Lyon or Lyons is a city in east-central France, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, about 470 km from Paris and 320 km from Marseille. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais, Lyon had a population of 506,615 in 2014 and is Frances third-largest city after Paris and Marseille. Lyon is the capital of the Metropolis of Lyon and the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, the metropolitan area of Lyon had a population of 2,237,676 in 2013, the second-largest in France after Paris. The city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy and historical and architectural landmarks and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Lyon was historically an important area for the production and weaving of silk. It played a significant role in the history of cinema, the city is known for its famous light festival, Fête des Lumières, which occurs every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a centre for banking, as well as for the chemical, pharmaceutical. The city contains a significant software industry with a focus on video games.
Lyon hosts the headquarters of Interpol and International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014 and it ranked second in France and 39th globally in Mercers 2015 liveability rankings. These refugees had been expelled from Vienne by the Allobroges and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers, dio Cassius says this task was to keep the two men from joining Mark Antony and bringing their armies into the developing conflict. The Roman foundation was at Fourvière hill and was officially called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity, the city became increasingly referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as Desired Mountain is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary, in contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, and dúnon. It became the capital of Gaul, partly due to its convenient location at the convergence of two rivers, and quickly became the main city of Gaul.
Two emperors were born in city, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic senators. Today, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as Primat des Gaules, the Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimus Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, in the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was the Easterner, Irenaeus. Burgundian refugees fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled by the commander of the west, Aëtius. This became the capital of the new Burgundian kingdom in 461, in 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, with the country beyond the Saône, went to Lothair I
Place des Quinconces
The Place des Quinconces, located in Bordeaux, France, is one of the largest city squares in Europe. It was laid out in 1820 on the site of Château Trompette and its guns were turned towards the centre. Its current shape was adopted in 1816, the two rostral columns facing the Garonne were erected by Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau in 1829. One of them symbolises commerce, and the stands for navigation. The white-marble statues of Michel de Montaigne and Charles de Secondat, the principal monument was erected between 1894 and 1902, in memory of the Girondists who fell victim of the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution. It has a large pedestal framed with two basins, decorated with horses and troops, and surmounted by a large column with a statue on top to represent the spirit of liberty. Towards the Tourny square, the city of Bordeaux sitting on the prow of a ship with a cornucopia, to the right of the base, the Dordogne River and to the left the Garonne. At the feet of the tank with horses, Lie, the quadriga horse-fish is a representation of Happiness.
The column was erected by Achille Dumilatre and Victor Rich, in 1942 the horses that were removed during the German occupation of France in World War II were reerected with their bronze restored. Place de la Concorde List of city squares Information on the official site Place des Quinconces on a city map
Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history, the causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years War and the American Revolutionary War, the French government was deeply in debt, Years of bad harvests leading up to the Revolution inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocracy. Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates-General in May 1789, a central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime. The next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the intent on thwarting major reforms. The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy, in a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793.
External threats closely shaped the course of the Revolution, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins. Large numbers of civilians were executed by revolutionary tribunals during the Terror, after the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795. The rule of the Directory was characterised by suspended elections, debt repudiations, financial instability, persecutions against the Catholic clergy, dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. The modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution, almost all future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day, the French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not merely national, for it aimed at benefiting all humanity.
Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of republics and democracies and it became the focal point for the development of all modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, nationalism, socialism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France, historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the sphere in France. A perfect example would be the Palace of Versailles which was meant to overwhelm the senses of the visitor and convince one of the greatness of the French state and Louis XIV. Starting in the early 18th century saw the appearance of the sphere which was critical in that both sides were active. In France, the emergence of the public sphere outside of the control of the saw the shift from Versailles to Paris as the cultural capital of France.
In the 1750s, during the querelle des bouffons over the question of the quality of Italian vs, in 1782, Louis-Sébastien Mercier wrote, The word court no longer inspires awe amongst us as in the time of Louis XIV
Place de la Concorde
The Place de la Concorde is one of the major public squares in Paris, France. Measuring 8.64 hectares in area, it is the largest square in the French capital and it is located in the citys eighth arrondissement, at the eastern end of the Champs-Élysées. The place was designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel in 1755 as a moat-skirted octagon between the Champs-Elysées to the west and the Tuileries Garden to the east, decorated with statues and fountains, the area was named Place Louis XV to honor the king at that time. At the north end, two magnificent identical stone buildings were constructed, separated by the rue Royale, these structures remain among the best examples of Louis Quinze style architecture. Initially, the building served as the French Naval Ministry. Shortly after its construction, the building became the opulent home of the Duc dAumont. It was purchased by the Comte de Crillon, whose family resided there until 1907, the famous luxury Hôtel de Crillon, which currently occupies the building, took its name from its previous owners.
