Waterford is a city in Ireland. It is part of the province of Munster; the city is situated at the head of Waterford Harbour. It is the fifth most populous city in the Republic of Ireland, it is the eighth most populous city on the island of Ireland. Waterford City and County Council is the local government authority for the city. According to the 2016 Census, 53,504 people live in the city, with a wider metropolitan population of 82,963. Today, Waterford is known for Waterford Crystal, a legacy of the city's former glass making industry. Glass, or crystal, was manufactured in the city from 1783 until early 2009, when the factory there was shut down after the receivership of Waterford Wedgwood plc; the Waterford Crystal visitor centre in the Viking Quarter, under new owners, opened in June 2010, after the intervention of Waterford City Council and Waterford Chamber of Commerce, resumed production. Waterford is known for being the "starting point" of one of the biggest European airlines – Ryanair's first flight was a 14-seat Embraer Bandeirante turboprop aircraft, flying between Waterford and Gatwick Airport.
The name'Waterford' comes from Old Norse Veðrafjǫrðr, meaning'ram fjord'. The Irish name is Port Láirge, meaning "Lárag's port". Viking raiders first established a settlement near Waterford in 853, it and all the other longphorts were vacated in 902, the Vikings having been driven out by the native Irish. The Vikings re-established themselves in Ireland at Waterford in 914, led at first by Ottir Iarla until 917, after that by Ragnall ua Ímair and the Uí Ímair dynasty, built what would be Ireland's first city. Among the most prominent rulers of Waterford was Ivar of Waterford. In 1167, Diarmait Mac Murchada, the deposed King of Leinster, failed in an attempt to take Waterford, he returned in 1170 with Cambro-Norman mercenaries under 2nd Earl of Pembroke. In furtherance of the Norman invasion of Ireland, King Henry II of England landed at Waterford in 1171. Waterford and Dublin were declared royal cities, with Dublin declared capital of Ireland. Throughout the medieval period, Waterford was Ireland's second city after Dublin.
In the 15th century Waterford repelled two pretenders to the English throne: Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck. As a result, King Henry VII gave the city its motto: Urbs Intacta Manet Waterfordia. After the Protestant Reformation, Waterford remained a Catholic city and participated in the confederation of Kilkenny – an independent Catholic government from 1642 to 1649; this was ended abruptly by Oliver Cromwell. In 1690, during the Williamite War, the Jacobite Irish Army was forced to surrender Waterford in the wake of the Battle of the Boyne; the 18th century was a period of huge prosperity for Waterford. Most of the city's best architecture appeared during this time. A permanent military presence was established in the city with the completion of the Cavalry Barracks at the end of the 18th century. In the early 19th century, Waterford City was deemed vulnerable and the British government erected three Martello towers on the Hook Peninsula to reinforce the existing Fort at Duncannon. During the 19th century, great industries such as glass making and ship building thrived in the city.
The city was represented in the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1891 to 1918 by John Redmond MP, leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party. Redmond leader of the pro-Parnell faction of the party, defeated David Sheehy in 1891. In 1911, Br. Jerome Foley, Br. Dunstan Drumm and Br. Leopold Loughran left Waterford for Australia. Here, they founded a Catholic college, still in existence today. In July 1922, Waterford was the scene of fighting between Irish Free State and Irish Republican troops during the Irish Civil War. See Annals of Inisfallen AI926.2 The fleet of Port Láirge over land, they settled on Loch Gair. AI927.2 A slaughter of the foreigners of Port Láirge at Cell Mo-Chellóc by the men of Mumu and by the foreigners of Luimnech. AI984.2 A great naval expedition by the sons of Aralt to Port Láirge, they and the son of Cennétig exchanged hostages there as a guarantee of both together providing a hosting to attack Áth Cliath. The men of Mumu assembled and proceeded to Mairg Laigen, the foreigners overcame the Uí Cheinnselaig and went by sea.
