Arcueil is a commune in the Val-de-Marne department in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 5.3 km from the center of Paris. The name Arcueil was recorded for the first time in 1119 as Arcoloï, in the 12th century as Arcoïalum, meaning "place of the arches", in reference to the Roman aqueduct carrying water to the Roman city of Lutetia. Still standing, the arches of the Roman aqueduct are still visible since the Middle Ages, crossing the Bièvre River valley near Arcueil. Between 1613 and 1624 a bridge-aqueduct over 1300 ft. long was constructed to convey water from the spring of Rungis, south of Arcueil, across the Bièvre river to the Luxembourg Palace in Paris. Between 1868 and 1872 another aqueduct, still longer, was superimposed above that of the 17th century, forming part of the system conveying water from the river Vanne to Paris; the commune of Arcueil was renamed Arcueil-Cachan in 1894, after the hamlet of Cachan located within the commune. On 26 December 1922, Cachan seceded from the commune of Arcueil-Cachan and became a commune in its own right.
The reduced commune of Arcueil-Cachan was renamed Arcueil. Orange France, formely France Télécom S. A. has its headquarters in Arcueil. Arcueil is served by two stations on Paris RER line B: Arcueil -- Cachan. Primary schools: Five preschools: Henri Barbusse, Danielle Casanova, Jules Ferry, Olympe de Gouges, Pauline Kergomard Five elementary schools: Henri Barbusse, Jules Ferry, Olympe de Gouges, Aimé Césaire, Jean MacéThere is one junior high school, Collège Dulcie September. Residents are served by the Lycée intercommunal Darius-Milhaud in Le Kremlin-Bicêtre. Jean-Antoine de Baïf, member of the "Pléiade". Adrienne Bolland, first woman to fly an airplane across the Andes, was born in Arcueil. Claude Louis Berthollet, chemist. Michel Bulteau and cult film maker, is a native of Arcueil. Pierre and Marie Curie installed at Arcueil an annex of the Institut du Radium for the chemical treatment of radioactive elements. Jean-Paul Gaultier, fashion designer. Pierre-Simon de Laplace, mathematician and physicist.
Henri Rousseau called "Douanier Rousseau", notable naive painter. The Marquis de Sade and libertine. Erik Satie, lived in Arcueil from 1898 to 1925, he is buried in the town. Dulcie September, of the African National Congress, when living in France lodged in Arcueil. Society of Arcueil Communes of the Val-de-Marne department fr:Aqueducs d'Arcueil et de Cachan French Wiki article on the history of the 3 aqueducts INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Official website Arcueil Business Theatre
Belfort is a city in northeastern France in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, situated between Lyon and Strasbourg. It is the biggest town and the administrative centre of the Territoire de Belfort département. Belfort is 141 km from Strasbourg, 290 km from Lyon and 150 km from Zürich; the residents of the city are called "Belfortains". The city is located on the Savoureuse river, on a strategically important natural route between the Rhine and the Rhône – the Belfort Gap or Burgundian Gate, it is located 16 km south from the base of the Ballon d'Alsace mountain range, source of the Savoureuse. The city of Belfort has 50,199 inhabitants. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Belfort forms the largest agglomeration in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region with an urban population of 308,601 inhabitants. Belfort's strategic location, in a natural gap between the Vosges and the Jura, on a route linking the Rhine and the Rhône, has attracted human settlement since Roman times, has made it a frequent target for invading armies.
The site of Belfort was inhabited in Gallo-Roman times. It was subsequently recorded in the 13th century as a possession of the counts of Montbéliard, who granted it a charter in 1307. An Austrian possession, Belfort was transferred to France by the Treaty of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War; the town's fortifications were extended and developed by the military architect Vauban for Louis XIV. Until 1871, Belfort was part of the département of Haut-Rhin, in Alsace; the Siege of Belfort was resisted until the garrison was ordered to surrender 21 days after the armistice between France and Prussia. The region was not annexed by Prussia like the rest of Alsace and was exchanged for other territories in the vicinity of Metz, it formed, the Territoire de Belfort. The siege is commemorated by the Lion of Belfort, by Frédéric Bartholdi. Alsatians who sought a new French home in Belfort made a significant contribution to its industry; the town was bombarded by the German army during World War I and occupied by it during World War II.
