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Pizzicato is a playing technique that involves plucking the strings of a string instrument. The exact technique varies somewhat depending on the type of instrument: On bowed string instruments it is a method of playing by plucking the strings with the fingers, rather than using the bow; this produces a different sound from bowing and percussive rather than sustained. On keyboard string instruments, such as the piano, pizzicato may be employed as one of the variety of techniques involving direct manipulation of the strings known collectively as "string piano". On the guitar, it is a muted form of plucking, which bears an audible resemblance to pizzicato on a bowed string instrument with its shorter sustain, it is known as palm muting. When a string is struck or plucked, as with pizzicato, sound waves are generated that do not belong to a harmonic series as when a string is bowed; this complex timbre is called inharmonicity. The inharmonicity of a string depends on its physical characteristics, such as tension, composition and length.

The inharmonicity disappears when strings are bowed because the bow's stick-slip action is periodic, so it drives all of the resonances of the string at harmonic ratios if it has to drive them off their natural frequency. The first recognised use of pizzicato in classical music is found in Tobias Hume's Captain Humes Poeticall Musicke, wherein he instructs the viola da gamba player to use pizzicato. Another early use is found in Claudio Monteverdi's Il combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda, in which the players are instructed to use two fingers of their right hand to pluck the strings. In 1756, Leopold Mozart in his Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule instructs the player to use the index finger of the right hand; this has remained the most usual way to execute a pizzicato, though sometimes the middle finger is used. The bow is held in the hand at the same time unless there is enough time to put it down and pick it up again between bowed passages. In jazz and bluegrass, the few popular music styles which use double bass, pizzicato is the usual way to play the double bass.

This is unusual for a violin-family instrument, because regardless whether violin-family instruments are being used in jazz, traditional or Classical music, they are played with the bow for most of a performance. In classical double bass playing, pizzicato is performed with the bow held in the hand. In contrast, in jazz and other non-Classical styles, the player is not holding a bow, so they are free to use two or three fingers to pluck the string. In classical music, string instruments are most played with the bow, composers give specific indications to play pizzicato where required. Pieces in classical music that are played pizzicato include: J. S. Bach: the ninth movement of the Magnificat Johann Strauss II and Josef Strauss: Pizzicato Polka Edvard Grieg: Act IV – Anitra's Dance in Peer Gynt Léo Delibes: the "Divertissement: Pizzicati" from Act 3 of the ballet Sylvia Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky: the third movement of the 4th symphony Johann Strauss II: Neue Pizzicato Polka Helmer Alexandersson: the third movement of his second symphony Béla Bartók: the fourth movement of the String Quartet No. 4 Benjamin Britten: the second movement of the Simple Symphony Leroy Anderson: Jazz Pizzicato and Plink, Plunk!

Antonio Vivaldi, in the "Ah Ch'Infelice Sempre" section of his cantata Cessate, omai cessate, combined both pizzicato and bowed instruments to create a unique sound. He included pizzicato in the second movement of "Winter" from The Four Seasons. In music notation, a composer will indicate the performer should use pizzicato with the abbreviation pizz. A return to bowing is indicated by the Italian term arco. A left hand pizzicato is indicated by writing a small cross above the note, a Bartók pizzicato is indicated by a circle with a small vertical line through the top of it above the note in question or by writing Bartók pizz at the start of the relevant passage. In classical music, arco playing is the default assumption. If a string player has to play pizzicato for a long period of time, the performer may put down the bow. Violinists and violists may hold the instrument in the "banjo position", pluck the strings with the thumb of the right hand; this technique is used, only in movements which are pizzicato throughout.

A technique similar to this, where the strings are strummed like a guitar, is called for in the 4th movement of Rimsky-Korsakov's Capriccio Espagnol, where the violins and cellos are instructed to play pizzicato "quasi guitara", the music here consists of three- and four-note chords, which are fingered and strummed much like the instrument being imitated. Another colorful pizzicato technique used in the same Rimsky-Korsakov piece mentioned above is two-handed pizzicato, indicated by the markings m.s. and m.d. (for mano sinistra, left han

D. Djajakusuma

Djadoeg Djajakusuma was an Indonesian film director and promoter of traditional art forms. Born to a nobleman and his wife in Temanggung, Central Java, Djajakusuma became interested in the arts at a young age, choosing to pursue a career in theatre. During the Japanese occupation from 1943 to 1945 he was a translator and actor, in the four-year national revolution which followed he worked for the military's educational division, several news agencies, in drama. In 1951, Djajakusuma joined the National Film Corporation at the invitation of Usmar Ismail. After making his directorial debut with Embun, Djajakusuma released a further eleven films with the company before leaving in 1964, he returned to traditional Indonesian theatre, including wayang. Although he continued to direct movies independently of Perfini, most of his energies were dedicated to promoting traditional art forms and teaching cinematography. After over a decade of poor health and high blood pressure, Djajakusuma collapsed during a ceremony and died.

