The Baroque is a ornate and extravagant style of architecture, painting and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It preceded the Rococo and Neoclassical styles, it was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well. The Baroque style used contrast, exuberant detail, deep colour and surprise to achieve a sense of awe; the style began at the start of the 17th century in Rome spread to France, northern Italy and Portugal to Austria and southern Germany. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an more flamboyant style, called rocaille or Rococo, which appeared in France and central Europe until the mid to late 18th century; the English word baroque comes directly from the French, may have been adapted from the Portuguese term barroco, a flawed pearl. Both words are related to the Spanish term berruca; the term did not describe a style of music or art.
Prior to the 18th century, the French baroque and Portuguese barroco were terms related to jewelry, An example from 1531 uses the term to describe pearls in an inventory of Charles V's treasures. The word appears in a 1694 edition of Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française, which describes baroque as "only used for pearls that are imperfectly round." A 1728 Portuguese dictionary describes barroco as relating to a "coarse and uneven pearl."The French term for the artistic style may have had roots in the medieval Latin word baroco, a philosophical term, invented in the 13th century by scholastics to describe a complicated type of syllogism, or logical argument. In the 16th century the philosopher Michel de Montaigne associated the term'baroco' with "Bizarre and uselessly complicated." In the 18th century, the term was used to describe music, was not flattering. In an anonymous satirical review of the première of Jean-Philippe Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie in October 1733, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734, the critic wrote that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was unsparing with dissonances changed key and meter, speedily ran through every compositional device.
In 1762, Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française wrote that the term could be used figuratively to describe something "irregular, bizarre or unequal."Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a musician and composer as well as philosopher, wrote in 1768 in the Encyclopédie: "Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused, loaded with modulations and dissonances. The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, the movement limited, it appears that term comes from the word'baroco' used by logicians."In 1788, the term was defined by Quatremère de Quincy in the Encyclopédie Méthodique as "an architectural style, adorned and tormented". The terms "style baroque" and "musique baroque" appeared in Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française in 1835. By the mid-19th century, art critics and historians had adopted the term as a way to ridicule post-Renaissance art; this was the sense of the word as used in 1855 by the leading art historian Jacob Burkhardt, who wrote that baroque artists "despised and abused detail" because they lacked "respect for tradition."Alternatively, a derivation from the name of the Italian painter Federico Barocci has been suggested.
In 1888, the art historian Heinrich Wölfflin published the first serious academic work on the style, Renaissance und Barock, which described the differences between the painting and architecture of the Renaissance and the Baroque. The Baroque style of architecture was a result of doctrines adopted by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1545–63, in response to the Protestant Reformation; the first phase of the Counter-Reformation had imposed a severe, academic style on religious architecture, which had appealed to intellectuals but not the mass of churchgoers. The Council of Trent decided instead to appeal to a more popular audience, declared that the arts should communicate religious themes with direct and emotional involvement. Lutheran Baroque art developed as a confessional marker of identity, in response to the Great Iconoclasm of Calvinists. Baroque churches were designed with a large central space, where the worshippers could be close to the altar, with a dome or cupola high overhead, allowing light to illuminate the church below.
The dome was one of the central symbolic features of baroque architecture illustrating the union between the heavens and the earth, The inside of the cupola was lavishly decorated with paintings of angels and saints, with stucco statuettes of angels, giving the impression to those below of looking up at heaven. Another feature of baroque churches are the quadratura. Quadratura paintings of Atlantes below the cornices appear to be supporting the ceiling of the church. Unlike the painted ceilings of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, which combined different scenes, each with its own perspective, to be looked at one at a time, the Baroque ceiling paintings were created so the viewer on the floor of the church would see the entire ceiling in correct perspective, as if the figures were real; the interiors of baroque churches became more and more ornate in the High Baroque, an
The Migration Period was a period that lasted from 375 AD to 538 AD, during which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe and after the decline of the Western Roman Empire into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns. This period has been termed in English by the German loanword Völkerwanderung and—from the Roman and Greek perspective—the Barbarian Invasions. Many of the migrations were movements of Germanic, Hunnic and other peoples into the territory of the declining Roman Empire, with or without accompanying invasions or war. Historians give differing dates regarding the duration of this period, but the Migration Period is regarded as beginning with the invasion of Europe by the Huns from Asia in 375 and ending either with the conquest of Italy by the Lombards in 568, or at some point between 700 and 800. Various factors contributed to this phenomenon, the role and significance of each one is still much discussed among experts on the subject. Starting in 382, the Roman Empire and individual tribes made treaties regarding their settlement in its territory.
