Rian David Lindell is a former American football placekicker in the National Football League for the Seattle Seahawks, Buffalo Bills and Tampa Bay Buccaneers. He played college football at Washington State Lindell studied in Pacific Junior High School in Vancouver and was coached by Mike Daltoso, he attended Mountain View High School, where he played as a placekicker, tight end and defensive end in football, receiving All-league honors on special teams and defense as a senior. He lettered in baseball, playing as a pitcher and receiving All-state honors as a third baseman in his senior season. Lindell walked on at Washington State University, he was named the starter as a sophomore, on a team that included quarterback Ryan Leaf, finishing with a school record 58 extra points scored, while making 12 out of 17 field goals. He played in the 1998 Rose Bowl at the end of his sophomore season, losing to a Michigan team that included future NFL players Brian Griese, Tom Brady and Charles Woodson, he became a three-year starter and finished fourth on the school's career scoring list Lindell was signed as an undrafted free agent by the Dallas Cowboys after the 2000 NFL Draft.
He was waived before the season started. On September 26, 2000, he was signed by the Seattle Seahawks as a free agent, he made 74.4 % of his field-goal attempts. On March 24, 2003, he was signed as a restricted free agent by the Buffalo Bills to replace Mike Hollis, allowed to leave in free agency; the Seahawks lost Lindell without receiving any compensation. He was regarded as having a stronger but less accurate leg than Hollis. In the 2006 season, Lindell converted 23 out at 92 %, tied for the league. On November 26, 2006, Lindell kicked the game-winning field goal against the Jacksonville Jaguars to complete Buffalo's upset over Jacksonville. On November 11, 2007, Lindell kicked a game-winning field goal to allow Buffalo to win 13-10 over the Miami Dolphins. On Sunday, December 2, 2007, Lindell kicked a game-winning field goal against the Washington Redskins. Lindell was 5/5 in field goal attempts on that day; when kicking the game-winning field goal, Lindell was "iced" twice by Washington head coach Joe Gibbs, which drew an unsportsmanlike conduct penalty against Washington, making the field goal 15 yards shorter.
In week 3 of the 2008 season, Lindell had a game-winning field goal on the final play of the game vs. the Oakland Raiders, which allowed Buffalo to move to 3-0. In week 11 of the season, Lindell missed a 47-yard field goal with 38 seconds left; as a result, the Cleveland Browns ran the clock out to secure a 29-27 victory. On December 9, 2007, Rian Lindell set the record for the most consecutive field goals made in Buffalo Bills history, he had played in all 64 games for the Bills since 2003 and holds a Bills record with 83.04 field goal percentage. On November 29, 2009, Lindell made a 56-yard field goal against rivals Miami Dolphins; this was not only Lindell's longest field goal of his career but tied Houston Texans' kicker Kris Brown for longest successful field goal in the league for the 2009 season, until Sebastian Janikowski made a 61-yarder in week 17. On November 7, 2010, Lindell had an extra point blocked against the Chicago Bears, ending his streak at 321 successful extra points, an NFL record for most consecutive extra points to start a career.
On September 25, 2011, Lindell booted two field goals against the Patriots, including a 28-yard game winner to give the Bills their first win in 15 games vs. the Patriots. On November 6, 2011, Lindell injured his shoulder while trying to trip up New York Jets running back Joe McKnight, he missed the remainder of the season. On February 7, 2012, the Bills announced that Lindell had agreed to a four-year contract for $10 million. On August 19, 2013, he was released after being passed on the depth chart sixth-round draft choice Dustin Hopkins, he left as the most accurate field goal kicker, second in franchise history in scoring and broke team records by connecting on 18 straight field goals and 225 consecutive extra-point attempts. On August 20, 2013, Lindell signed as a free agent with the Tampa Bay Buccaneers to replace Connor Barth, who had suffered a torn Achilles tendon injury, he made 23 out of 29 field goals with a long one of 54 yards. He wasn't re-signed after the season. Career high/best bolded.