He was buried in Karet Bivak Cemetery. The dedicated but angered Djajakusuma was influenced by Usmar Ismail's realist views, although he focused more on traditional aspects of life, his theatrical performances attempted to modernize traditional forms so that they could be better received in a modern world. He is credited with revitalising the Betawi theatre form lenong and received numerous awards for his filmmaking, including a lifetime achievement award at the Indonesian Film Festival. Djajakusuma was born on 1 August 1918 in Parakan, Central Java, Dutch East Indies, to a priyayi father, Raden Mas Aryo Djojokoesomo, his wife Kasimah. Djajakusuma was the fifth child of six born to the couple, who lived comfortably off Djojokoesomo's salary as a government official. While young he enjoyed watching stage performances, such as wayang puppetry and the traditional dance form tayuban. With his friends, he would act out the bedtime stories; when imported Hollywood films began to be screened, he was an avid viewer, watching Westerns and works starring Charlie Chaplin.

Owing to his position as the son of a nobleman, Djajakusuma was able to receive an education. He completed his studies in Semarang, Central Java, graduating from the natural sciences programme at a senior high school there in 1941. Although his family hoped that he would become a government employee like his father, Djajakusuma decided to go into the performing arts, he returned to his hometown for a short time before realising that he would have little opportunity in Parakan. Accordingly, in early 1943 – a year after the Indies were occupied by the Empire of Japan – Djajakusuma moved to the colony's political centre, Jakarta, to find work. Djajakusuma became employed at the Cultural Centre as a actor under Armijn Pane. Among the works he translated were several pieces by the Swedish playwright August Strindberg and Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen, as well as a history of Japan and several kabuki stage plays. While with the Centre, Djajakusuma wrote. In his free time, Djajakusuma helped establish the amateur theatre company Maya, together with artists such as HB Jassin, Rosihan Anwar, Usmar Ismail.

The troupe, formed in response to a desire for greater artistic freedom, performed translations of European works and original works by Ismail and El Hakim. To promote a sense of Indonesian nationalism while still conforming with the Japanese censorship bureau's rules, several of Maya's plays did not explicitly promote Japan, but rather the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Themes supporting the Indonesian nationalist movement, remained implicit in the works. With Maya, Djajakusuma travelled from village to village. President Sukarno proclaimed Indonesia's independence on 17 August 1945, days after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Expecting the Dutch colonial government to return and Ismail helped establish the Independent Artists as a form of resistance; the group travelled throughout the city, spreading news of Indonesia's proclaimed independence while performing from an open-air truck. After the arrival of the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration, the group sometimes attempted to spy on the Europeans or hide information which would be considered useful to the returning Dutch forces.

Owing to this dangerous work, Djajakusuma began carrying a pistol, went to Banten to ask a kyai to make him impervious to bullets. In early 1946, with the Dutch colonial forces in control of Jakarta, Djajakusuma fled to the new national capital at Yogyakarta. There, he spent a time with the national news agency Antara before joining the military's educational division, rising to the rank of captain. For the military Djajakusuma edited the weekly Tentara. Despite his involvement in the press, he did not abandon the theatre. Djajakusuma was hired by the Ministry of Information in 1947 to teach at a school for the performance arts, the Mataram Entertainment Foundation. Through Mataram, he and Ismail were introduced to filmmakers Andjar Asmara and Sutarto. Meanwhile, Djajakusuma was put in charge of censoring radio broadcasts in Republican-held areas, a duty he held until the Dutch captured Yogyakarta on 19 December 1948. Djajakusuma fled the city met up with Republican forces. Using an old radio and a bicycle-po