AI1018.5 Death of Ragnall son of Ímar, king of Port Láirge. AI1031.9 Cell Dara and Port Láirge were burned. Following the Local Government Reform Act 2014, Waterford City and County Council is the local government authority for the city; the authority came into operation on 1 June 2014. Prior to this the city had Waterford City Council; the new Council is the result of a merger of Waterford County Council. The Council has 32 representatives; the city itself forms three of the electoral areas – which when combined form the Metropolitan District of Waterford – and returns a total of 18 councillors to Waterford City and County Council. Residents in these areas are restricted to voting for candidates located in their ward for local elections; the office
Louisbourg is an unincorporated community and former town in Cape Breton Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia. The French military founded the Fortress of Louisbourg in 1713 and its fortified seaport on the southwest part of the harbour, naming it in honour of Louis XIV; the harbour had been used by European mariners since at least the 1590s, when it was known as English Port and Havre à l'Anglois. The French settlement that dated from 1713 was much altered after its final capture in 1758, its fortifications were demolished in 1760 and the town-site abandoned by British forces in 1768. A small civilian population continued to live there after the military left. English settlers subsequently built a small fishing village across the harbour from the abandoned site of the fortress; the village grew with additional Loyalists settlers in the 1780s. The harbour grew more accessible with the construction of the second Louisbourg Lighthouse in 1842 on the site of the original French lighthouse destroyed in 1758.
A railway first reached Louisbourg in 1877, but it was poorly built and abandoned after a forest fire. However the arrival of Sydney and Louisburg Railway in 1894 brought heavy volumes of winter coal exports to Louisbourg Harbour's ice-free waters as a winter coal port; the harbour was used by the Canadian government ship Montmagny in 1912 to land bodies from the sinking of the RMS Titanic. Incorporated in 1901, the Town of Louisbourg was disincorporated when all municipal units in Cape Breton County were merged into a single tier regional municipality in 1995. Pronounced "Lewisburg" by its English-speaking population, the present community has been identified by different spellings over the years by both locals and visitors; the town was spelled Louisburg and several companies, including the Sydney and Louisburg Railway adopted this spelling. On 6 April 1966, the Nova Scotia House of Assembly passed "An Act to Change the Name of the Town of Louisburg" which resulted in the town changing its official name to the original French spelling Louisbourg.
Louisbourg's economy is dominated by the seasonal tourism seafood processing. The depletion of ground fish stocks has negatively affected local fish processing operations in recent decades. In the 1960s, Parks Canada completed a partial reconstruction of the Fortress of Louisbourg. Today this National Historic Site of Canada is the town's dominant economic engine, employing many residents and attracting thousands of tourists every year; the fortress holds large scale Historical reenactments every few years to mark important historical events and attract visitors to the town. The most recent in July 2008, commemorated the 250th anniversary of the first British siege victory over French forces in July 1758; the town's more recent history is preserved at the Sydney and Louisburg Railway Museum located in the restored railway station in the centre of town. Annually, the community hosts the Louisbourg Crab Fest. A large golf course and residential resort is planned near the community. Louisbourg is home to the Louisbourg Playhouse, a theatre company operating in an Elizabethan theatre, used as a prop in the live action 1994 Disney film Squanto: A Warrior's Tale.