In November 1944 the retreating German army held off the French First Army outside the town until French Commandos made a successful night attack on the Salbert Fort. Belfort was liberated on 22 November 1944. On 5 June 1892, Le Petit Journal organised a foot-race from Paris to Belfort, a course of over 380 kilometers, the first large scale long distance running race on record. Over 1,100 competitors registered for the event and over 800 started from the offices of Le Petit Journal, at Paris Opera; this had been the start point for the inaugural Paris–Brest–Paris cycle-race the previous year. The newspaper's circulation increased as the French public followed the progress of race participants, 380 of whom completed the course in under 10 days. In Le Petit Journal on June 18, 1892, Pierre Giffard praised the event as a model for the physical training of a nation faced by hostile neighbours; the event was won by Constant Ramoge in 100 hours 5 minutes. Belfort is a centre for heavy engineering industries dedicated to railways and turbines.
Belfort is the hometown of Alstom where the first TGVs were produced, as well as being the GE Energy European headquarter and a centre of excellence for the manufacturing of gas turbines. Like many other European cities, the volume of road traffic in Belfort continues to increases and dominates transport. Belfort is situated at only 25 mi from the commercial port of Mulhouse-Rhin which allows international trade; the motorway A36 from Beaune to Mulhouse follows a route to the south and east of the city, forms the main axis linking Belfort to other French and European cities. N19 is another major route which joins the south of Belfort with Paris and Switzerland. EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg is located about 60 km east of Belfort. Belfort is well connected with the rest of France, with direct connections by train to major destinations such as Paris, Besançon, Strasbourg, Marseille and Lille, including high-speed trains; some trains operate into Switzerland, such as Zürich stations. There is a train service to Frankfurt am Main in Germany.
Regional services connect Belfort to Montbéliard, Besançon, Vesoul, Épinal and Nancy. Gare de Belfort is the main railway station in the centre of the city. Gare de Belfort – Montbéliard TGV is the high speed railway station, 9 km south of the city. From 2017, regional trains will connect Belfort with Belfort-Montbéliard TGV station using the new Belfort–Delle railway link; this service will link Belfort and the surrounding area to Switzerland, the high-speed train link will connect Swiss towns such as Delémont, Bern and Lausanne to Paris and other cities. Before 2020, the service Épinal-Belfort will be modernized; this will allow a link between LGV Est and LGV Rhin-Rhône in Belfort-Montbéliard TGV station, opening new destinations like Nancy and Luxembourg. A local bus network Optymo operates within Belfort. Tickets can be bought from any newsagent in the city, or a bus passenger can send a sms'BUS' to 84100 and show the confirmation sms as a ticket; the region of Belfort offers around 70 km of cycling tracks with more under construction.
Visit the local tourist office for information on the latest additions including the'Coulée verte
Claude Nicolas Ledoux
Claude-Nicolas Ledoux was one of the earliest exponents of French Neoclassical architecture. He used his knowledge of architectural theory to design not only domestic architecture but town planning, his greatest works were funded by the French monarchy and came to be perceived as symbols of the Ancien Régime rather than Utopia. The French Revolution hampered his career. In 1804, he published a collection of his designs under the title L'Architecture considérée sous le rapport de l'art, des mœurs et de la législation. In this book he took the opportunity of revising his earlier designs, making them more rigorously neoclassical and up to date; this revision has distorted an accurate assessment of his role in the evolution of Neoclassical architecture. His most ambitious work was the uncompleted Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans, an idealistic and visionary town showing many examples of architecture parlante. Conversely his works and commissions included the more mundane and everyday architecture such as sixty elaborate tollgates around Paris in the Wall of the General Tax Farm.
Ledoux was born in 1736 in Dormans-sur-Marne, the son of a modest merchant from Champagne. At an early age his mother, Francoise Domino, godmother, Francoise Piloy, encouraged him to develop his drawing skills; the Abbey of Sassenage funded his studies in Paris at the Collège de Beauvais, where he followed a course in Classics. On leaving the Collège, age 17, he took employment as an engraver but four years he began to study architecture under the tutelage of Jacques-François Blondel, for whom he maintained a lifelong respect, he trained under Pierre Contant d'Ivry, made the acquaintance of Jean-Michel Chevotet. These two eminent Parisian architects designed in both the restrained French Rococo manner, known as the "Louis XV style" and in the "Goût grec" phase of early Neoclassicism. However, under the tutelage of Contant d'Ivry and Chevotet, Ledoux was introduced to Classical architecture, in particular the temples of Paestum, along with the works of Palladio, were to influence him greatly.
