Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite crystallographic structural planes. Cleavage forms parallel to planes, Basal or pinacoidal cleavage occurs when there is only one cleavage plane. Mica has basal cleavage, this is why mica can be peeled into thin sheets, cubic cleavage occurs on when there are three cleavage planes intersecting at 90 degrees. Halite has cubic cleavage, and therefore, when halite crystals are broken, octahedral cleavage occurs when there are four cleavage planes in a crystal. Octahedral cleavage is common for semiconductors, rhombohedral cleavage occurs when there are three cleavage planes intersecting at angles that are not 90 degrees. Prismatic cleavage occurs when there are two planes in a crystal. Dodecahedral cleavage occurs when there are six cleavage planes in a crystal, crystal parting occurs when minerals break along planes of structural weakness due to external stress or along twin composition planes. Parting breaks are very similar in appearance to cleavage, but only due to stress.
Examples include magnetite which shows octahedral parting, the parting of corundum. Cleavage is a property traditionally used in mineral identification, both in hand specimen and microscopic examination of rock and mineral studies. As an example, the angles between the cleavage planes for the pyroxenes and the amphiboles are diagnostic. Crystal cleavage is of importance in the electronics industry and in the cutting of gemstones. Precious stones are generally cleaved by impact, as in diamond cutting, synthetic single crystals of semiconductor materials are generally sold as thin wafers which are much easier to cleave. Elemental semiconductors are diamond cubic, a group for which octahedral cleavage is observed. This means that some orientations of wafer allow near-perfect rectangles to be cleaved, most other commercial semiconductors can be made in the related zinc blende structure, with similar cleavage planes. Cleavage Mineral galleries, Mineral properties – Cleavage
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury. Named after the Roman god of war, it is referred to as the Red Planet because the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance. Mars is a planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys and polar ice caps of Earth. The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth, Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano and second-highest known mountain in the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons in the Solar System. The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet, Mars has two moons and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. These may be captured asteroids, similar to 5261 Eureka, a Mars trojan, there are ongoing investigations assessing the past habitability potential of Mars, as well as the possibility of extant life.
Future astrobiology missions are planned, including the Mars 2020 and ExoMars rovers, liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressure, which is about 6⁄1000 that of the Earths, except at the lowest elevations for short periods. The two polar ice caps appear to be largely of water. The volume of ice in the south polar ice cap, if melted. On November 22,2016, NASA reported finding a large amount of ice in the Utopia Planitia region of Mars. The volume of water detected has been estimated to be equivalent to the volume of water in Lake Superior, Mars can easily be seen from Earth with the naked eye, as can its reddish coloring. Its apparent magnitude reaches −2.91, which is surpassed only by Jupiter, the Moon, optical ground-based telescopes are typically limited to resolving features about 300 kilometers across when Earth and Mars are closest because of Earths atmosphere. Mars is approximately half the diameter of Earth with an area only slightly less than the total area of Earths dry land.
Mars is less dense than Earth, having about 15% of Earths volume and 11% of Earths mass, the red-orange appearance of the Martian surface is caused by iron oxide, or rust. It can look like butterscotch, other common colors include golden, tan. Like Earth, Mars has differentiated into a metallic core overlaid by less dense materials. Current models of its interior imply a core with a radius of about 1,794 ±65 kilometers, consisting primarily of iron and this iron sulfide core is thought to be twice as rich in lighter elements than Earths. The core is surrounded by a mantle that formed many of the tectonic and volcanic features on the planet
Extinction (optical mineralogy)
Extinction is a term used in optical mineralogy and petrology, which describes when cross-polarized light dims, as viewed through a thin section of a mineral in a petrographic microscope. Isotropic minerals, opaque minerals, or amorphous materials show no light, anisotropic minerals will show one extinction for each 90 degrees of stage rotation. The extinction angle is the measure between the direction or habit of a mineral and the extinction. To find this, simply line up the cleavage lines/long direction with one of the crosshairs in the microscope, the number of degrees the stage was rotated is the extinction angle, between 0-89 degrees. 90 degrees would be considered zero degrees, and is known as parallel extinction, inclined extinction is a measured angle between 1-89 degrees. Minerals with two cleavages can have two extinction angles, with symmetrical extinction occurring when minerals have multiple angles that are the same, minerals that have no cleavage or elongation can not have an extinction angle.