During the French Revolution the statue of Louis XV of France was torn down, the new revolutionary government erected the guillotine in the square, and it was here that King Louis XVI was executed on 21 January 1793. In 1795, under the Directory, the square was renamed Place de la Concorde as a gesture of reconciliation after the turmoil of the French Revolution. After the Bourbon Restoration of 1814, the name was changed back to Place Louis XV, after the July Revolution of 1830 the name was returned to Place de la Concorde and has remained that way since. To the west of the Place is the famous Champs-Élysées, to the east of the Place are the Tuileries Gardens. The Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume and the Musée de lOrangerie, the eastern one houses the French Naval Ministry, and the western one is the Hôtel de Crillon. The Rue Royale leads to the de la Madeleine. The center of the Place is occupied by a giant Egyptian obelisk decorated with hieroglyphics exalting the reign of the pharaoh Ramesses II and it is one of two the Egyptian government gave to the French in the 19th century.
The other one stayed in Egypt, too difficult and heavy to move to France with the technology at that time, in the 1990s, President François Mitterrand gave the second obelisk back to the Egyptians. The obelisk once marked the entrance to the Luxor Temple, the self-declared Khedive of Egypt, Muhammad Ali Pasha, offered the 3, 300-year-old Luxor Obelisk to France in 1829. It arrived in Paris on 21 December 1833, three years later, on 25 October 1836, King Louis Philippe had it placed in the center of Place de la Concorde. The obelisk, a granite column, rises 23 metres high, including the base
A vineyard /ˈvɪnjərd/ is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science and study of production is known as viticulture. The earliest evidence of production dates from between 6000 and 5000 BC. Wine making technology improved considerably with the ancient Greeks but it wasnt until the end of the Roman Empire that cultivation techniques as we know them were common throughout Europe. In medieval Europe the Church was a supporter of wine. They owned and tended the best vineyards in Europe and vinum theologium was considered superior to all others, European vineyards were planted with a wide variety of the Vitis vinifera grape. However, in the late 19th century, the species was nearly destroyed by the plant louse phylloxera accidentally introduced to Europe from North America. Native American grapevines include varieties such as Vitis labrusca, which is resistant to the bug, the quest for vineyard efficiency has produced a bewildering range of systems and techniques in recent years.
Due to the much more fertile New World growing conditions. Innovation in palissage and pruning and thinning methods have replaced more general, traditional concepts like yield per unit area in favor of maximizing yield of desired quality. Many of these new techniques have since adopted in place of traditional practice in the more progressive of the so-called Old World vineyards. Other recent practices include spraying water on vines to protect them from sub-zero temperatures, new grafting techniques, soil slotting, such techniques have made possible the development of wine industries in New World countries such as Canada. Today there is increasing interest in developing organic, ecologically sensitive, biodynamics has become increasingly popular in viticulture. The use of irrigation in recent years has expanded vineyards into areas which were previously unplantable. The research includes developing improved grape varieties and investigating pest control, the International Grape Genome Program is a multi-national effort to discover a genetic means to improving quality, increasing yield and providing a natural resistance to pests.
The implementation of mechanical harvesting is often stimulated by changes in laws, labor shortages. It can be expensive to hire labor for periods of time. Numbers of New World vineyard plantings have been increasing almost as fast as European vineyards are being uprooted, the size of individual vineyards in the New World is significant
The Vieux Lyon is the largest Renaissance district of Lyon in the 5th arrondissement of Lyon. This zone is served by the metro line D In 1954, Vieux-Lyon, covering an area of 424 hectares at the foot of the Fourvière hill, it is one of Europe’s most extensive Renaissance neighborhoods. There are three sections, Saint Jean, Saint Paul and Saint Georges. The Saint Jean quarter, in the Middle Ages, this was the focus of political, the Cathedral of St Jean, seat of the Primate of Gaul, a title still conferred upon the archbishop of Lyon, is a good example of Gothic architecture. The Manecanterie adjoining the cathedral is one of Lyons few extant Romanesque buildings, formerly a choir school, it now houses the museum of the cathedral’s treasures. Saint Jean is home to the Museum of Miniatures and Film Sets, the Saint-Paul section, in the 15th and 16th centuries predominately Italian banker-merchants moved into sumptuous urban residences here called hôtels particuliers. The Hôtel Bullioud and the Hôtel de Gadagne are two magnificent examples and the now houses the Lyon Historical Museum and the International Puppet Museum.
The Loge du Change stands as testimony to the period when trade fairs made the city wealthy, the Saint Paul church with its Romanesque lantern tower and its spectacular spire mark the section’s northern extremity. The Saint Georges section, silk weavers settled here beginning in the 16th century before moving to the Croix Rousse hill in the 19th century, in 1844, the architect Pierre Bossan rebuilt the St Georges Church on the banks of the Saônein a neo-Gothic style. In the Middle Ages, when there were only a few parallel streets between the hill and the Saône, the first traboules were built. Derived from the Latin trans-ambulare, meaning to pass through, traboules are corridors through buildings and their courtyards, visitors can discover an architectural heritage of galleries and spiral staircases in these secret passageways, as unexpected as they are unique. Saint-Paul is the quarter surrounding gare Saint-Paul eand the homonymous church and its the cultural center of Vieux Lyon, with two main institutes, the Maristes and the Lazarists.