The Franks, a Germanic tribe that would found Francia—a predecessor of modern France and Germany—settled in the Roman Empire and were given a task of securing the northeastern Gaul border. Western Roman rule was first violated with the Crossing of the Rhine and the following invasions of the Vandals and Suebi. With wars ensuing between various tribes, as well as local populations in the Western Roman Empire and more power was transferred to Germanic and Roman militaries. There are contradicting opinions whether the fall of the Western Roman Empire was a result or a cause of these migrations, or both; the Eastern Roman Empire was less affected by migrations and survived until the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453. In the modern period, the Migration Period was described with a rather negative connotation, seen more as contributing to the fall of the empire. In place of the fallen Western Rome, Barbarian kingdoms arose in the 5th and 6th centuries and decisively shaped the European Early Middle Ages.
The migrants comprised war bands or tribes of 10,000 to 20,000 people, but in the course of 100 years they numbered not more than 750,000 in total, compared to an average 39.9 million population of the Roman Empire at that time. Although immigration was common throughout the time of the Roman Empire, the period in question was, in the 19th century defined as running from about the 5th to 8th centuries AD; the first migrations of peoples were made by Germanic tribes such as the Goths, the Vandals, the Anglo-Saxons, the Lombards, the Suebi, the Frisii, the Jutes, the Burgundians, the Alemanni, the Scirii and the Franks. Invasions—such as the Viking, the Norman, the Varangian, the Hungarian, the Moorish, the Turkic and the Mongol—also had significant effects. Germanic peoples moved out of southern Scandinavia and northern Germany to the adjacent lands between the Elbe and Oder after 1000 BC; the first wave moved westward and southward, moving into southern Germany up to the Roman provinces of Gaul and Cisalpine Gaul by 100 BC, where they were stopped by Gaius Marius and Julius Caesar.
It is this western group, described by the Roman historian Tacitus and Julius Caesar. A wave of Germanic tribes migrated eastward and southward from Scandinavia between 600 and 300 BC to the opposite coast of the Baltic Sea, moving up the Vistula near the Carpathians. During Tacitus' era they included lesser known tribes such as the Tencteri, Cherusci and Chatti; the first phase of invasions, occurring between AD 300 and 500, is documented by Greek and Latin historians but difficult to verify archaeologically. It puts Germanic peoples in control of most areas of what was the Western Roman Empire; the Tervingi entered Roman territory in 376. Some time thereafter in Marcianopolis, the escort to Fritigern was killed while meeting with Lupicinus; the Tervingi rebelled, the Visigoths, a group derived either from the Tervingi or from a fusion of Gothic groups invaded Italy and sacked Rome in 410, before settling in Gaul, 50 years in Iberia, founding a kingdom that lasted for 250 years. They were followed into Roman territory first by a confederation of Herulian and Scirian warriors, under Odoacer, that deposed Romulus Augustulus on 4 September 476, by the Ostrogoths, led by Theodoric the Great, who settled in Italy.
In Gaul, the Franks entered Roman lands during the fifth century, after consolidating power under Childeric and his son Clovis’s decisive victory over Syagrius in 486, established themselves as rulers of northern Roman Gaul. Fending off challenges from the Allemanni and Visigoths, the Frankish kingdom became the nucleus of what would become France and Germany; the initial Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain occurred during the fifth century, when Roman control of Britain had come to an end. The Burgundians settled in northwestern Italy and Eastern France in the fif
Helmold of Bosau was a Saxon historian of the 12th century and a priest at Bosau near Plön. He was a friend of the two bishops of Oldenburg in Holstein and Gerold, who did much to Christianize the Polabian Slavs. Helmold was born near Goslar, he grew up in Holstein, received his instruction in Brunswick from Gerold, the future bishop of Oldenburg. He came under the direction of Vicelinus, the Apostle of the Wends, first in the Augustinian monastery of Faldera, afterwards known as Neumünster, he became a deacon about 1150, became a parish priest in 1156 at Bosau on Großer Plöner See. At Bishop Gerold's instigation Helmold wrote his Chronica Slavorum, a history of the conquest and conversion of the Polabian Slavs from the time of Charlemagne to 1171; the purpose of this chronicle was to demonstrate how Christianity and the German nationality succeeded in gaining a footing among the Wends in the eastern portion of Holstein. As an eyewitness he gives a clear description in fluent Latin of Vicelinus's missionary labors, of the founding of the bishopric in Oldenburg, of the transfer of this bishopric to Lübeck when German commerce at the latter place had become more important than in the former city, of the spread of German influence among the Wends, of the merciless subjugation and extermination of these, of the summoning to their lands of foreign settlers, principally Westphalian and Dutch.