Minerals with undulose extinction, solid solution/zonation, or other factors that may inhibit this measure and may be more difficult to use
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They are the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals and they are classified based on the structure of their silicate groups, which contain different ratios of silicon and oxygen. Nesosilicates, or orthosilicates, have the orthosilicate ion, which constitute isolated 4− tetrahedra that are connected only by interstitial cations and these exist as 3-member 6− and 6-member 12− rings, where T stands for a tetrahedrally coordinated cation. Inosilicates, or chain silicates, have interlocking chains of silicate tetrahedra with either SiO3,1,3 ratio, for single chains or Si4O11,4,11 ratio, for double chains. Nickel–Strunz classification,09. D Pyroxene group Enstatite – orthoferrosilite series Enstatite – MgSiO3 Ferrosilite – FeSiO3 Pigeonite – Ca0.251, all phyllosilicate minerals are hydrated, with either water or hydroxyl groups attached. Serpentine subgroup Antigorite – Mg3Si2O54 Chrysotile – Mg3Si2O54 Lizardite – Mg3Si2O54 Clay minerals group Halloysite – Al2Si2O54 Kaolinite – Al2Si2O54 Illite – 24O10 Montmorillonite –0 and this group comprises nearly 75% of the crust of the Earth.
Tectosilicates, with the exception of the group, are aluminosilicates. Nickel–Strunz classification,09. F and 09. G,04. A, an introduction to the rock-forming minerals. Wise, W. S. Zussman, J. Rock-forming minerals, P.982 pp. Hurlbut, Cornelius S. Danas Manual of Mineralogy. Mindat. org, Dana classification Webmineral, Danas New Silicate Classification Media related to Silicates at Wikimedia Commons
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item. This is opposed to an image, which is at a scale that is visible to the naked eye. Micrography is the practice or art of using microscopes to make photographs, a micrograph contains extensive details that form the features of a microstructure. The neuropathologist Solomon C. Fuller designed and created the first photomicrograph in 1900, micrographs are widely used in all fields of microscopy. A light micrograph or photomicrograph is a micrograph prepared using an optical microscope, at a basic level, photomicroscopy may be performed simply by hooking up a regular camera to a microscope, thereby enabling the user to take photographs at reasonably high magnification. Roman Vishniac was a pioneer in the field of photomicroscopy, specializing in the photography of living creatures in full motion and he made major developments in light-interruption photography and color photomicroscopy.
An electron micrograph is a micrograph prepared using an electron microscope, the term electron micrograph is not used in electron microscopy. Digital micrography is a digital picture obtained either directly with a microscope or by scanning of a photomicrograph, digital micrographs are now commonly obtained using a USB microscope attached directly to a home computer or laptop. Today, an add-on three-in-one macro lens which has capability to take wide-angle, fish-eye and macro with 7x, 14x, micrographs usually have micron bars, or magnification ratios, or both. Magnification is a ratio between size of object on a picture and its real size, magnification is somewhat a misleading parameter. It depends on a size of a printed picture. Editors of journals and magazines routinely resize a figure to fit the page, a scale bar, or micron bar, is a bar of known length displayed on a picture. The bar can be used for measurements on a picture, when a picture is resized a bar is resized. If a picture has a bar, the magnification can be easily calculated, all pictures destined for publication/presentation should be supplied with a scale bar, the magnification ratio is optional.
All but one of the micrographs presented on this page do not have a bar, supplied magnification ratios are likely incorrect. The microscope has been used for scientific discovery. It has linked to the arts since its invention in the 17th century. At first scientists used the microscope to view and draw objects not visible with the unaided eye, early adopters of the microscope, such as Robert Hooke and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, were excellent illustrators
A thin sliver of rock is cut from the sample with a diamond saw and ground optically flat. It is mounted on a slide and ground smooth using progressively finer abrasive grit until the sample is only 30 μm thick. The method involved using the Michel-Lévy interference colour chart, typically quartz is used as the gauge to determine thickness as it is one of the most abundant minerals. As different minerals have different optical properties, most rock forming minerals can be easily identified, plagioclase for example can be seen in the photo on the right as a clear mineral with multiple parallel twinning planes. The large blue-green minerals are clinopyroxene with some exsolution of orthopyroxene, thin sections are prepared in order to investigate the optical properties of the minerals in the rock. This work is a part of petrology and helps to reveal the origin, a photograph of a rock in thin section is often referred to as a photomicrograph. Fine-grained rocks, particularly those containing minerals of high birefringence, such as calcite, are prepared as ultra-thin sections.
