according to the Van Nuys News. "In the late 1930s, the paper led many a reform fight in local government." Judge Harlan G. Palmer, the owner of the Hollywood Citizen since 1911, purchased the Hollywood News from Ira Copley in 1931 and combined the two papers under the name Citizen-News; the first issue appeared on November 2, 1931, published from the News building.
The combined circulation was expected to reach "more than 30,000," it was said. The Citizen circulation was given as 20,000 and the News as "over 20,000." The editorial staff of the Citizen struck and picketed the plant on May 17, 1938, in the first walkout called by the American Newspaper Guild in California. Managing editor Harold Swisher said other workers were being hired and that production employees were on the job as usual. Publisher Harlan G. Palmer discharged three of the Guild members. Sontag Company filed suit against the Los Angeles Newspaper Guild and others, contending it was damaged by union pickets at its Hollywood drug store. A Superior Court judge issued a temporary restraining order against the union prohibiting it from picketing 166 companies that continued their advertising in the struck newspaper; the order against this secondary picketing was made permanent. The union took the matter to the National Labor Relations Board The strike ended on July 30, 1938, with an agreement between the two sides.
Superior Judge Emmet Wilson, ruled that six guild members he had cited for contempt of court must stand trial. The union lost an appeal to the United States Circuit Court of Appeals, asked to rule on its claim, among others, that the company had violated labor law when it denied bylines to some employees, involved in the strike; the court held that it was wit
Peng, alternative forms of romanization include Pang and Phang, Pangestu or Pangestoe, Bành is a common Chinese family name, ranking 35th most common in 2006. The character is composed of a pictograph. More used as a surname, this character is an adjective, meaning "big"; the surname Peng is traced to the legend of Peng Zu, God of Longevity, who legend tells lived 800 years. During the Shang dynasty, Jian Keng, a descendant of Zhuanxu, was granted the feudal territory Dapeng, adopted the name, Peng Zu. Of the top 30 cities in China, 彭 ranked 9th most common in the city of Changsha; the same surname character is found in Korea, where it is pronounced Paeng. According to South Korea's 2000 Census, 2,825 people in 918 households had this surname. There are two major clan lineages for each with a different bon-gwan; the more common one, Jeolgang Paeng, claims descent from Paeng U-deok, who came from Zhejiang, China to the Korean peninsula during the reign of King Seonjo of Joseon. The less common one, Yonggang Paeng clan, claims descent from Paeng Jeok, who came from Jinling, China to the Korean peninsula in the retinue of Princess Noguk during the reign of King Chungjeong of Goryeo.
Yonggang is located in an area. Adrian Pang, Singaporean Chinese actor Diana Pang, Hong Kong dancer and actress Davis Peng, San Francisco, Creator of the legendary “Nut Hand” technique Jacqueline Pang, Hong Kong radio announcer and author Peng Bo, Olympic diving medalist Peng Chang-kuei, Taiwanese chef. Peng Cheng-min, a Taiwanese baseball player Peng Chong, a former Chinese politburo member Peng Dehuai, the Communist Party of China military leader, Marshal of the People's Republic of CHina. Peng Lei, Chinese business executive at Alibaba Group Peng Liyuan, Wife of Chinese Paramount leader Xi Jinping, public figure in her own right. Peng Ming-min, Taiwan independence activist, DPP politician and first opposition candidate in a Taiwan presidential election Peng Pai, a pioneer of the Chinese agrarian movement and peasants' rights activist Peng Sheng-chu, Director-General of National Security Bureau of the Republic of China Peng Shilu, the "father of China's nuclear submarines" and the "father of China's naval nuclear propulsion", as the first chief designer of China's nuclear submarines Peng Shuai, professional tennis player Peng Wan-ru, Taiwanese politician and feminist Peng Xiuwen and composer Yiliang "Doublelift" Peng, a professional League of Legends player for Team Liquid Peng Zhen, a leading member of the Communist Party of China Prajogo Pangestu, Indonesian tycoon The Pang Brothers, Hong Kong, twin brothers Danny Pang Fat and Oxide Pang Chun and film directors Peng Qi, fictional character from the 14th century novel, Water Margin Eddie Peng Yu-Yan, Canadian-Taiwanese actor Peng Yuchang, Chinese actor Peng Xiaoran, Chinese actress Perng Fai-nan, Governor of the Central Bank of the Republic of China Pong Cheng-sheng, Deputy Mayor of Taipei List of common Chinese surnames Pang Five Great Clans of the New Territories Fanling Wai
Cleavable detergents known as cleavable surfactants, are special surfactants that are used in biochemistry and in proteomics to enhance protein denaturation and solubility. The detergent is rendered inactive by cleavage under acidic conditions, in order to make the sample compatible with a following procedure or in order to selectively remove the cleavage products. Applications for cleavable detergents include protease digestion of proteins such as in-gel digestion with trypsin after SDS PAGE and peptide extractions from electrophoresis gels. Cleavable detergents are used in sample preparations for mass spectrometry. PPS, available as PPS Silent Surfactant from Expedeon, is the abbreviation for sodium 3-propane-1-sulfonate; this acetalic detergent is split under acidic conditions into hexanol and the zwitterionic 3-acetyl-1-pyridinium. ProteaseMAX'is the brandname of Promega for sodium 3-propane-1-sulfonate; this cleavable detergent is sensitive to heat and acid and is degraded during a typical trypsin digestion into the uncharged lipophilic compound 1-undecan-1-ol and the zwitterionic 3-aminopropane-1-sulfonic acid, which can be removed by C18 solid phase extraction during sample work-up.