The two master architects introduced Ledoux to their affluent clientele. One of Ledoux's first patrons was the Baron Crozat de Thiers, an immensely wealthy connoisseur who commissioned him to remodel part of his palatial town house in the Place Vendôme. Another client obtained through the auspices of his teachers was Président Hocquart de Montfermeil and his sister, Mme de Montesquiou. In 1762, the young Ledoux was commissioned to redecorate the Café Godeau, in the rue Saint-Honoré; the result was an interior of trompe mirrors. Pilasters painted on the walls were interspersed with alternating Pier glasses and panels painted with trophies of helmets and weaponry, all executed in bold detail. In 1969 this interior was moved to the Musée Carnavalet; the following year the Marquis de Montesquiou-Fézensac commissioned Ledoux to redesign the old hilltop château on his estate at Mauperthuis. Ledoux created new gardens, replete with fountains supplied by an aqueduct. In addition in the gardens and park he built an orangery, a pheasantry and vast dépendances of which little remains today.
In 1764, he designed for Président Hocquart, a Palladian house on the Chaussée d'Antin using the colossal order. Ledoux would employ this motif, condemned by the strict French tradition, which embraced the principle of superimposing the classic column motifs on each floor, rising from simplest to the most complex: Tuscan, Ionic, etc. On 26 July 1764, in the Saint-Eustache Church, Ledoux married Marie Bureau, the daughter of a court musician. A friend from Champagne, Joseph Marin Masson de Courcelles, found him a position as the architect for the Water and Forestry Department. Here between 1764 and 1770 he worked on the renovation and designs of churches, wells and schools, in Tonnerrois, Sénonais and Bassigny. Among the still extant works from this period are the bridge of Marac, the Prégibert bridge in Rolampont, the churches of Fouvent-le-Haut, Roche-et-Raucourt, the nave and portal of Cruzy-le-Châtel, the quire of Saint-Etienne d'Auxerre. In 1766 Ledoux began designing the Hôtel d'Hallwyll, a building that, according to the Dijon architect Jacques Cellerier, received widespread praise and attracted new patrons to the architect.
The owner Franz-Joseph d'Hallwyll and his wife, Marie-Thérèse Demidorge, were anxious to ensure work was executed economically. Therefore, Ledoux had to reuse portions of the former Hôtel de Bouligneux, he had envisaged two colonnades in the Doric order leading to a nymphaeum decorated with urns at the foot of the garden. However, the limitations of the site made this impossible, so Ledoux resorted to trompe l'oeil painting a colonnade on the blind wall of the neighboring convent, thus extending the perspective; the recognition given to the modest Hôtel d'Hallwyll led in 1767 to a more prestigious commission, the Hôtel d'Uzès, for François Emmanuel de Crussol on the rue Montmartre. There too, Ledoux preserved the structure of an earlier building. Today the panelling from the salon, an early example of the neoclassical style carved by Joseph Métivier and Jean-Baptist Boiston to the designs of Ledoux, is preserved in the Carnavalet Museum, Paris. Ledoux designed the Château de Bénouville in Calvados for the Marquis de Livry.
With its simple se
Paris Orly Airport referred to as Orly, is an international airport located in Orly and in Villeneuve-le-Roi, 7 NM south of Paris, France. It serves as a secondary hub for domestic and overseas territories flights of Air France and as the homebase for Transavia France. Flights operate to destinations in Europe, the Middle East, the Caribbean, North America, East Asia and Southeast Asia. Prior to the opening of Charles de Gaulle Airport in March 1974, Orly was the main airport of Paris. With the shift of most international traffic to Charles de Gaulle Airport, Orly remains the busiest French airport for domestic traffic and the second busiest French airport overall in passenger traffic, with 33,120,685 passengers in 2018; the airport is operated by Groupe ADP under the brand Paris Aéroport. Since February 2018, the CEO of the airport has been Régis Lacote. Orly Airport covers 15.3 square kilometres of land. The airport area, including terminals and runways, spans over two départements and seven communes: Essonne département: communes of Paray-Vieille-Poste, Athis-Mons, Chilly-Mazarin, Morangis.