He is an avid fan of baseball’s St. Louis Cardinals, he was a part of the Alpha Kappa Lambda fraternity in college. Now is a Physical Education teacher at Eastlake High School. Washington State Cougars bio Buffalo Bills bio
A drop kick is a type of kick in various codes of football. It involves a player dropping the ball and kicking it when it bounces off the ground. Drop kicks are most used as a method of restarting play and scoring points in rugby union and rugby league. Association football goalkeepers often return the ball to play with drop kicks; the kick was once in wide use in both Australian rules football and gridiron football, but is today seen in either sport. The drop kick technique in rugby codes is to hold the ball with one end pointing downwards in two hands above the kicking leg; the ball is dropped onto the ground in front of the kicking foot, which makes contact at the moment or fractionally after the ball touches the ground, called the half-volley. The kicking foot makes contact with the ball on the instep. In a rugby union kick-off, or drop out, the kicker aims to kick the ball high but not a great distance, so strikes the ball after it has started to bounce off the ground, so the contact is made close to the bottom of the ball.
In rugby league, drop kicks are mandatory to restart play from the goal line after the defending team is tackled or knocks on in the in-goal area or the defending team causes the ball to go dead or into touch-in-goal. Drop kicks are mandatory to restart play from the 20 metre line after an unsuccessful penalty goal attempt goes dead or into touch-in-goal and to score a drop goal in open play, worth one point. Drop kicks are optional for a penalty kick to score a penalty goal and when kicking for touch from a penalty, although the option of a punt kick is taken instead. In rugby union, a drop kick is used to score a drop goal, it was one of only two ways to score points, along with the place kick. Drop kicks are mandatory from the centre spot to start a half, from the centre spot to restart the game after points have been scored, to restart play from the 22-metre line after the ball is touched down or made dead in the in-goal area by the defending team when the attacking team kicked or took the ball into the in-goal area, to score a drop goal in open play, worth three points.
Drop kicks are optional. The usage of drop kicks in rugby sevens is the same as in rugby union, except that drop kicks are used for all conversion attempts and for penalty kicks, both of which must be taken within 40 seconds of the try being scored or the award of the penalty. In both American and Canadian football, one method of scoring a field goal or extra point is by drop-kicking the football through the goal, it contrasts with the punt, wherein the player kicks the ball without letting it hit the ground first. A drop kick is more difficult; the drop kick was used in early football as a surprise tactic. The ball would be snapped or lateraled to a back, who would fake a run or pass, but would kick the field goal instead; this method of scoring worked well in the 1920s and early 1930s, when the football was rounder at the ends. Early football stars such as Charles Brickley, Frank Hudson, Jim Thorpe, Paddy Driscoll, Al Bloodgood were skilled drop-kickers. Driscoll's 55 yard drop kick in 1924 stood as the unofficial record for field goal range until Bert Rechichar kicked a 56-yard field goal in 1953.
In 1934, the ball was made more pointed at the ends. The creation of the pointed football is credited to Shorty Ray, at the time a college football official and the NFL's head of officiating; this made passing the ball easier, as was its intent, but made the drop kick obsolete, as the more pointed ball did not bounce up from the ground reliably. The drop kick was supplanted by the place kick, which cannot be attempted out of a formation used as a running or passing set; the drop kick remains in the rules, but is seen, effective when attempted. In Canadian football the drop kick can be taken from any point on the field, unlike placekicks which must be attempted behind the line of scrimmage. Before the NFL–AFL merger, the last successful drop kick in the NFL was executed by Scooter McLean of the Chicago Bears in their 37–9 victory over the New York Giants on December 21, 1941, in the NFL Championship game at Chicago's Wrigley Field. Though it was not part of the NFL at the time, the All-America Football Conference saw its last drop kick November 28, 1948, when Joe Vetrano of the San Francisco 49ers drop kicked an extra point after a muffed snap against the Cleveland Browns.
The only successful drop kick in the NFL since the 1940s was by Doug Flutie, the backup quarterback of the New England Patriots, against the Miami Dolphins on January 1, 2006, for an extra point after a touchdown. Flutie had estimated "an 80 percent chance" of making the drop kick, called to give Flutie, 43 at the time, the opportunity to make a historic kick in his final NFL game. After the game, New England coach Bill Belichick said, "I think Doug deserves it," and Flutie said, "I just thanked him for the opportunity."Dallas Cowboys punter Mat McBriar attempted a maneuver similar to a
Pro Football Hall of Fame
The Pro Football Hall of Fame is the hall of fame for professional American football, located in Canton, Ohio. Opened in 1963, the Hall of Fame enshrines exceptional figures in the sport of professional football, including players, franchise owners, front-office personnel all of whom made their primary contributions to the game in the National Football League; the Hall of Fame's Mission is to "Honor the Heroes of the Game, Preserve its History, Promote its Values & Celebrate Excellence EVERYWHERE." The Hall of Fame class of 2019 were selected into the Pro Football Hall of Fame by a 48-member selection committee and announced on February 2, 2019. Including the 2019 class, there are now a total of 326 members of the Hall of Fame; the community of Canton, Ohio lobbied the NFL to have the Hall of Fame built in their city for two reasons: first, the NFL was founded in Canton in 1920. Groundbreaking for the building was held on August 11, 1962; the original building contained just two rooms, 19,000 square feet of interior space.