Louisbourg experiences. The highest temperature recorded in Louisbourg was 34.0 °C on 2 September 2010 and 15 July 2013. The coldest temperature recorded was −26.0 °C on 18 January 1982. Louisbourg was mentioned in Nathaniel Hawthorne's story Feathertop; the town is a major setting for Thomas H. Raddall's 1946 novel Roger Sudden; the town "Louisburg" is mentioned in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Evangeline. The 2011 film Take This Waltz begins with a re-enactment scene from the fortress and features the lighthouse in several shots. Fortress of Louisbourg Royal eponyms in Canada Places Names of Nova Scotia, Nova Scotia Archives and Records Management, p. 375 Johnston, A. J. B.. Louisbourg: Past, Future. Halifax: Nimbus Publishing. ISBN 978-1-771080-52-1. Jedidiah Morse. "Louisbourg". The American Gazetteer. Boston, Massachusetts: At the presses of S. Hall, Thomas & Andrews. "Louisburg". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. "Louisburg". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province of Canada. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it comprises the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador to the northwest, with a combined area of 405,212 square kilometres. In 2018, the province's population was estimated at 525,073. About 92% of the province's population lives on the island of Newfoundland, of whom more than half live on the Avalon Peninsula; the province is Canada's most linguistically homogeneous, with 97.0% of residents reporting English as their mother tongue in the 2016 census. Newfoundland was home to unique varieties of French and Irish, as well as the extinct Beothuk language. In Labrador, the indigenous languages Innu-aimun and Inuktitut are spoken. Newfoundland and Labrador's capital and largest city, St. John's, is Canada's 20th-largest census metropolitan area and is home to 40 percent of the province's population. St. John's is the seat of government, home to the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador and to the highest court in the jurisdiction, the Newfoundland and Labrador Court of Appeal.
A former colony and dominion of the United Kingdom, Newfoundland gave up its independence in 1933, following significant economic distress caused by the Great Depression and the aftermath of Newfoundland's participation in World War I. It became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on March 31, 1949, as "Newfoundland". On December 6, 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's name to Newfoundland and Labrador; the name "New founde lande" was uttered by King Henry VII in reference to the land explored by the Cabots. In Portuguese it is Terra Nova, which means "new land", the French name for the Province's island region; the name "Terra Nova" is in wide use on the island. The influence of early Portuguese exploration is reflected in the name of Labrador, which derives from the surname of the Portuguese navigator João Fernandes Lavrador. Labrador's name in the Inuttitut language is Nunatsuak, meaning "the big land". Newfoundland's Inuttitut name is Ikkarumikluak meaning "place of many shoals".
Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province in Canada, is at the north-eastern corner of North America. The Strait of Belle Isle separates the province into two geographical parts: Labrador, a large area of mainland Canada, Newfoundland, an island in the Atlantic Ocean; the province includes over 7,000 tiny islands. Newfoundland is triangular; each side is about 400 km long, its area is 108,860 km2. Newfoundland and its neighbouring small islands have an area of 111,390 km2. Newfoundland extends between latitudes 46°36′N and 51°38′N. Labrador is an irregular shape: the western part of its border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands drained by rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, the rest belongs to Quebec. Most of Labrador's southern boundary with Quebec follows the 52nd parallel of latitude. Labrador's extreme northern tip, at 60°22′N, shares a short border with Nunavut. Labrador's area is 294,330 km2. Together and Labrador make up 4.06% of Canada's area, with a total area of 405,720 km2.
Labrador is the easternmost part of the Canadian Shield, a vast area of ancient metamorphic rock comprising much of northeastern North America. Colliding tectonic plates have shaped much of the geology of Newfoundland. Gros Morne National Park has a reputation as an outstanding example of tectonics at work, as such has been designated a World Heritage Site; the Long Range Mountains on Newfoundland's west coast are the northeasternmost extension of the Appalachian Mountains. The north-south extent of the province, prevalent westerly winds, cold ocean currents and local factors such as mountains and coastline combine to create the various climates of the province. Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador has a subarctic climate, while most of Newfoundland has a humid continental climate: cool summer subtype. Newfoundland and Labrador has a wide range of climates and weather, due to its geography; the island of Newfoundland spans 5 degrees of latitude, comparable to the Great Lakes.
The province has been divided into six climate types, but broadly Newfoundland has a cool summer subtype of a humid continental climate, influenced by the sea since no part of the island is more than 100 km from the ocean. Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador has a subarctic climate. Monthly average temperatures and snowfall for four places are shown in the attached graphs. St. John's represents the east coast, Gander the interior of the island, Corner Brook the west coast of the island and Wabush the interior of Labrador. Climate data for 56 places in the province is available from Environment Canada; the data for the graphs is the average over thirty years. Error bars on the temperature graph indicate the range of daytime highs and night time lows. Snowfall is the total amount that fell during the month, not the amount accumulated on the ground; this distinction is important for St. John's, where a heavy snowfall can be followed by rain, so no snow remains on the ground.