─░zmir Metro

İzmir Metro is a metro system in İzmir, Turkey, in the process of being extended with new stations being put in service. The current system, consisting of one line, starts from Göztepe station in Fahrettin Altay in the southern portion of the metropolitan area and runs towards northeast to end at Evka-3 in Bornova. İzmir's metro line is 20.1-kilometre long, serves 17 stations as of 26 July 2014. By 1990, it was thought that the existing public transport system in Izmir could no longer support the growing population. A plan was thought of to build a rapid transit network by rail to cope with this. A contract was signed in 1993, the handover was in 1994. Construction had begun in 1995 and it was completed in around 4 years. In May 2000, the system came into public service. Up to that moment, the total cost of the system had been $US600 million. Yapı Merkezi was the main contractor for all design and civil works as well as the third-rail power system. AdTranz was responsible for the rolling stock and the signalling, power-supply and communication systems.

The Izmir Light Rail Vehicle is tailor-made for the LRTS. It is 3760-mm high, 2650-mm wide, 23,500-mm long with a maximum speed of 80 km/h; the maximum acceleration is 1.0 m/s with a seating capacity of 44 and a standing capacity of 140. All LRVs are self-powered and the drive and braking systems are controlled by on-board computer. A train consists of two to five vehicles with driver's cabin at each end; the LRV is a six-axle articulated unit with three bogies. The first and last bogies are powered; the auxiliary power system is based on a static converter-inverter, supplied from a 750 VDC third rail and supplying 3-phase x 400 VAC at 50 Hz for compressor, lights, battery charging, etc. The 24 VDC battery system supplies the on-board computer as well as other safety systems such as automatic train control, train radio, passenger displays, emergency lights, etc; the tunnel safety aspects have top priority. A more ambitious rapid transit system, named İZBAN connects the north of the city, Aliağa to the south terminus of Cumaovası, via Adnan Menderes Airport and several other important financial and commercial areas such as Karşıyaka and Alsancak.

The İzban and Metro will provide interchange with each other at Halkapınar station. Basic fare on the Metro is 2.86 TL for adult passengers and 1.65 TL for student passengers if the İzmirimkart card is used. By the end of 2011, the Metro, or any other transport system in the city will no longer accept cash, or the jeton, brought by cash and used to pass the ticket barriers at the stations; the Metro carries about 30 million passengers/year and to the end of September 2005 160 million passengers had travelled since the opening in May 2000. İZBAN Rail transport in İzmir Tram İzmir İzmir Metro – official website İzmir at

First Commerce Bancshares

First Commerce Bancshares Inc. was a banking company whose main subsidiary, National Bank of Commerce, was the largest bank in Lincoln, Nebraska. On July 17, 2000, First Commerce's banks became part of Wells Fargo Bank. At the time First Commerce had $2.3 billion in assets. National Bank of Commerce had $1.5 billion in assets. Other units of First Commerce included a mortgage company, an asset management company, NBC/Computer Services Corporation. National Bank of Commerce, Lincoln Western Nebraska National Bank, North Platte First National Bank & Trust Co. Kearney The Overland National Bank, Grand Island The First National Bank of McCook The First National Bank of West Point Western Nebraska National Bank, Valentine City National Bank & Trust, Hastings Morris Weil moved from France to the United States in 1875 at age 17. After starting the Lincoln Paint and Color Company in 1892, he started the state-chartered The Bank of Commerce in 1902 with $50,000 in capital. Weil served as president until his death 43 years though he had started the bank for his son Carl who worked in another bank in town.

During the Panic of 1907, while many banks failed, Weil's skill kept The Bank of Commerce going. Weil sought a national charter led to a series of agricultural crises, yet under Weil's leadership, the name of the bank changed to The National Bank of Commerce of Lincoln. One of the keys to Weil's success was Weil's ability to visit and advise small community banks around the state of Nebraska. In addition, about half of his deposits came from the banks he visited. Weil attracted many of the businesses operating in Lincoln. National Bank of Commerce added one of Nebraska's first savings departments in 1911, By 1924, the bank had grown so much that it needed a new headquarters, a six-story building went up at 13th and O streets. National Bank of Commerce survived one of the few banks to do so. In 1945, Byron Dunn, a bank employee since he was 17 years old in 1905, replaced Weil after his death. In the 1920s, Dunn had visited Colorado in order to collect on cattle loans, which National Bank of Commerce had arranged through a bank in Denver.