In April 1970, ground was broken for the first of many expansions. This first expansion cost $620,000, was completed in May 1971; the size was increased to 34,000 square feet by adding another room. The pro shop opened with this expansion; this was an important milestone for the Pro Football Hall of Fame, as yearly attendance passed the 200,000 mark for the first time. This was at least in some part due to the increase in popularity of professional football caused by the advent of the American Football League and its success in the final two AFL-NFL World Championship games. In November 1977, work began on another expansion project, costing US$1,200,000, it was completed in November 1978, enlarging the gift shop and research library, while doubling the size of the theater. The total size of the hall was now more than 2.5 times the original size. The building remained unchanged until July 1993; the Hall announced yet another expansion, costing US$9,200,000, adding a fifth room. This expansion was completed in October 1995.
The building's size was increased to 82,307 square feet. The most notable addition was the GameDay Stadium, which shows an NFL Films production on a 20-foot by 42-foot Cinemascope screen. In 2013, the Hall of Fame completed renovation today; the Hall of Fame consists of 118,000 square feet. An $800 million expansion project, Johnson Controls Hall of Fame Village, is underway and will be completed to coincide with the NFL's Centennial in 2020. Dick McCann Dick Gallagher Pete Elliott John Bankert Steve Perry David Baker Through 2018, all players in the hall except one, played some part of their professional career in the NFL. Though several Hall of Famers have had AFL, Canadian Football League, World Football League, United States Football League, Arena Football League and/or Indoor Football League experience, there is a division of the Hall devoted to alternative leagues such as this, to this point no players have made the Hall without having made significant contributions to either the NFL, AFL or All-America Football Conference.
For CFL stars, there is a parallel Canadian Football Hall of Fame. The Chicago Bears have the most Hall of Famers among the league's franchises with either 34 or 28 enshrinees depending on whether you count players that only played a small portion of their careers with the team. Enshrinees are selected by a 48-person committee made up of media members known as the Selection Committee; each city that has a current NFL team sends one representative from the local media to the committee. A city with more than one franchise sends a representative for each franchise. There are 15 at-large delegates including one representative from the Pro Football Writers Association. Except for the PFWA representative, appointed to a two-year term, all other appointments are open-ended and terminated only by death, retirement, or resignation. To be eligible for the nominating process, a player or coach must have been retired for at least five years. Any other contributor such as a team owner or executive can be voted in at any time.
Fans may nominate any player, coach or contributor by writing to the Pro Football Hall of Fame via letter or email. The Selection Committee is polled three times by mail to narrow the list to 25 semifinalists: once in March, once in September, once in October. In November, the committee selects 15 finalists by mail balloting. A Seniors and Contributors Committee, subcommittees of the overall Selection Committee, nominate Seniors and Contributors; the Seniors Committee and Contributors Committee add two or one finalist on alternating years which makes a final ballot of 18 finalists under consideration by
Louis Roy Groza, nicknamed "The Toe", was an American football placekicker and offensive tackle who played his entire career for the Cleveland Browns in the All-America Football Conference and National Football League. Groza was professional football's career kicking and points leader when he retired after the 1967 season, he played in 21 seasons for the Browns, helping the team to win eight league championships in that span. Groza's accuracy and strength as a kicker influenced the development of place-kicking as a specialty, he set numerous records for number of field goals kicked during his career. Groza grew up in an athletic family in Ohio, he enrolled at Ohio State University on a scholarship in 1942, but after just one year in college, he enlisted in the U. S. Army and was sent to serve in World War II. Groza deployed as an army surgical technician in the Pacific theater, where he stayed until returning in 1946 to play for the Browns. Helped by Groza's kicking and play at offensive tackle, the Browns won the AAFC championship every year between 1946 and 1949, when the league disbanded and the Browns were absorbed by the more established NFL.