The Beothuk were an indigenous people living on the island of Newfoundland. Beginning around BCE 1500, the Beothuk culture formed; this appeared to be the most recent cultural manifestation of peoples who first migrated from Labrador to present-day Newfoundland around AD 1. The ancestors of this group had three earlier cultural phases, each lasting 500 years. In 2007 DNA testing was conducted on material from the teeth of Demasduit and her husband Nonosabasut, two Beothuk individuals who had died in the 1820s; the results assigned them to Haplogroup X and Haplogroup C which are found in current Mi'kmaq populations in Newfoundland. It demonstrated they were of First Nation indigenous maternal ancestry, unlike some earlier studies that suggested European admixture. However, a 2011 analysis showed that although the two Beothuk and living Mi'kmaq occur in the same haplogroups, SNP differences between Beothuk and Mi'kmaq individuals indicated that they were dissimilar within those groups, that a "close relationship" was not supported.
The Beothuk lived throughout the island of Newfoundland in the Notre Dame and Bonavista Bay areas. Estimates vary as to the number of Beothuk at the time of contact with Europeans. Beothuk researcher Ingeborg Marshall has argued that a valid understanding of Beothuk history and culture is directly impacted by how and by whom historical records were created, pointing to the ethnocentric nature of European accounts which positioned native populations as inherently inferior. Scholars of the 19th and early 20th century estimated about 2,000 individuals at the time of European contact in the 15th century. There is purportedly good evidence, they lived in self-sufficient, extended family groups of 30 to 55 people. Like many other hunter-gathering peoples, they appear to have had band leaders but not more formal "chiefs", they lived in conical dwellings known as mamateeks. These were constructed by arranging poles in a circle, tying them at the top, covering them with birch bark; the floors were dug with hollows used for sleeping.
A fireplace was made at the center. During spring, the Beothuk used red ochre to paint not only their bodies, but their houses, weapons, household appliances and musical instruments; this practice led Europeans to refer to them as "Red Indians". The use of ochre had great cultural significance; the decorating was done during an annual multi-day spring celebration. It designated tribal identity. Forbidding a person to wear ochre was a form of punishment, their main sources of food were caribou and seals, augmented by harvesting other animal and plant species. The Beothuk followed the seasonal migratory habits of their principal quarry. In the fall, they set up deer fences, sometimes 30–40 miles long, used to drive migrating caribou toward waiting hunters armed with bows and arrows; the Beothuk are known to have made a pudding out of tree sap and the dried yolk of the eggs of the great auk. They preserved surplus food for use during winter, trapped various fur-bearing animals, worked their skins for warm clothing.
The fur side was worn next to trap air against a person's body. Beothuk canoes were made of caribou or seal skin, the bow of the canoe was stiffened with spruce bark. Canoes resembled kayaks and were said to be fifteen feet in length and two and a half feet in width with enough room to carry children and property; the Beothuk followed elaborate burial practices. After wrapping the bodies in birch bark, they buried the dead in isolated locations. In one form, a shallow grave was covered with a rock pile. At other times they laid the body on a scaffold, or placed it in a burial box, with the knees folded; the survivors placed offerings at burial sites to accompany the dead, such as figurines and replicas of tools. About 1000 AD, Norse explorers encountered natives in northern Newfoundland, who may have been ancestors of the Beothuk, or Dorset inhabitants of Labrador and Newfoundland; the Norse called. Beginning in 1497, with the arrival of the Italian John Cabot, sailing under the auspices of the English crown, waves of European explorers and settlers had more contacts.