An ordinary 30 μm thin section is prepared as described above, the section is polished on both sides using a fine diamond paste until it has a thickness in the range of 2-12 μm. This technique has been used to study the microstructure of fine-grained carbonates such as the Lochseitenkalk mylonite in which the grains are less than 5 μm in size. Ceramography, thin sections of ceramics Shelley, D
In mathematics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions. In three dimensions, there are 219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct, Space groups are studied in dimensions other than 3 where they are sometimes called Bieberbach groups, and are discrete cocompact groups of isometries of an oriented Euclidean space. In crystallography, space groups are called the crystallographic or Fedorov groups. A definitive source regarding 3-dimensional space groups is the International Tables for Crystallography, in 1879 Leonhard Sohncke listed the 65 space groups whose elements preserve the orientation. More accurately, he listed 66 groups, but Fedorov and Schönflies both noticed that two of them were really the same, the space groups in 3 dimensions were first enumerated by Fedorov, and shortly afterwards were independently enumerated by Schönflies. The correct list of 230 space groups was found by 1892 during correspondence between Fedorov and Schönflies, burckhardt describes the history of the discovery of the space groups in detail.
The space groups in three dimensions are made from combinations of the 32 crystallographic point groups with the 14 Bravais lattices, the combination of all these symmetry operations results in a total of 230 different space groups describing all possible crystal symmetries. The elements of the space group fixing a point of space are rotations, the identity element, the translations form a normal abelian subgroup of rank 3, called the Bravais lattice. There are 14 possible types of Bravais lattice, the quotient of the space group by the Bravais lattice is a finite group which is one of the 32 possible point groups. Translation is defined as the moves from one point to another point. A glide plane is a reflection in a plane, followed by a parallel with that plane. This is noted by a, b or c, depending on which axis the glide is along. There is the n glide, which is a glide along the half of a diagonal of a face, and the d glide, the latter is called the diamond glide plane as it features in the diamond structure.
In 17 space groups, due to the centering of the cell, the glides occur in two directions simultaneously, i. e. the same glide plane can be called b or c, a or b. For example, group Abm2 could be called Acm2, group Ccca could be called Cccb, in 1992, it was suggested to use symbol e for such planes. The symbols for five groups have been modified, A screw axis is a rotation about an axis. These are noted by a number, n, to describe the degree of rotation, the degree of translation is added as a subscript showing how far along the axis the translation is, as a portion of the parallel lattice vector. So,21 is a rotation followed by a translation of 1/2 of the lattice vector
In crystallography, the terms crystal system, crystal family and lattice system each refer to one of several classes of space groups, point groups or crystals. Informally, two crystals are in the crystal system if they have similar symmetries, though there are many exceptions to this. Space groups and crystals are divided into seven crystal systems according to their point groups, five of the crystal systems are essentially the same as five of the lattice systems, but the hexagonal and trigonal crystal systems differ from the hexagonal and rhombohedral lattice systems. The six crystal families are formed by combining the hexagonal and trigonal crystal systems into one hexagonal family, a lattice system is a class of lattices with the same set of lattice point groups, which are subgroups of the arithmetic crystal classes. The 14 Bravais lattices are grouped into seven lattice systems, monoclinic, tetragonal, hexagonal, in a crystal system, a set of point groups and their corresponding space groups are assigned to a lattice system.
Of the 32 point groups that exist in three dimensions, most are assigned to only one system, in which case both the crystal and lattice systems have the same name. However, five point groups are assigned to two systems and hexagonal, because both exhibit threefold rotational symmetry. These point groups are assigned to the crystal system. In total there are seven crystal systems, monoclinic, tetragonal, hexagonal, a crystal family is determined by lattices and point groups. It is formed by combining crystal systems which have space groups assigned to a lattice system. In three dimensions, the families and systems are identical, except the hexagonal and trigonal crystal systems. In total there are six families, monoclinic, tetragonal, hexagonal. Spaces with less than three dimensions have the number of crystal systems, crystal families and lattice systems. In one-dimensional space, there is one crystal system, in 2D space, there are four crystal systems, rectangular and hexagonal. The relation between three-dimensional crystal families, crystal systems and lattice systems is shown in the table, Note.