Cleveland won the NFL championship in its first year in the league on a last-minute field goal by Groza. Groza set NFL records for field goals made in 1950, 1952 and 1953. Sporting News named him the league's Most Valuable Player in 1954, when the Browns won another championship; the team repeated as NFL champions in 1955. Groza retired after the 1959 season due to a back injury, but returned in 1961, he was part of a 1964 team. Groza retired for good after the 1967 season. In life, he ran an insurance business and served as a team ambassador for the Browns, he was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1974. In 1992, the Palm Beach County Sports Commission named the Lou Groza Award after him; the award is given annually to the country's best college placekicker. Groza died in 2000 of a heart attack. Born in eastern Ohio in Martins Ferry, just north and across the Ohio River from Wheeling, West Virginia, Groza's parents were immigrants from Transylvania, Austria-Hungary, his Hungarian mother Mary and Romanian father John Groza owned and ran Groza's Tavern on Main Street.
Lou was the smallest in stature of four boys in an athletic family. Groza lettered in football and baseball at Martins Ferry High School; the Purple Riders won the state basketball championship in 1941. He was captain of the baseball team. Groza learned placekicking from his older brother Frank, practiced by trying to kick balls over telephone wires when he and his friends played touch football in the street. Groza graduated from high school in 1942 and enrolled on an athletic scholarship at Ohio State University in Columbus, where he played as a tackle and placekicker on the Buckeyes' freshman team. Groza kicked five field goals, including one from 45 yards away. In 1943, he enlisted in the U. S. Army as World War II intensified, he first went for basic training to Abilene, to Brooks General Hospital in San Antonio. After a stint with the short-lived Army Service Training Program, Groza was sent with the 96th Infantry Division to serve as a surgical technician in Leyte and other places in the Pacific theater in 1945.
The day he landed in the Philippines, Groza saw a soldier shot in the face. He was stationed in a bank of tents about five miles from the front lines and helped doctors tend to the wounded. "I saw a lot of men wounded with severe injuries", he said. "Lose legs, guts hanging out, stuff like that. It's a tough thing, but you get hardened to it, you accept it as part of your being there."While he was in the Army, he received a package from Paul Brown, the Ohio State football coach. It contained footballs and a contract for him to sign to play on a team Brown was coaching in the new All-America Football Conference, he signed the contract in May 1945 and agreed to join the team, called the Cleveland Browns, after the war ended in 1946. Groza got $500 a month stipend until a $7,500 annual salary. Following his discharge from military service, Groza reported to the Browns' training camp in Bowling Green, Ohio, he showed up in army fatigues carrying all his clothes in a duffel bag. There, he joined quarterback Otto Graham, fullback Marion Motley and receivers Dante Lavelli and Mac Speedie to form the core of the new team's offense.
Groza was a placekicker in his first two years with the Browns, but he played a big part in the team's early success. In his first season, he set a professional football record for extra points; the Browns, advanced to the AAFC championship against the New York Yankees. Groza sprained his ankle in the game and missed three field goals, but Cleveland won 14–9. Behind a powerful offense led by Graham and Lavelli, the Browns finished the 1947 season with a 12–1–1 record and made it back to the championship game. Groza, was injured and could only watch as the team won its second championship in a row. Further success followed for the Browns and Groza, nicknamed "The Toe" by a sportswriter for his kicking abilities. Groza led the league in field goals and the team won all of its games in 1948, recording professional football's first perfect season; as he grew into a star placekicker, Groza began playing at offensive tackle beginning in 1948. One h
Morten Andersen, nicknamed the "Great Dane", is a Danish former American football kicker and All-American at Michigan State University. He is the all-time leader in games played in the NFL, with 382, he held both the NFL records for field goals and points scored, both records were broken by Adam Vinatieri in 2018. At retirement, Anderssen was the all-time leading scorer for two different rival teams, he retired after not playing for a team that season. Andersen was announced as a member of the 2017 induction class of the Pro Football Hall of Fame at that year's NFL Honors, he is only the second exclusive placekicker inducted in the Hall of Fame, the first since Jan Stenerud in 1991. Andersen was raised in the west Jutland town of Struer, Denmark; as a student, he was a gymnast and a long jumper, just missed becoming a member of the Danish junior national soccer team. He visited the United States in 1977 as a Youth For Understanding exchange student, he first kicked an American football on a whim at Ben Davis High School in Indianapolis.