Unlike some other native groups, the Beothuk tried to avoid contact with Europeans. The Beothuk visited their former camps only to pick up metal objects, they would collect any tools and building materials left by the European fishermen, who had dried and cured their catch, before taking it to Europe at the end of the season. Contact between Europeans and the Beothuk was negative for one side, with a few exceptions like John Guy's party in 1612. Settlers and the Beothuk competed for natural resources such as salmon and birds. In the interior, fur trappers established traplines, disrupted the caribou hunts and pillaged Beothuk stores and supplies; the Beothuk would steal traps to reuse the metals, steal from the homes and shelters of Europeans and sometimes ambush them. These encounters led to mutual violence. With superior arms technology, the settlers had the upper hand in hunting and warfare. Intermittently, Europeans attempted to improve relations with the Beothuk. Examples included expeditions by naval lieutenants George Cartwright in 1768 and David Buchan in 1811.
Cartwright's expedition was commissioned by
Area code 709
Area code 709 is the telephone area code in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, encompassing the whole province. While the first telephone system was installed in Newfoundland in 1885, domestic long-distance calls within the Dominion of Newfoundland were first placed on a limited basis in 1921; the first long distance call from Newfoundland to Canada was made on January 10, 1939 using a shortwave radio link operated by the Canadian Marconi Company in Montréal. After confederation with Canada, the first cross-province long distance call, St. John's to Port aux Basques, was placed in 1949. At the time the original set of 86 three-digit routing codes was implemented for operator-assisted long-distance calling in Canada and the US the Newfoundland telephone system was manual. Dial telephones came to St. John's in 1948. Canada's Atlantic provinces were area code 902, which remains in use throughout Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. New Brunswick and Newfoundland were split from 902 to area code 506 in 1955.
Newfoundland and Labrador split off as its own area code, 709, in early 1962. Canadian direct distance dial locations came on-line during the next several years, beginning with the largest cities Toronto and Montreal, in 1958; the area codes served for operator routing purposes until customer dialling of long distance calls became commonplace in the 1960s. The incumbent local exchange carrier in 709 is Bell Aliant, owned by Bell Canada, formed in 1999 as a result of a merger that included NewTel Communications. There had been as many as nine companies in Newfoundland and Labrador up to 1951. Area code 709 is expected to be exhausted by 2024, at which point Newfoundland and Labrador will receive an overlay area code and 10-digit dialing will become necessary in the province. Area code 879 has been reserved as the second code for the purpose of this overlay, although the relief has been deferred indefinitely. For now and the three other Canadian area codes, 506, 807 and 867 still use 7-digit dialling and have yet to be overlaid.
Telephone numbers in Canada Canadian Numbering Administration Consortium CNA exchange list for area +1-709 Telecom archives Area Code Map of Canada
Naval Station Argentia
Naval Station Argentia is a former base of the United States Navy that operated from 1941 to 1994. It was established in the community of Argentia in what was the Dominion of Newfoundland, which became the tenth Canadian province and Labrador. Established under the British-US destroyers for bases agreement of 1940, the base was first occupied on 25 January 1941 following the expropriation of the flat headland formed by a small natural bay called Little Placentia Sound and the western end facing Placentia Bay by the Newfoundland government. Construction crews rushed to build the base as well as an adjoining air field. On 15 July 1941, the Naval Operating Base was commissioned. On 7 August 1941 the heavy cruiser USS Augusta carrying U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt arrived in the anchorage at Little Placentia Bay off the base. Roosevelt inspected the base construction progress and did some fishing from Augusta over the next two days. Augusta was joined by the British warship HMS Prince of Wales carrying British Prime Minister Winston Churchill on 9 August 1941.