The work is divided into two parts: the first covers a period closing with the year 1168, while the second continues to the year 1171. This second part, was written subsequently to 1172. Helmold was a critical historian, calling Henry the Lion "out for money", criticizing the Wendish Crusades, he said that among the troops of Henry the Lion during the Wendish Crusade, there was "only talk of money, never about Christianity" and missionary conversion of the Slavs. Helmold drew his knowledge of the earliest period from the church history of Adam of Bremen and the Saxon records bearing on Henry IV, besides the life of Willehadus, the list of Ansgarius, also a life of Vicelinus, but the summaries which he made of these records are unreliable, he is, the most important source of information for the history of his own period, his account of which rests on the verbal information of Vicelinus and of Gerold. His fund of information becomes noticeably meager after the latter's death in 1163, his trustworthiness was questioned in the 19th century owing to his antagonism towards the Archbishops of Bremen and his partiality for the Oldenburg-Lübeck bishopric, but it should not be supposed that be was guilty of an intentional falsification of facts.
The chronicle was first published in 1556 at Frankfurt, in Monumenta Germaniae Historica: Scriptores, XXI, 11-99, in "Script. Rer. Germ." Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, was Helmold's patron. The chronicle was continued down to 1209 by Abbot Arnold of Lübeck; the Chronica were first edited by Siegmund Schorkel. The best edition is by J. M. Lappenberg in Monumenta Germaniae hist. scriptores, XXI. For critical works on the Chronica see August Potthast, Bibliotheca hist. medaevius. Helmoldus. Wattenbach, Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen, II, 338-41. Potthast, Bibliotheca historica, I, 576; this article incorporates text from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia article "Helmold" by Patricius Schlager, a publication now in the public domain. "Helmold Of Bosau". Encyclopædia Britannica 2006 Ultimate Reference Suite DVD. Accessed May 14, 2007. Helmold von BosauAttribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Helmold". Encyclopædia Britannica. 13. Cambridge University Press.
The Germanic peoples are an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group of Northern European origin identified by their use of the Germanic languages. Their history stretches from the 2nd millennium BCE up to the present day. Proto-Germanic peoples are believed to have emerged during the Nordic Bronze Age, which developed out of the Battle Axe culture in southern Scandinavia. During the Iron Age various Germanic tribes began a southward expansion at the expense of Celtic peoples, which led to centuries of sporadic violent conflict with ancient Rome, it is from Roman authors. The decisive victory of Arminius at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 CE is believed to have prevented the eventual Romanization of the Germanic peoples, has therefore been considered a turning point in world history. Germanic tribes settled the entire Roman frontier along the Rhine and the Danube, some established close relations with the Romans serving as royal tutors and mercenaries, sometimes rising to the highest offices in the Roman military.
Meanwhile, Germanic tribes expanded into Eastern Europe, where the Goths subdued the local Iranian nomads and came to dominate the Pontic Steppe launching sea expeditions into the Balkans and Anatolia as far as Cyprus. The westward expansion of the Huns into Europe in the late 4th century CE pushed many Germanic tribes into the Western Roman Empire, their vacated lands were filled by Slavs. Much of these territories were reclaimed in following centuries. Other tribes became known as the Anglo-Saxons. With the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, a series of Germanic kingdoms emerged, of which, Francia gained a dominant position; this kingdom formed the Holy Roman Empire under the leadership of Charlemagne, recognized by Pope Leo III in 800 CE. Meanwhile, North Germanic seafarers referred to as Vikings, embarked on a massive expansion which led to the establishment of the Duchy of Normandy, Kievan Rus' and their settlement of the British Isles and the North Atlantic Ocean as far as North America.