⟶ + RapiGest SF, the brand-name for sodium 3--1-propanesulfonate, is an acid-cleavable anionic detergent marketed by Waters Corporation and AOBIOUS INC. MALDI matrix compounds such as α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid have been linked through a linker consisting of an unsymmetric formaldehyde acetals to dodecanol; this type of cleavable detergent is inherently compatible with MALDI and does not have to be removed prior to analysis. UV light- or fluoride-cleavable surfactants have been developed but are not in current use
Sierra Nevada University is a private university in Incline Village, Nevada in the Sierras. Founded in 1969, the college is accredited by the Northwest Commission on Universities. Prior to 2020, the institution was known as Sierra Nevada College. In the summer of 2019, Dr. Ed Zschau became the interim president of Sierra Nevada University and, among other initiatives, spearheaded the change in the institution's name; the Departments of Fine Arts and Social Sciences and Science and Technology offer traditional majors as well as Interdisicplinary Studies programs. The Business department at SNU offers Ski Business and Resort Management as a four-year degree; the teacher education program leads to Master of Arts in Teaching, Master of Arts in Administration and Masters in Education degrees as well as to teacher licensure in Nevada. The College operates two low-residency, Masters of Fine Arts programs. Creative Writing and Interdisciplinary Arts MFA's use a low-residency format and individual mentoring to prepare artists and writers for professional and artistic success.
The MFA-IA program focuses on site-specific and community practice, with a large part of each residency taking place off site at partner locations such as the Sagehen Creek Field Station. SNU, in collaboration with UC Davis, houses the Tahoe Center for Environmental Sciences, a facility conducting research on Lake Tahoe. From 2016 to 2019, as part of an initiative to expand access to four-year degrees, SNU operated extension centers on community college campuses. There are SNU Extension centers on the campus of Lake Tahoe Community College in South Lake Tahoe, Truckee Meadows Community College's Dandini Campus in Reno, Nevada; each Extension Center offered degrees specific to demand on the campus where they are located, included B. A. in Psychology, B. A. or B. S. in General Studies, a B. S. in Business Administration in Entrepreneurship or Global Business Management. Sierra Nevada University hosts an extensive program of Summer Visiting Artist Workshops which feature well-known artists from multiple disciplines.
Artists such as printmaker Sean Starwars, visual artist and experimental filmmaker Tim Guthrie are regular workshop leaders. The college has varsity athletics programs in skiing and snowboarding, lacrosse and soccer in the Cal Pac Conference; the Eagles have won many United States Collegiate Ski and Snowboard Association national championships in both men's and women's events. Laura McCullough – poet Suzanne Roberts – American poet, travel writer, photographer Carolee Schneeman – Experimental filmmaker Brian Turner – poet Patricia Smith - poet Gayle Brandeis - author Matea Ferk, Croatia Ski Team, Women's Alpine Skiing, 2006 and 2010 Winter Olympics. Philip "P. K." O'Neill, Republican member of the Nevada Assembly. Tea Palic, Croatia Ski Team, Women's Alpine Skiing, 2010 Winter Olympics. Official website