He was so impressive in his one season of high school football that he was given a scholarship to Michigan State University. Andersen, with his left leg as his dominant kicking leg, starred at Michigan State, setting several records, including a Big Ten Conference record 63-yard field goal against Ohio State University, he was named an All-American in 1981. His success landed him the kicking job with the New Orleans Saints. On September 24, 2011, he was inducted into the Michigan State University Athletics Hall of Fame. Andersen's NFL career got off to a rocky start. On his first NFL kickoff to start the strike-shortened 1982 season, Andersen twisted his ankle and missed eight weeks of the season. Despite the early setback, he soon emerged as one of the strongest and most reliable placekickers in the NFL. In his years with the Saints, he was named to six Pro Bowls, kicked 302 field goals, scored 1318 points. In 1991, against Chicago, Andersen kicked a 60-yard field goal, tying him with Steve Cox for the second-longest field goal in league history at the time, behind the 63-yard record-holder kicked by Tom Dempsey.
Andersen's proficiency with field goal kicking earned him the nickname "Mr. Automatic." Following the 1994 season, he was released by the Saints for salary cap purposes and because his accuracy had started to decline. Following his release by the Saints, Andersen signed with the Atlanta Falcons, he silenced those who felt him to be washed up and was once again named a Pro Bowler during his time in Atlanta. In December 1995 against the Saints, he became the first player in NFL history to kick three field goals of over 50 yards in a single game. In Week 17 of the 1996 season, Andersen missed a 30-yard field goal that enabled the Jacksonville Jaguars to make the playoffs. Two years he kicked a game-winning field goal in overtime in the 1998 NFC Championship Game to beat the Minnesota Vikings and send the Falcons to their first-ever Super Bowl appearance. There are a number of interesting coincidences between Andersen and former NFL placekicker Gary Anderson. Anderson and Andersen have nearly identical last names, were born within a year of one another outside the United States, came to the United States as teenagers, had long and successful NFL careers throughout the 1980s and 1990s, hold first or second place in a number of NFL records for scoring, field goals, longevity.
Their overall accuracy is nearly identical. Anderson missed a field goal in the 1998 NFC Championship Game for the Minnesota Vikings before Andersen kicked his winning kick, both from the same distance as well. Andersen went on to play with the New York Giants for the 2001 season, followed by the Kansas City Chiefs the following two seasons. In the 2004 offseason, Andersen was beaten out for the kicking job by rookie Lawrence Tynes, he was released by the Chiefs for the final roster cut, was subsequently signed by the Vikings. Although his leg strength had declined with age, he continued to prove himself accurate for field goals. Having not been signed by a team following the 2004 season, he became a free agent and did not play in 2005, he announced NFL Europe games in the 2005 season. In January 2006, Andersen was inducted as the first member of the Danish American Football Federation Hall of Fame; that year, Andersen returned to the NFL, re-signing with the Atlanta Falcons. His first game back was against the Saints, on Monday Night Football.
The game was the first game in the Louisiana Superdome since Hurricane Katrina prevented its use for the entire 2005 regular season. Andersen scored the only Falcon points with a 26-yard field goal in the first quarter. In his second game back, Andersen made 5 of 5 field goals, as well as both extra point attempts, he was named NFC special teams player of the week, becoming the oldest player to earn the honor since the award was first introduced in 1984. He is the team record holder
High school football
High school football is gridiron football played by high school teams in the United States and Canada. It ranks among the most popular interscholastic sports in both countries, it is popular amongst American High school teams in Europe. High school football began in the late 19th century, concurrent with the start of many college football programs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many college and high school teams played against one another. Today, the oldest high school football rivalry dates back to 1875 in Connecticut, between the Norwich Free Academy Wildcats and the New London High School Whalers. High school football traditions such as pep rallies, marching bands and homecomings are mirrored from college football. No true minor league farm organizations exist in American football. Therefore, high school football is considered to be the third tier of American football in the United States, behind professional and college competition, it is the first level of play in which a player will accumulate statistics, which will determine his chances of competing at the college level, the professional level if he is talented enough.