Management of the airport, however, is under the authority of Aéroports de Paris, which manages Charles de Gaulle Airport, Le Bourget Airport, several smaller airports in the suburbs of Paris. Known as Villeneuve-Orly Airport, the facility was opened in the southern suburbs of Paris in 1932 as a secondary airport to Le Bourget. Before this two huge airship hangars had been built there by the engineer Eugène Freyssinet from 1923 on; as a result of the Battle of France in 1940, Orly Airport was used by the occupying German Luftwaffe as a combat airfield, stationing various fighter and bomber units at the airport throughout the occupation. As a result, Orly was attacked by the Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Forces, destroying much of its infrastructure, leaving its runways with numerous bomb craters to limit its usefulness to the Germans. After the Battle of Normandy and the retreat of German forces from the Paris area in August 1944, Orly was repaired by USAAF combat engineers and was used by Ninth Air Force as tactical airfield A-47.
The 50th Fighter Group flew P-47 Thunderbolt fighter-bomber aircraft from the airport until September liaison squadrons used the airfield until October 1945. The USAAF diagram from March 1947 shows the 6140-foot 27/207 runway with 5170-foot 81/261 runway crossing it at its north end; the November 1953 Aeradio diagram shows four concrete runways, all 197 feet wide: 03L 7874 ft, 03R 6069 ft, 08L 5118 ft and 08R 6627 ft. The American United States Army Air Forces 1408th Army Air Force Base Unit was the primary operator at Orly Field until March 1947 when control was returned to the French Government.. The Americans left in 1967 as a result of France's withdrawal from NATO's integrated military command, all non-French NATO forces were asked to leave France. In May 1958 Pan Am Douglas DC-7Cs flew to Los Angeles in 21 hr 56 min. Air France flew to Tokyo in 31 hr 5 min via Anchorage or 44 hr 45 min on a seven-stop Lockheed Constellation via India. Air France's ten flights a day to London were all Vickers Viscounts.
A development project voted in 2012 planned to merge the airport's south and west terminals with the construction of an 80,000 m2 building to create one great terminal. On 14 April 2016, the Groupe ADP rolled out the Connect 2020 corporate strategy and the commercial brand Paris Aéroport was applied to all Parisian airports, including the Orly airport. Paris-Orly Airport features two separate passenger terminal buildings, Terminal 4 and Terminals 1 and 2: On 19 March 2019, Terminal Ouest became Terminals 1 and 2, Terminal Sud became Terminal 4. A new junction building, to be known as Terminal 3, will be opened on 16 April 2019; the western terminal has a different layout than Terminal Sud, consisting of two floors and a gate area of four "fingers" rather than a brick-style layout. The ground level 0 features the arrivals facilities including 8 baggage reclaim belts as well as several service facilities and shops; the departures area is located on level 1 with more restaurants located here. This central departures area is connected to four gate areas named halls 1-4 which contain departure gates 10A-10P, 20A-20L, 31A-31F and 40A-40G respectively.
23 stands at this terminal are equipped with jet-bridges, with several of them able to handle wide-body aircraft. The innovative 1961 steel-and-glass southern terminal building consists of six floors. While the smaller basement level -1 as well as the upper levels 2, 3 and 4 contain only some service facilities and office space, level 0 features the arrivals facilities as well as several shops and service counters; the airside area and departure gates are located on the upper level 1. The waiting area, which features several shops as well, houses gates A1-A10 and A40-A42 and is furthermore connected to the gate areas Hall A and Hall B to each side of the building. 15 of the terminal's departure gates are equipped with jet-bridges, some of them are able to handle wide-body aircraft. AOM French Airlines had
Montrouge is a commune in the southern Parisian suburbs, located 4.4 km from the centre of Paris, France. It is one of the most densely populated municipalities in Europe. After a long period of decline, the population has increased again in recent years; the name "Montrouge" means Red Mountain - from mont and rouge - because of the reddish colour of the earth in this area. The name of the community was first mentioned in monastery documents in 1194. Throughout the Middle Ages, the hamlet was home to monasteries and a number of religious orders, while in the 15th century it became the site of quarries used for the reconstruction of Paris; the late sixteenth century saw the plain of Montrouge named "reserve for royal hunts", during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it was known for its windmills, which have all now disappeared. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighbouring communes. On that occasion, most of the commune of Montrouge was annexed to Paris, forming what is now called Petit-Montrouge, in the 14th arrondissement of Paris.