While in the Argentia anchorage from 9–12 August, the chiefs of staff of Britain and the U. S. met to discuss war strategies and logistics once the U. S. joined in the war. The two leaders and their aides negotiated the wording of a press release that they called a "joint statement"; that press release was issued on 14 August 1941 in Washington, D. C. and was issued in London, England. Several days the Daily Herald would characterize the public statement as being the Atlantic Charter. However, there never was a signed, legal document called the "Atlantic Charter". Neither Roosevelt nor Churchill signed it; the conference concluded the evening of 12 August 1941 with the British and American warships and their escorts passing in review before departing the area for their home ports. The joint declaration was publicly announced on 14 August after Prince of Wales had returned to UK waters. On 28 August 1941 Naval Air Station Argentia was commissioned. NAS Argentia was built on the plateau atop the triangular peninsula adjacent to Naval Station Argentia's anchorage and shore facilities.
The air station was used to base convoy protection, coastal patrol and anti-submarine aircraft, both land-based aircraft and seaplanes. While NAS Argentia was nominally an independent facility from Naval Station Argentia, both facilities are viewed as one. Beginning that summer, USS Prairie was used to house Flag Headquarters at the base. February 1942 saw the Argentia base at the centre of one of the worst accidental disasters in the US Navy's history when USS Pollux and USS Truxtun grounded and were lost with heavy casualties 75 mi southwest of the base. Over 100 victims were buried in Argentia's military cemetery. United States Army Coast Artillery Corps troops were first deployed to Argentia in early 1941, at first a single coast defence battery with two or four 155 mm guns and an anti-aircraft battery. In January 1942 construction began on two batteries of 6-inch guns, in March 1942 the United States Army established Fort McAndrew at Argentia to provide security to the navy base through an anti-aircraft battery and additional coast defence guns.
That spring the Royal Navy established a small maintenance base at Argentia to service its ships involved in convoy escort groups operating out of Halifax, Sydney, St. John's and in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. A US Navy-manned indicator loop station was at Argentia. In the spring of 1943 a 7,000 ton floating drydock was installed at Argentia, along with a ship repair facility. In August 1943, Task Force 24 Flag Headquarters moved ashore to permanent facilities after having been housed aboard USS Prairie. In 1944, Argentia served as one of the two stopover bases for the refuelling and crew changes of the six United States Navy K-class blimps that made the first transatlantic crossings of non-rigid airships. Blimps K-123 and K-130 from USN Blimp Squadron 14 left South Weymouth Naval Air Station in Massachusetts on 28 May 1944 and landed at Argentia about 16 hours later; the two K-ships flew for 22 hours to Lages Field on Terceira Island in the Azores, the second stopover base for the transatlantic flights.
The last leg was a ~20-hour flight to the squadron's final destination with Fleet Air Wing 15 at Port Lyautey, French Morocco. Blimps K-123 and K-130 were followed by K-109 and K-134 K-112 and K-101 which left South Weymouth on 11 and 27 June in 1944; these six blimps conducted nighttime anti-submarine warfare operations to complement the daytime missions flown by FAW-15 aircraft using magnetic anomaly detection to locate U-boats in the shallow waters around the Strait of Gibraltar. ZP-14 K-ships conducted minespotting and minesweeping operations in key Mediterranean ports and various escort missions including that of the convoy carrying Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill to the Yalta Conference in early 1945. In late April 1945, K-89 and K-114 left NAS Weeksville in North Carolina and flew a southern route to NAS Bermuda, the Azores, Port Lyautey, where they arrived on 1 May 1945. In 1942 the aerodrome was listed as USAAF Aerodrome - Argentia, Newfoundland at 47°19′N 53°58′W with a variation of 29 degrees west and elevation of 50 ft.