After that bank went under, Dunn and a group of cowboys rounded up cattle, though in some cases other banks claimed the cattle did not belong to National Bank of Commerce. Still, Dunn had determination and the most cowboys, his bank collected most of the cattle. Under Dunn, National Bank of Commerce became "a full-service financial services facility", he added more advertising, improved the bank's appearance, added charge accounts, had checks printed in Braille. Dunn became involved in the community, helped to start an employee newspaper, built a lodge in South Bend. Dunn retired in 1961 with his bank over $80 million in deposits. Glenn Max Yaussi, who started as a $55 a month employee in 1934, succeeded Dunn. Yaussi hired consultants, he arranged a merger with Lincoln's First Trust Company, one of the top trust companies in the state, adding a mortgage department and a farm management department. In 1964, National Bank of Commerce increased deposits by offering one of the highest savings interest rates in the country.

That same year, the bank bought a computer for its accounting and became one of the first banks in the region to computerize its operations, subsequently providing computer services to other banks. In 1967, Paul Amen succeeded Yaussi, who became chairman and CEO. In 1968, National Bank of Commerce joined with other banks to offer a Master Charge credit card through MidAmerica Bankcard Association; that same year, the bank began offering travel services. In 1972, National Bank of Commerce took over Mutual Savings Company of Lincoln, which had nearly $1 million in assets but grew to $23 million five years later; the next year, the bank added Nebraska Savings Company of Scottsbluff. During the 1970s, the bank took over the bond underwriter Robert E. Schweser Company, Inc. and started NBC Leasing Company. National Bank of Commerce built a new 12-story headquarters. James Stuart Jr. who came to National Bank of Commerce from Citibank, became president in the 1980s and began an affiliate system. The bank holding company First Commerce Bancshares was incorporated in 1985.

During the 1990s, NBC/Computer Software services had 284 banks as customers. First Commerce Mortgage Company had $10 million in new mortgages in 1993; the BankCard Services division had 90,000 credit cards with $78 million in outstanding credit. Early in 2000, the purchase of First Commerce Bancshares by Wells Fargo was announced. To complete the deal, First Commerce had to sell City National to Heritage Bank of Aurora because Wells Fargo would have had two-thirds of the market in Hastings, more than allowed by federal law. National Bank of Commerce sold a Lincoln branch to Pinnacle Bancorp; the deal gave Wells Fargo over $4 billion in assets in Nebraska, more than twice what the bank had before. Wells Fargo had 900 employees in the state


"Scherbenmeer" is the fourth single off Christina Stürmer's fourth album, Lebe Lauter. The song was released in Austria, Germany and throughout the European Union; the music video starts with Stürmer lying on a dirty bed in an old apartment. Scenes of her singing throughout hanging curtains are shown. Shots are shown of her singing live in the apartment; as the chorus starts, Stürmer throws a picture at the wall. Shots of Stürmer singing on broken pieces of glass are shown; as the bridge starts, Stürmer walks into the kitchen. Stürmer is shown with her band in the living room, as the chorus starts for the second time, she kicks the coffee table in frustration, knocking everything on it down. Towards the end of the song, Stürmer is shown sitting at a table in an empty room, she grabs a bat and smashes a piece of glass into pieces. Scenes of her back in the kitchen are shown throwing her plates, slamming the table, getting up and throwing her chair against the wall. Stürmer is shown singing live and throwing random things around the apartment.

Throughout the video, Stürmer is shown taking pictures of her and members of her band

Chicken balls

Chicken balls are a food consisting of small, spherical or nearly spherical pieces of chicken. They are eaten in several different cuisines. Chicken balls are a type of modern Chinese food served in Canada, United States, the United Kingdom as a staple of Chinese take-out; the dish consists of small chunks of fried chicken breast meat covered in a crispy batter coating. They are served with curry sauce and sour sauce or plum sauce; these are unheard of in China, depending on the recipe and referred name. Another kind of chicken balls, which are similar to southern Chinese fish balls, may be found in countries in East and Southeast Asia, such as the Philippines and Japan. Chicken balls are a part of several other culinary traditions, including Italian Jewish cuisine and Islamic Canadian Chinese cuisine Chicken nugget Canadian Chinese restaurant menu featuring chicken balls