The remainder of Montrouge was preserved as an independent town. In 1875, the town gained a few thousand square metres from the neighbouring communes of Châtillon and Bagneux. On 8 January 2015, Municipal Police officer Clarissa Jean-Philippe was shot and killed in the commune, purportedly by Amedy Coulibaly. Coulibaly was reported to be an accomplice of Saïd and Chérif Kouachi, the suspected perpetrators of the Charlie Hebdo shooting; the next day, he was gunned down by police during a siege that left four hostages dead and several other people injured. Industrial development started in 1925 and soon, many printing factories were to be found in the town. Most of these have disappeared today. Since the early years of the twenty-first century, professional services and telecommunications have been the main business activities. Aeronautical and electronic engineering, Schlumberger, Siemens AG, ST Microelectronics Telecommunications, Orange The Papier d'Arménie Montrouge is served by the Mairie de Montrouge station on Paris Métro Line 4, by the Châtillon – Montrouge station on Paris Métro Line 13.
The Châtillon - Montrouge station is located at the border between the commune of Montrouge and the commune of Châtillon, on the Châtillon side of the border. The Mairie de Montrouge station was opened on 23 March 2013 as part of the extension of Metro Line 4 to the south. Two further stations are due to open in 2020. Bus line 68 runs from Metro Châtillon Montrouge all the way up through Montparnasse, the Louvre, the Paris Opera and ends at the Place de Clichy, the site of the Moulin Rouge. Bus line 126 runs from Porte d'Orléans to Boulogne-Billancourt, while line 128 goes from the same place to Robinson RER station. Bus line 323 runs on the southern border of Montrouge on its way between Issy-les-Moulineaux and Ivry-sur-Seine. Several lines use the Route nationale 20 that crosses eastern Montrouge to reach southern parts of the Parisian agglomeration. Montrouge was the home of a number of well-known twentieth century artists, listed below; the town is well known for two contemporary art exhibitions: The Montrouge Contemporary Art Show, which has existed for over 50 years The JCE, European Young Artists exhibition.
Montrouge has seven public primary schools: Aristide Briand, François Rabelais, Nicolas Boileau, Raymond Queneau, Renaudel A, Renaudel B. Public junior high schools: Haut Mesnil, Maurice Genevoix, Robert Doisneau. Public high schools: Lycée Jean Monnet, Lycée Maurice Genevoix. There is Groupe Scolaire du Haut-Mesnil. Émile Boutroux and member of the Académie française Robert Brasillach French author and journalist. Émile Chatelain and palaeographer Coluche and sometime political figure, founder of the "Restos du cœur" soup kitchens. Robert Doisneau, born in Gentilly, lived in Montrouge from 1937 until his death. Raymond Federman American novelist and academic. Jean-Jacques Goldman and singer, he has lived most of his life in Montrouge, but now resides in Marseille. William Grover-Williams, racing driver and Special Operations Executive agent. Octave Lapize, winner of the 1910 Tour de France Fernand Léger lived in Montrouge and ran a painting school there. Pablo Picasso; the cubist had his workshop in Montrouge from 1916 to 1918.