The field was listed as "All hard surfaced" and had three runways listed as follows: United States Army Coast Artillery Corps troops were first deployed to Argentia in January 1941 Battery A of the 57th
The Basques are an indigenous ethnic group characterised by the Basque language, a common culture and shared genetic ancestry to the ancient Vascones and Aquitanians. Basques are indigenous to and inhabit an area traditionally known as the Basque Country, a region, located around the western end of the Pyrenees on the coast of the Bay of Biscay and straddles parts of north-central Spain and south-western France; the English word Basque may be pronounced or and derives from the French Basque, derived from Gascon Basco, cognate with Spanish Vasco. These, in turn, come from plural Vascones; the Latin labial-velar approximant /w/ evolved into the bilabials /b/ and /β̞/ in Gascon and Spanish under the influence of Basque and Aquitanian, a language related to old Basque and spoken in Gascony in Antiquity. Several coins from the 2nd and 1st centuries BC found in the Basque Country bear the inscription barscunes; the place where they were minted is not certain, but is thought to be somewhere near Pamplona, in the heartland of the area that historians believe was inhabited by the Vascones.
Some scholars have suggested a Celtic etymology based on bhar-s-, meaning "summit", "point" or "leaves", according to which barscunes may have meant "the mountain people", "the tall ones" or "the proud ones", while others have posited a relationship to a proto-Indo-European root *bar- meaning "border", "frontier", "march". In Basque, people call themselves singular euskaldun, formed from euskal - and - dun. Not all Basques are Basque-speakers. Therefore, the neologism euskotar, plural euskotarrak, was coined in the 19th century to mean a culturally Basque person, whether Basque-speaking or not. Alfonso Irigoyen posits that the word euskara is derived from an ancient Basque verb enautsi "to say" and the suffix -ara, thus euskara would mean "way of saying", "way of speaking". One item of evidence in favour of this hypothesis is found in the Spanish book Compendio Historial, written in 1571 by the Basque writer Esteban de Garibay, he records the name of the Basque language as enusquera. It may, however, be a writing mistake.
In the 19th century, the Basque nationalist activist Sabino Arana posited an original root euzko which, he thought, came from eguzkiko. On the basis of this putative root, Arana proposed the name Euzkadi for an independent Basque nation, composed of seven Basque historical territories. Arana's neologism Euzkadi is still used in both Basque and Spanish, since it is now the official name of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. Since the Basque language is unrelated to Indo-European, it has long been thought to represent the people or culture that occupied Europe before the spread of Indo-European languages there. A comprehensive analysis of Basque genetic patterns has shown that Basque genetic uniqueness predates the arrival of agriculture in the Iberian Peninsula, about 7,000 years ago, it is thought that Basques are a remnant of the early inhabitants of Western Europe those of the Franco-Cantabrian region. Basque tribes were mentioned in Roman times by Strabo and Pliny, including the Vascones, the Aquitani, others.
There is enough evidence to support the hypothesis that at that time and they spoke old varieties of the Basque language. In the Early Middle Ages the territory between the Ebro and Garonne rivers was known as Vasconia, a vaguely defined ethnic area and political entity struggling to fend off pressure from the Iberian Visigothic kingdom and Arab rule to the south, as well as the Frankish push from the north. By the turn of the first millennium, the territory of Vasconia had fragmented into different feudal regions, such as Soule and Labourd, while south of the Pyrenees the Castile and the Pyrenean counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe and Pallars emerged as the main regional entities with Basque population in the 9th and 10th centuries; the Kingdom of Pamplona, a central Basque realm known as Navarre, underwent a process of feudalization and was subject to the influence of its much larger Aragonese and French neighbours. Castile deprived Navarre of its coastline by conquering key western territories, leaving the kingdom landlocked.
The Basques were ravaged by the War of the Bands, bitter partisan wars between local ruling families. Weakened by the Navarrese civil war, the bulk of the realm fell before the onslaught of the Spanish armies. However, the Navarrese territory north of the Pyrenees remained beyond the reach of an powerful Spain. Lower Navarre became a province of France in 1620; the Basques enjoyed a great deal of self-government until the French Revolution and the Carlist Wars, when the Basques supported heir apparent Carlos V and his descendants. On either side of the Pyrenees, the Basques lost their native institutions and laws held during the Ancien régime. Since despite the current limited self-governing status of the Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre as settled by the Spanish Constitution, many Basques have attempted higher degrees of self-empowerment, sometimes by acts