To avoid confusion of terminology, the term trigonal lattice is not used, if the original structure and inverted structure are identical, the structure is centrosymmetric. Still, even for non-centrosymmetric case, inverted structure in some cases can be rotated to align with the original structure and this is the case of non-centrosymmetric achiral structure. If the inverted structure cannot be rotated to align with the structure, the structure is chiral
Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in the crystalline solids. The word crystallography derives from the Greek words crystallon cold drop, frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein to write. In July 2012, the United Nations recognised the importance of the science of crystallography by proclaiming that 2014 would be the International Year of Crystallography, X-ray crystallography is used to determine the structure of large biomolecules such as proteins. Before the development of X-ray diffraction crystallography, the study of crystals was based on measurements of their geometry. This involved measuring the angles of crystal faces relative to other and to theoretical reference axes. This physical measurement is carried out using a goniometer, the position in 3D space of each crystal face is plotted on a stereographic net such as a Wulff net or Lambert net. The pole to face is plotted on the net.
Each point is labelled with its Miller index, the final plot allows the symmetry of the crystal to be established. Crystallographic methods now depend on analysis of the patterns of a sample targeted by a beam of some type. X-rays are most commonly used, other beams used include electrons or neutrons and this is facilitated by the wave properties of the particles. Crystallographers often explicitly state the type of beam used, as in the terms X-ray crystallography and these three types of radiation interact with the specimen in different ways. X-rays interact with the distribution of electrons in the sample. Electrons are charged particles and therefore interact with the charge distribution of both the atomic nuclei and the electrons of the sample. Neutrons are scattered by the atomic nuclei through the nuclear forces, but in addition. They are therefore scattered by magnetic fields, when neutrons are scattered from hydrogen-containing materials, they produce diffraction patterns with high noise levels.
However, the material can sometimes be treated to substitute deuterium for hydrogen, because of these different forms of interaction, the three types of radiation are suitable for different crystallographic studies. An image of an object is made using a lens to focus the beam. However, the wavelength of light is three orders of magnitude longer than the length of typical atomic bonds and atoms themselves
Bytownite is a calcium rich member of the plagioclase solid solution series of feldspar minerals. It is usually defined as having %An between 70 and 90, like others of the series, bytownite forms grey to white triclinic crystals commonly exhibiting the typical plagioclase twinning and associated fine striations. The specific gravity of bytownite varies between 2.74 and 2.75, the refractive indices ranges are nα=1.563 –1.572, nβ=1.568 –1.578, and nγ=1.573 –1.583. Precise determination of two properties with chemical, X-ray diffraction, or petrographic analysis are required for identification. Bytownite is a rock forming mineral occurring in mafic rocks such as gabbros. It occurs as phenocrysts in volcanic rocks. It is rare in metamorphic rocks and it is typically associated with pyroxenes and olivine. The mineral was first described in 1835 and named for an occurrence at Bytown, other noted occurrences in Canada include the Shawmere anorthosite in Foleyet Township, and on Yamaska Mountain, near Abbotsford, Quebec.
It occurs on Rùm island and Eycott Hill, near Keswick and it is reported from Naaraodal, Norway and in the Bushveld complex of South Africa. It is found in Isa Valley, Western Australia, in the US it is found in the Stillwater igneous complex of Montana, from near Lakeview, Lake County, Oregon. It occurs in the Lucky Cuss mine, Arizona, in the eastern US it occurs at Cornwall, Lebanon County and Phoenixville, Chester County, Pennsylvania. Bytownite is occasionally used in jewelry, as a gemstone, bytownite is usually faceted with the transparent gems varying in color from a pale, straw yellow to a light brown. A variety from Mexico has been marketed under the trademarked name Golden Sunstone, Cornelius S. Klein, Cornelis,1985, Manual of Mineralogy, 20th ed. Wiley, ISBN 0-471-80580-7 Mineral galleries Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Bytownite
Anorthite is the calcium endmember of plagioclase feldspar. Plagioclase is an abundant mineral in the Earths crust, the formula of pure anorthite is CaAl2Si2O8. Anorthite is the calcium-rich endmember of the solid solution series. Anorthite refers to plagioclase compositions with more than 90 molecular percent of the anorthite endmember, anorthite is a rare compositional variety of plagioclase. It occurs in igneous rock. It occurs in rocks of granulite facies, in metamorphosed carbonate rocks. Its type localities are Monte Somma and Valle di Fassa, Italy and it was first described in 1823. It is more rare in surficial rocks than it normally would be due to its high weathering potential in the Goldich dissolution series and it makes up much of the lunar highlands, the Genesis Rock is made of anorthosite, which is composed largely of anorthite. Anorthite was discovered in samples from comet Wild 2, and the mineral is an important constituent of Ca-Al-rich inclusions in rare varieties of chondritic meteorites