With the North Germanic abandonment of their native religion in the 11th century, nearly all Germanic peoples had been converted to Christianity. In about 222 BCE, the first use of the Latin term "Germani" appears in the Fasti Capitolini inscription de Galleis Insvbribvs et Germ; this may be referring to Gaul or related people. The term Germani shows up again written by Poseidonios, but is a quotation inserted by the author Athenaios who wrote much later. Somewhat the first surviving detailed discussions of Germani and Germania are those of Julius Caesar, whose memoirs are based on first-hand experience. From Caesar's perspective, Germania was a geographical area of land on the east bank of the Rhine opposite Gaul, which Caesar left outside direct Roman control; this word provides the etymological origin of the modern concept of "Germanic" languages and Germany as a geographical abstraction. For some classical authors Germania included regions of Sarmatia, as well as an area under Roman control on the west bank of the Rhine.
Additionally, in the south there were Celtic peoples still living east of the Rhine and north of the Alps. Caesar and others noted differences of culture which could be found on the east of the Rhine, but the theme of all these cultural references was that this was a wild and dangerous region, less civilized than Gaul, a place that required additional military vigilance. Caesar used the term Germani for a specific tribal grouping in northeastern Belgic Gaul, west of the Rhine, the largest part of whom were the Eburones, he made clear. These are the so-called Germani Cisrhenani, whom Caesar believed to be related to the peoples east of the Rhine, descended from immigrants into Gaul. Tacitus suggests that this was the original meaning of the word "Germani" – as the name of a single tribal nation west of the Rhine, ancestral to the Tungri, not the name of a whole race as it came to mean, he suggested that two large Belgic tribes neighbouring Caesar's Germani, the Nervii and the Treveri, liked to call themselves Germanic in his time, in order not to be associated with Gaulish indolence.
Caesar described this group of tribes both as Germani. Gauls are associated with Celtic languages, the term Germani is associated with Germanic languages, but Caesar did not discuss languages in detail; the geographer Ptolemy described the place where these people lived as Germania, which according to his accounts was bordered by the Rhine and Danube Rivers, but he circumscribed into Greater Germania an area which included Jutland and an enormous island known as Scandia. While saying that the Germani had ancestry across the Rhine, Caesar did not describe these tribes as recent immigrants, saying that they had defended themselves some generations earlier from the invading Cimbri and Teutones, it has been claimed, for example by Maurits Gysseling, that the place names of this region show evidence of an early presence of Germanic languages, as early as the 2nd century BCE. The Celtic culture and language were however influential als
Plön is the district seat of the Plön district in Schleswig-Holstein and has about 8,700 inhabitants. It lies right on the shores of Schleswig-Holstein's biggest lake, the Great Plön Lake, as well as on several smaller lakes, touching the town on all sides; the town's landmark is Plön Castle, a chateau built in the 17th century on a hill overlooking the town. Plön has a grammar school with a 300-year history, is home to a German Navy non-commissioned officer school and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology; the town, nestled as it is in the hilly, wooded lake district of Holstein Switzerland has importance in the tourism industry. In the course of the Migration Period, Slavic tribes entered the region of Plön during the early 7th century following the withdrawal of the original Germanic population. On the large island opposite Plön, called Olsborg, they built a large fortification, they called their settlement Plune, which means "ice-free water". In 1075, Kruto lured Budivoj of the Nakonids into the "castrum plunense", laid siege to him, once Budivoj's men had given themselves up after Kruto's promises to let them withdraw Kruto had them slain.
In 1139 the Holstein count, Adolf II of Schauenburg, destroyed the fortress, ending the domination of the Slavs in the region of Plön. Twenty years Adolf II had the castle on the island rebuilt, but soon had it moved to the present hill of Schlossberg, it was here, under the protection of the castle and close to the major trading route from Lübeck to the north, that a Saxon market town emerged. In 1236, Plön was granted town rights under Lübeck law. Strategically located on a narrow isthmus between the lakes and the River Schwentine, Plön remained a centre of the County of Holstein until the Danish royal house fell in the 15th century. Between 1561 and 1729, Plön was the capital of the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön; the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein-Plön emerged in 1622 as a result of succession in the Danish royal house. From 1633 to 1636 a Renaissance castle was built on the site of the old castle by Duke Joachim Ernest, Plön became the capital of the small but independent princedom.