Bernard Pivot. Famous journalist and television personality. Born in Lyon,Mr. Pivot has lived in Montrouge since 2003. Claude Sautet and screenwriter. Nicolas de Staël is buried in Montrouge Cemetery. Amaury-Duval a student of Ingres including Portrait d'Isaure Chassériau in 1838 Harry Baur, Montrouge 1880 – Paris 1943, actor Edouard Boubat, photographer Alexandre Boutique, novelist Émile Boutroux and member of the Académie française. Gérard Brach, screenwriter Jean-Roger Caussimon 24 July 1918 in Montrouge - 20 October 1985 in Paris, actor and libertarian songwriter. Pierre Collet, actor Pierre Colombier, film director, died 25 January 1958. Michel Colucci, humorist. Born in Paris, spent his youth in the city. Jean-Claude Deret, né Breitman, screenwriter, director Robert Doisneau, photographer. Born in Gentilly
The Paris Métro is a rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A symbol of the city, it is known for its density within the city limits, uniform architecture and unique entrances influenced by Art Nouveau, it is underground and 214 kilometres long. It has 302 stations. There are 16 lines, numbered 1 to 14 with two lines, 3bis and 7bis, which are named because they started out as branches of lines 3 and 7. Lines are identified on maps by number and colour, direction of travel is indicated by the terminus, it is the second busiest metro system in Europe, after the Moscow Metro, the tenth-busiest in the world. It carried 1.520 billion passengers in 2015, 4.16 million passengers a day, which amounts to 20% of the overall traffic in Paris. It is one of the densest metro systems in the world, with 245 stations within the 86.9 km2 of the city of Paris. Châtelet – Les Halles, with five Métro lines, three RER commuter rail and platforms up to 800 m apart, is one of the world's largest metro stations.
However, the system has poor disabled accessibility, because most stations were built well before this became a consideration. The first line opened without ceremony on 19 July 1900, during the World's Fair; the system expanded until the First World War and the core was complete by the 1920s. Extensions into suburbs and Line 11 were built in the 1930s; the network reached saturation after World War II with new trains to allow higher traffic, but further improvements have been limited by the design of the network and in particular the short distances between stations. Besides the Métro, central Paris and its urban area are served by the RER, developed beginning in the 1960s, several tramway lines, Transilien suburban trains and two VAL lines, serving Charles De Gaulle and Orly airports. In the late 1990s, the automated line 14 was built to relieve RER line A. Métro is the abbreviated name of the company that operated most of the network: La Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris, shortened to "Le Métropolitain".
It was abbreviated to métro, which became a common word to designate all rapid transit systems in France and in many cities elsewhere. The Métro is operated by the Régie autonome des transports parisiens, a public transport authority that operates part of the RER network, bus services, light rail lines and many bus routes; the name métro was adopted in many languages, making it the most used word for a urban transit system. It is possible that "Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain" was copied from the name of London's pioneering underground railway company, the Metropolitan Railway, in business for 40 years prior to the inauguration of Paris's first line. By 1845, Paris and the railway companies were thinking about an urban railway system to link inner districts of the city; the railway companies and the French government wanted to extend main-line railways into a new underground network, whereas the Parisians favoured a new and independent network and feared national takeover of any system it built.
The disagreement lasted from 1856 to 1890. Meanwhile, the population became traffic congestion grew massively; the deadlock gave the city the chance to enforce its vision. Prior to 1845, the urban transport network consisted of a large number of omnibus lines, consolidated by the French government into a regulated system with fixed and unconflicting routes and schedules; the first concrete proposal for an urban rail system in Paris was put forward by civil engineer Florence de Kérizouet. This plan called for a surface cable car system. In 1855, civil engineers Edouard Brame and Eugène Flachat proposed an underground freight urban railroad, due to the high rate of accidents on surface rail lines. On 19 November 1871 the General Council of the Seine commissioned a team of 40 engineers to plan an urban rail network; this team proposed a network with a pattern of routes "resembling a cross enclosed in a circle" with axial routes following large boulevards. On 11 May 1872 the Council endorsed the plan.
After this point, a serious debate occurred over whether the new system should consist of elevated lines or of underground lines. The underground option emerged as the preferred solution because of the high cost of buying land for rights-of-way in central Paris required for elevated lines, estimated at 70,000 francs per metre of line for a 20-metre-wide railroad; the last remaining hurdle was the city's concern about national interference in its urban rail system. The city commissioned renowned engineer Jean-Baptiste Berlier, who designed Paris' postal network of pneumatic tubes, to design and plan its rail system in the early 1890s. Berlier recommended a special track gauge of 1,300 mm to protect the system from national takeover, which inflamed the issue substantially; the issue was settled when the Minister of Public Works begrudgingly recognized the city's right to build a local system on 22 November 1895, by the city's secret designing of the trains and tunnels to be too narrow for main-line trains, while adopting standard gauge as a compromise with the state.
On 20 April 1896, Par