In the 2000s and beyond, there has been growing concern about safety and long-term brain health, both regarding the occasional concussion as well as the steady diet of lesser hits to the head. The National Federation of State High School Associations establishes the rules of high school football in the United States; as of the next high school season of 2019, Texas is the only state that does not base its football rules on the NFHS rule set, instead using NCAA rules with certain exceptions shown below. Through the 2018 season, Massachusetts based its rules on those of the NCAA, but it adopted NFHS rules for 2019 and beyond. With their common ancestry, the NFHS rules of high school football are similar to the college game, though with some important differences: The four quarters are each 12 minutes in length, as opposed to 15 minutes in college and professional football. Kickoffs take place at the kicking team's 40-yard line, as opposed to the 35 in college and the NFL. If an attempted field goal is missed it is treated as a punt it would be a touchback and the opposing team will start at the 20-yard line.
However, if it does not enter the end zone, it can be returned as a normal punt. Any kick crossing the goal line is automatically a touchback; the spot of placement after all touchbacks—including those resulting from kickoffs and free kicks following a safety—is the 20-yard line of the team receiving possession. Contrast with NCAA and NFL rules, which call for the ball to be placed on the receiving team's 25-yard line if a kickoff or free kick after a safety results in a touchback. All fair catches result in the placement of the ball at the spot of the fair catch. Under NCAA rules, a kickoff or free kick after a safety that ends in a fair catch inside the receiving team's 25-yard line is treated as a touchback, with the ball spotted on the 25. Pass interference by the defense results in a 15-yard penalty, but no automatic first down. Pass interference by the offense results in a 15-yard penalty, from the previous spot, no loss of down; the defense cannot return an extra-point attempt for a score.
Any defensive player that encroaches the neutral zone, regardless of whether the ball was snapped or not, commits a "dead ball" foul for encroachment. 5-yard penalty from the previous spot. Prior to 2013, offensive pass interference resulted in a loss of down; the loss of down provision was deleted from the rules starting in 2013. In college and the NFL, offensive pass interference is only 10 yards; the use of overtime, the type of overtime used, is up to the individual state association. The NFHS offers a suggested overtime procedure based on the Kansas Playoff, but does not make its provisions mandatory. Intentional grounding may be called if the quarterback is outside the tackle box; the home team must wear dark-colored jerseys, the visiting team must wear white jerseys. In the NFL, as well as conference games in the Southeastern Conference, the home team has choice of jersey color. Under general NCAA rules, the home team may wear white with approval of the visiting team. NFHS rules prohibit the use of replay review if the venue has the facilities to support it.
In Texas, the public-school sanctioning body, the University Interscholastic League, only allows replay review in state championship games, while the main body governing non-public schools, the Texas Association of Private and Parochial Schools, follows the NFHS in banning replay review. At least one unique high school rule has been adopted by college football. In 1996, the overtime rules utilized by Kansas high school teams were adopted by the NCAA, although the NCAA has made two major modifications: starting each possession from the 25-yard line, starting with the third overtime period, requiring teams to attempt a two-point conversion following a touchdown. Thirty-four states have a mercy rule that comes into play during one-sided games after a prescribed scoring margin is surpassed at halftime or any point thereafter; the type of mercy rule varies from state to state, with many using a "continuous clock" after the scoring margin is reached, while other states end the game once the margin is reached or passed.
For example, Texas uses a 45-point mercy rule only in six-man football.
College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. Unlike most other sports in North America, no minor league farm organizations exist in American or Canadian football. Therefore, college football is considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States and Canadian football in Canada. However, in some areas of the country, college football is more popular than professional football, for much of the early 20th century, college football was seen as more prestigious than professional football, it is in college football where a player's performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after three to four years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring in which 256 players are selected annually.
Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent. After the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained popular throughout the U. S. Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs — the highest level — playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000 people. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests; this allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans.. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as "football", played at public schools in Great Britain in the mid-19th century. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football; the game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges. The first documented gridiron football match was played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. Modern Canadian football is regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians.
The game gained a following, the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada. Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional "mob football" played in Great Britain; the games remained unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football. Princeton University students played a game called "ballown" as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as "Bloody Monday" began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed; the Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called "Football Fightum", for whom they conducted funeral rites. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called "Old division football", the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s.
All of these games, others, shared certain commonalities. They remained "mob" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area by any means necessary. Rules were simple and injury were common; the violence of these mob-style games led to a decision to abandon them. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860. American football historian Parke H. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the'Pioneer Period'. On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football, it was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. Leggett, based