As a residence town Plön experienced a considerable increase in status. For example, in 1685 Duke John Adolphus founded the new town northwest of the town in order to settle craftsmen here and thus increase the economic might of the duchy. Under Charles Frederick the castle district was expanded with several baroque buildings and a pleasure garden. At that time the town had about 1,000 inhabitants and reached as far as the bridge over the Schwentine in the east and as far as the end of today's pedestrian zone in the west. Both entrances were protected by gates. In 1761 the Duchy fell back into the hands of the Danish crown. Plön remained under Danish rule until the Second Schleswig War in 1864. Although it was the Danish king's summer residence from time to time, it remained otherwise a sleepy provincial town of about 2,000 inhabitants; the cultural life of the minor residence was charmingly described by Rochus von Liliencron in his "Childhood Memories". In the mid-19th century, the Danish crown prince spent a few years of his summer vacation in Plön Castle, since when it has been decorated in white plaster with a gray roof.
In 1867 Plön became a county town following the introduction of Prussian administrative reforms. The Hohenzollern princes were educated for a time in Plön; the Princes' Island is still owned by the House of Hohenzollern. Since 1868, Plön Castle was a Prussian military school. After World War I it became a boarding school that served as a 1933-1945 as a National Political Institutes of Education. Since 1946, it has again been a state boarding school. In 1891 Emil Otto Zacharias founded the first "Biological Station" for freshwater research on German soil on the Plöner See, it was established as a private research institute with the aid of financial support from the Prussian government and several private citizens. After his death, August Thienemann took the lead, its successor for a long time was the Max Planck Institute of Limnology, now renamed the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology. The Wehrmacht barracks at Stadtheide near Plön became the temporary location of the remaining members of the Hitler cabinet who had fled Berlin after the death of Adolf Hitler on 30 April 1945.
Hitler believed that Reichsfuhrer SS Heinrich Himmler was located in Plön and ordered newly appointed Luftwaffe commander Robert Ritter von Greim to fly there to arrest him. However, Himmler had left several hours before Von Greim's arrival. On 1 May, Commander of the Navy, Admiral Karl Dönitz, moved into the buildings of the Stadtheide Barracks but it was to be a short stay. Dönitz had appointed him as his successor. On 2 May Dönitz and the new Government Executive of the Reich fled to Flensburg before the approaching British troops and formed the short-lived Flensburg Government. After WWII Plon was chosen as the site for King Alfred School, a secondary school for British Forces children under the headmastership of Freddie Spencer Chapman with his staff at the Ruhleben Barracks site, As such the town holds a place of affection with many former pupils across the world and the declining number of surviving teachers and their families. King Alfred School, Plön can rightly claim to be the first comprehensive school in the UK system.
This school existed from 1948 to 1959. The Ruhleben Barracks site had been the German Navy U-Boat training school and has now reverted to a similar function as M. U. S the non-commissioned officer school; the street nearby has a Lighthous
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel. Known in more dated English as Sleswick-Holsatia, the region is called Slesvig-Holsten in Danish; the Low German name is Sleswig-Holsteen, the North Frisian name is Slaswik-Holstiinj. The name can refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former South Jutland County in Denmark; the term "Holstein" derives from Old Saxon Holseta Land. It referred to the central of the three Saxon tribes north of the River Elbe: Tedmarsgoi and Sturmarii; the area of the tribe of the Holsts was between the Stör River and Hamburg, after Christianization, their main church was in Schenefeld. Saxon Holstein became a part of the Holy Roman Empire after Charlemagne's Saxon campaigns in the late eighth century. Since 811, the northern frontier of Holstein was marked by the River Eider.
The term Schleswig comes from the city of Schleswig. The name derives from the Schlei inlet in the east and vik meaning inlet in Old Norse or settlement in Old Saxon, linguistically identical with the "-wick" or "-wich" element in place-names in Britain; the Duchy of Schleswig or Southern Jutland was an integral part of Denmark, but was in medieval times established as a fief under the Kingdom of Denmark, with the same relation to the Danish Crown as for example Brandenburg or Bavaria vis-à-vis the Holy Roman Emperor. Around 1100, the Duke of Saxony gave Holstein, as it was his own country, to Count Adolf I of Schauenburg. Schleswig and Holstein have at different times belonged in part or to either Denmark or Germany, or have been independent of both nations; the exception is that Schleswig had never been part of Germany until the Second Schleswig War in 1864. For many centuries, the King of Denmark was both a Danish Duke of Schleswig and a German Duke of Holstein. Schleswig was either integrated into Denmark or was a Danish fief, Holstein was a German fief and once a sovereign state long ago.