The Pont de la Feuillée links these institutes with quai Saint-Vincent and this area underwent an importante mutation in the end of 19th century with the construction the Saint-Paul station. Many ancients buildings were levelled to make room for the future rue Octavio-Mey and the Palais du Bondy, sites remarquables Place Saint-Paul, The metro station serving the valley of Azergues at north of Lyon was built in 1873. Léglise Saint-Paul a subi les aléas du temps, construite une première fois en 549, furent ajoutés en 1875-77 une flèche et le portail néo-gothique. Elle possède un lanterneau roman réparti en deux dômes octogonaux au sommet de lédifice, on peut observer lédifice en bénéficiant dune vue densemble de la place Gerson, du nom dun théologien inhumé dans léglise en 1428. Sur la place se trouve la maison Mourguet où le créateur de Guignol y monta des spectacles, elle possède une tourelle carrée en encorbellement. Saint-Paul is the quarter surrounding gare Saint-Paul eand the homonymous church and its the scholastic pole of Vieux Lyon, with two main institutes, les Maristes et les Lazaristes
Lyon Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral dedicated to Saint John the Baptist, in Lyon, France. It is located on Place Saint-Jean and is the seat of the Archbishop of Lyon, the cathedral was founded by Saint Pothinus and Saint Irenaeus, the first two bishops of Lyon. Begun in the century on the ruins of a 6th-century church. The building is 80 meters long,20 meters wide at the choir, the cathedral organ was built by Daublaine and Callinet and was installed in 1841 at the end of the apse and had 15 stops. It was rebuilt in 1875 by Merklin-Schütze and given 30 stops, the cathedral has the Lyon Astronomical Clock from the 14th century. Until the construction of the Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière, it was the pre-eminent church in Lyon, edouard Commette - most of the first half of the 20th century. Cardinal Foulon Cardinal Gerlier Association Cathédrale de Lyon Primatiale Saint John n. d, Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière Basilica of Saint-Martin dAinay Église Saint-Paul
Place des Terreaux
The Place des Terreaux is a square located in the center of Lyon, France on the Presquîle between the Rhône and the Saône, at the foot of the hill of La Croix-Rousse in the 1st arrondissement of Lyon. The square belongs to the classified as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. However, Renaud de Forez and his successors continued the works undertaken by the bourgeois of Lyon, a two-metre-thick and ten-metre-high new wall was built between the Saône and Rhône. Approximately 500 metres long, this enclosure was pierced by two gates defended by drawbridges and protected by ten towers, a crenelated walk and five stone booths allowed soldiers to watch at the top. The main wall was separated by a 22-metre ditch from another two-metre wall located to the north, in case of siege, the ditch, which was called Terralia nova or Fossés de la Lanterne, could be filled with water. This one entered when needed in a succession of basins, called the Neyron channel, under normal circumstances, the crossbowmen, culverin men used ditches as a training location, first on the Saône side, from 1533 on the Rhône side.
In the 16th century, the walls crumbled, in 1538, the demolition of the enclosure was initiated. The ditch located on the Saône side was filled to build the Boucherie de la Lanterne, in 1555, the nuns of the convent Saint-Pierre were allowed to use the stones of the wall to repair the monastery. In 1578, the lands of the current Place des Terreaux were filled, and in 1617, between 1646 and 1651, Simon Maupin built on the eastern side of the square the Hôtel de ville de Lyon, rebuilt by Jules Hardouin-Mansart, after the fire of 1674. In the 17th century, the nuns of Saint-Pierre rebuilt their convent, on this square was beheaded the Henri Coiffier de Ruzé, Marquis of Cinq-Mars, who was a conspirator against Richelieu. During the French Revolution, the guillotine was installed and running at speed during the tenure of Marie Joseph Chalier. After the siege of Lyon,79 people were beheaded, in the second half of the 19th century, access to the site was expanded to accommodate the restructuring plan of the peninsula led by Claude-Marius Vaïsse.
In 1855, the passage of Terreaux was opened between the square and the Lanterne street, the prefect planned to drill a new street in the north axis of the Palais Saint-Pierre, but this project was never realized. At the center of the square, the municipal officials inaugurated on 22 September 1891 an allegorical fountain of the Saône, made by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi. The sculpted group called Char triomphant de la Garonne represents the Garonne and its four tributaries jumping into the ocean, after the 1889 Exposition Universelle, the monument became too expensive for the city of Bordeaux and was bought in 1890 by the Mayor of Lyon, Antoine Gailleton. The square was redeveloped in 1994 by architect and urban planner Christian Drevet and artist Daniel Buren, to build the underground parking of the square, the fountain was originally located in front of city hall, moved to its current location in the axis of the palace Saint-Pierre. On 29 September 1995, the square was classified as a monument historique, during the cold winter of 2012, the fountain situated in Place des Terreaux froze.
List of streets and squares in Lyon History of the place