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Chinchay Suyu

Chinchasuyu was the northwestern provincial region of the Tawantin Suyu, or Inca Empire. The most populous suyu, Chinchasuyu encompassed the former lands of the Chimú Empire and much of the northern Andes. At its largest extent, the suyu extended through much of modern Ecuador and just into modern Colombia. Along with Antisuyu, it was part of the Hanan Suyukuna or "Upper Quarters" of the empire; the name is due to the Chincha culture, a trader kingdom in what is now the Ica Region. Chinchay in Quechua means ocelot and means the cardinal point north. Before the Inca Civil War began, the son of the deceased Inca Emperor Huayna Capac and ruled the majority of Chinchasuyu from his capital city in Quito, supported by Huayna Capac's veteran Inca generals and soldiers; the 12th Inca, Huayna Capac. Knowing that he was about to die, gave orders to place his heart and organs in an Urn and have it buried in Quito, the city he loved. Moreover, Huayna Capac gave instructions that his mummified body should be transported to Cuzco for burial beside the mummified bodies of his royal ancestors.

The Inca Emperor Huascar, the eldest son of Huayna Capac, ruled the rest of the Inca Empire from Cuzco, was displeased that Atahualpa was crown King in Quito. Spanish chroniclers refer to Atahualpa's Kingdom as the Kingdom of Quito; the Inca Huascar was not able to do anything since the best soldiers in the Inca Empire swore allegiance to Atahualpa. After 4 or 5 years of peace, the nobles as well as Rava Ocllo. Encouraged him to reconquer the Kingdom of Atahualpa which spanned most of the Chinchasuyu. Huascar sent an ultimatum to Atahualpa asking for submission, Atahualpa refused, a young General Atoc was sent to invade and reconquer the Kingdom of Quito from Atahualpa; each suyu was divided into provinces. Chinchaysuyu included the wamani of: Atavillo of Atawillu, in the modern province of Canta. Ayavaca or Ayawax’a Cajamarca or Q’asamarka Cajatambo or Q’asatampu Calva or Kalua Casma Chachapoya, including the Wanka tribe Chancay Chao or Suo Chicama Chicla or Chillqa Chimbote or Sancta Chimu called Moche.

Chincha Chinchayqucha called in sources by the name of Junín. Conchuco Huacrachuco Huamachuco Huamali Huambo or Wampu Huancabamba or Wañkapampa Huancavilca or Wankawillka Huánuco Huarco called Runawana and Cañete Huarmey Huaura called Huacho or Supe Huayla or Waylla Lambayeque, whose people spoke Mochica. Lima or Rimaq, a large province of 150,000 inhabitants. Lurin, home of the Oracle at Pachacamac. Mala Moyobamba or Moyopampa Nepeña or Wampachu Ocro, including both the Ocro and Lampa tribes. Olmos or Olmo Pacasmayo Parmunca Pinco Pisco Piura Shawsha or Jauja Tarma or Tarama Tumbes or Tumpis Virú or Wanapu the origin of the word Perú. Yauyo, including the Larao tribe. Organization of the Inca Empire Antisuyu Kuntisuyu Qullasuyu Chincha Kingdom

Silica cycle

The silica cycle is the biogeochemical cycle in which silica is transported between the Earth's systems. Opal silica is a chemical compound of silicon, is called silicon dioxide. Silicon is one of the most abundant elements on Earth; the silica cycle has significant overlap with the carbon cycle and plays an important role in the sequestration of carbon through continental weathering, biogenic export and burial as oozes on geologic timescales. Silica is an important nutrient utilized by plants and grasses in the terrestrial biosphere. Silicate is transported by rivers and can be deposited in soils in the form of various siliceous polymorphs. Plants can uptake silicate in the form of H4SiO4 for the formation of phytoliths. Phytoliths are tiny rigid structures found within plant cells that aid in the structural integrity of the plant. Phytoliths serve to protect the plants from consumption by herbivores who are unable to consume and digest silica-rich plants efficiently. Silica release from phytolith degradation or dissolution is estimated to occur at a rate double that of global silicate mineral weathering.

Considering biogeochemical cycling within ecosystems, the import and export of silica to and from terrestrial ecosystems is small. Silicate minerals are abundant in rock formations all over the planet, comprising 90% of the Earth's crust; the primary source of silicate to the terrestrial biosphere is weathering. An example of the chemical reaction for this weathering is: MgSiO 3 + 2 CO 2 + H 2 O = Mg 2 + + 2 HCO 3 − + SiO 2 Wollastonite and enstatite are examples of silicate-based minerals; the weathering process is important for carbon sequestration on geologic timescales. The process of and rate of weathering is variable dependent upon rainfall, vegetation and topography; the major sink of the terrestrial silica cycle is export to the ocean by rivers. Silica, stored in plant matter or dissolved can be exported to the ocean by rivers; the rate of this transport is 6 Tmol Si yr−1. This is the major sink of the terrestrial silica cycle, as well as the largest source of the marine silica cycle. A minor sink for terrestrial silica is silicate, deposited in terrestrial sediments and exported to the Earth's crust.

Siliceous organisms in the ocean, such as diatoms and radiolaria, are the primary sink of dissolved silicic acid into opal silica. Once in the ocean, dissolved Si molecules are biologically recycled 25 times before export and permanent deposition in marine sediments on the seafloor; this rapid recycling is dependent on the dissolution of silica in organic matter in the water column, followed by biological uptake in the photic zone. The estimated residence time of the silica biological reservoir is about 400 years. Opal silica is predominately undersaturated in the world's oceans; this undersaturation promotes rapid dissolution as a result of constant recycling and long residence times. The estimated turnover time of Si is 1.5x104 years. The total net inputs and outputs of silica in the ocean are 9.4 ± 4.7 Tmol Si yr−1 and 9.9 ± 7.3 Tmol Si yr−1, respectively. Biogenic silica production in the photic zone is estimated to be 240 ± 40 Tmol Si year −1. Dissolution in the surface removes 135 Tmol Si year−1, while the remaining Si is exported to the deep ocean within sinking particles.

In the deep ocean, another 26.2 Tmol Si Year−1 is dissolved before being deposited to the sediments as opal rain. Over 90% of the silica here is dissolved and upwelled for use again in the euphotic zone; the major sources of marine silica include rivers, groundwater flux, seafloor weathering inputs, hydrothermal vents, atmospheric deposition. Rivers are by far the largest source of silica to the marine environment, accounting for up to 90% of all the silica delivered to the ocean. A source of silica to the marine biological silica cycle is silica, recycled by upwelling from the deep ocean and seafloor. Deep seafloor deposition is the largest long-term sink of the marine silica cycle, is balanced by the sources of silica to the ocean; the silica deposited in the deep ocean is in the form of siliceous ooze, subducted under the crust and metamorphosed in the upper mantle. Under the mantle, silicate minerals are formed in oozes and uplifted to the surface. At the surface, silica can enter the cycle again through weathering.

This process can take tens of millions of years. The only other major sink of silica in the ocean is burial along continental margins in the form of siliceous sponges. Due to the high degrees of uncertainty in source and sink estimations, it's difficult to conclude if the marine silica cycle is in equilibrium; the residence time of silica in the oceans is estimated to be about 10,000 years. Silica can be removed from the cycle by becoming chert and being permanently buried; the rise in agriculture of the past 400 years has increased the exposure rocks and soils, which has resulted in increase