Both were for several centuries ruled by the kings of Denmark. In 1721, all of Schleswig was united as a single duchy under the king of Denmark, the great powers of Europe confirmed in an international treaty that all future kings of Denmark should automatically become dukes of Schleswig, Schleswig would always follow the same order of succession as the one chosen in the Kingdom of Denmark. In the church, following the reformation, German was used in the southern part of Schleswig and Danish in the northern part; this would prove decisive for shaping national sentiments in the population, as well as after 1814 when mandatory school education was introduced. The administration of both duchies was conducted in German, despite the fact that they were governed from Copenhagen; the German national awakening that followed the Napoleonic Wars gave rise to a strong popular movement in Holstein and Southern Schleswig for unification with a new Prussian-dominated Germany. This development was paralleled by an strong Danish national awakening in Denmark and Northern Schleswig.
This movement called for the complete reintegration of Schleswig into the Kingdom of Denmark and demanded an end to discrimination against Danes in Schleswig. The ensuing conflict is sometimes called the Schleswig-Holstein Question. In 1848, King Frederick VII of Denmark declared that he would grant Denmark a liberal constitution and the immediate goal for the Danish national movement was to ensure that this constitution would give rights to all Danes, i.e. not only to those in the Kingdom of Denmark, but to Danes living in Schleswig. Furthermore, they demanded protection for the Danish language in Schleswig. A liberal constitution for Holstein was not considered in Copenhagen, since it was well known that the political élite of Holstein were more conservative than Copenhagen's. Representatives of German-minded Schleswig-Holsteiners demanded that Schleswig and Holstein be unified and allowed its own constitution and that Schleswig join Holstein as a member of the German Confederation; these demands were rejected by the Danish government in 1848, the Germans of Holstein and southern Schleswig rebelled.
This began the First Schleswig War. In 1863, conflict broke out again. According to the order of succession of Denmark and Schleswig, the crowns of both Denmark and Schleswig would pass to Duke Christian of Glücksburg, who became Christian IX; the transmission of the duchy of Holstein to the head of the branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Augustenborg, was more controversial. The separation of the two duchies was challenged by the Augustenborg heir, who claimed, as in 1848, to be rightful heir of both Schleswig and Holstein; the promulgation of a common constitution for Denmark and Schleswig in November 1863 prompted Otto von Bismarck to intervene and Prussia and Austria declared war on Denmark. This was the Second War of Schleswig. British attempts to mediate in the London Conference of 1864 failed, an
A pleasure garden is a garden, open to the public for recreation and entertainment. Pleasure gardens differ from other public gardens by serving as venues for entertainment, variously featuring such attractions as concert halls, amusement rides and menageries. Public pleasure gardens have existed for many centuries. In Ancient Rome, the landscaped Gardens of Sallust were developed as a private garden by the historian Sallust; the gardens were acquired by the Roman Emperor Tiberius for public use. Containing many pavilions, a temple to Venus, monumental sculptures, the gardens were open to the public for centuries. Many public pleasure gardens were opened in London in the 18th and 19th centuries, including Cremorne Gardens, Cuper's Gardens, Marylebone Gardens, Ranelagh Gardens, Royal Surrey Gardens and Vauxhall Gardens. Many hosted promenade concerts. A smaller version of a pleasure garden is a tea garden, where visitors may stroll; the pleasure garden forms one of the six parts of the 18th century "perfect garden", the others being the kitchen garden, an orchard, a park, an orangery or greenhouse, a menagerie.
Melanie Doderer-Winkler, "Magnificent Entertainments: Temporary Architecture for Georgian Festivals". ISBN 0300186428 and ISBN 978-0300186420. Wroth, A. E. & W. W; the London Pleasure Gardens of the Eighteenth Century. Media related to pleasure gardens at Wikimedia Commons