A plank road is a road composed of wooden planks or puncheon logs. Plank roads were found in the Canadian province of Ontario as well as the Northeast and Midwest of the United States in the first half of the 19th century, they were built by turnpike companies. In the late 1840s plank roads led to subsequent bust; the first plank road in the US was built in North Syracuse, New York, to transport salt and other goods. The plank road boom, like many other early technologies, promised to transform the way people lived and worked and led to permissive changes in legislation seeking to spur development, speculative investment by private individuals, etc; the technology failed to live up to its promise, millions of dollars in investments evaporated overnight. Three plank roads, the Hackensack, the Paterson, the Newark, were major arteries in northern New Jersey; the roads travelled over the New Jersey Meadowlands, connecting the cities for which they were named to the Hudson River waterfront. U. S. Route 1 in Virginia follows the Boydton Plank Road from Petersburg southwards to just north of the North Carolina line.
On the U. S. West Coast the Canyon Road of Portland, Oregon was another important but short artery and was built between 1851 and 1856. Kingston Road and Danforth Avenue, in Toronto, were plank roads built by the Don and Danforth Plank Road Company in the late 18th and the early 19th centuries. Highway 2 from Toronto eastwards was a plank road in the 19th century, paved. Plank roads are used in the Canadian fishing outport of Harrington Harbour, Quebec because the town is built directly over a hilly, rocky shore. ATVs are the only mode of transportation there. In Perth, Western Australia, plank roads were important in the early growth of the agricultural and outer urban areas because of the distances imposed by swamps and the relatively-infertile soil; as it cost £2,000/km to construct roads by conventional means, the local councils, known as road boards, were experimenting with cheaper approaches to road building. A method called Jandakot Corduroy had been developed at Jandakot south-east of Perth: a jarrah tramway lay upon 2.3-metre-long sleepers, bounded by two 70-centimetre-wide strips of jarrah planks for cart and carriage wheels.
The 90-centimetre gap was filled with limestone rubble to be used by horses. That reduced the cost of road building by up to 85% after its widespread introduction in 1908. However, increased traffic and suburban development rendered the routes unsatisfactory over time, by the 1950s, they had been replaced with bitumen surfaced roads. Board track racing Boardwalk Corduroy road Duckboards Gallery road Historic roads and trails Marston Mat - a 20th-century equivalent for airport runways Old Plank Road Trail Sweet Track and Post Track The short film Military Roads is available for free download at the Internet Archive The Plank Road Craze - Background Reading Puncheon & corduroy roads Longfellow, Rickie. "Back in Time: Plank Roads". Highway History, Federal Highway Administration
Richard James Biggs II was an American television and stage actor, known for his roles on the television series Days of Our Lives and Babylon 5. Born in Columbus, Biggs attended the University of Southern California on scholarship, studying theatre, he taught at a Los Angeles high school before landing his first major television role, that of Dr. Marcus Hunter on the soap opera Days of Our Lives. Biggs was diagnosed with hearing problems when he was 13, was deaf in one ear deaf in the other, he used his celebrity status to raise money for the Aliso Academy, a private school in Rancho Santa Margarita, California that serves deaf children. From 1987 until 1994, Biggs played the role of Dr. Marcus Hunter on the soap opera Days of Our Lives, he appeared as Dr. Stephen Franklin on the hit science fiction series Babylon 5, reprising the role in the final aired episode of the spin-off show, Crusade. After Babylon 5, he played roles on Any Day Now and Strong Medicine, as well as the recurring role of Clayton Boudreaux on the soap opera Guiding Light.
Biggs' stage credits include The Tempest and The Taming of the Shrew. At the time of his death, he was a regular on the television series Strong Medicine, he frequently guest starred as a local scientist on Tremors: The Series. Biggs' final film appearance was in We Interrupt This Program, a short film featuring Biggs' Babylon 5 costar, Bruce Boxleitner, released as a companion piece to the 2004 remake of Dawn of the Dead on DVD, his final television appearance was as a guest star on a 2004 episode of the Nickelodeon series Drake & Josh, entitled "The Gary Grill" portraying an FBI agent, dedicated to his memory. 1993 Soap Opera Digest Award for Supporting Actor He married Lori Gebers on August 1, 1998. They had Richard James III and Hunter Lee. Biggs collapsed at his home in Los Angeles, died at Providence Saint Joseph Medical Center of complications stemming from aortic dissection on May 22, 2004. Richard Biggs on IMDb Death Announcement by J. Michael Straczynski, creator of Babylon 5 Richard Biggs Memorial Video by John E. Hudgens Richard Biggs at Find a Grave
Isamu Mochizuki was an officer and ace fighter pilot in the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Pacific theater of World War II. He was credited with destroying ten enemy aircraft over China and the Pacific, he is famous for inventing the "hineri-komi" half-loop-and-roll technique, employed in dogfighting by many Japanese fighter pilots. Mochizuki enlisted in IJN in 1925 and completed its pilot training program in November 1926, he first served on carrier Kaga and on carrier Hōshō, before he was transferred to a fighter squadron based at Ōmura Naval Air Station in Nagasaki Prefecture on Kyushu. In November 1932, he was transferred to Yokosuka Air Group, at the time considered as an elite unit consisting of the best fighter pilots in IJN. In November 1936, Mochizuki was promoted to Warrant Officer. At the outbreak of Second Sino-Japanese War he was transferred to 13th Air Group that operated from Shanghai. After six months of combat over China, he was recalled back to Japan.
In October 1941 he was promoted to Ensign. In March 1943, Mochizuki was appointed division leader in the newly-formed 281st Air Group, stationed in the Kuril Islands; the same year he was transferred to Roi in the Marshall Islands. After USN carrier strikes destroyed most of the IJN aircraft in the Marshalls, he became stranded on Roi. Mochizuki disappeared and was presumed killed during the American invasion on 6 February 1944. During his four-year stay with Yokosuka Air Group, Mochizuki invented and developed "hineri-komi" maneuver that allows an aircraft, being chased by an enemy, to come at the chaser's tail or to gain an opportunity to take a shot at it. Minoru Genda, part of Yokosuka Air Group at the same time, observed this technique during the training sessions with Mochizuki and helped to formalize it in order to be adopted by other IJN pilots in combat; the maneuver starts by a steep climb into a half loop, where the pilot applies rudder to yaw his aircraft and perform a side slip. At the top of the loop the aircraft ends up inverted and pointing outside of the loop's vertical plane.
At that point, the pilot applies reverse rudder while at the same time banks the aircraft in the direction of the applied reverse rudder. After the resulting twisting motion, the pilot pulls the aircraft up, which brings it into a horizontal flight in the same direction as the loop begun. Hata, Ikuhiko. Japanese Naval Aces and Fighter Units in World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-315-6
Case citation is a system used by legal professionals to identify past court case decisions, either in series of books called reporters or law reports, or in a neutral style that identifies a decision regardless of where it is reported. Case citations are formatted differently in different jurisdictions, but contain the same key information. A legal citation is a "reference to a legal precedent or authority, such as a case, statute, or treatise, that either substantiates or contradicts a given position." Where cases are published on paper, the citation contains the following information: Court that issued the decision Report title Volume number Page, section, or paragraph number Publication yearIn some report series, for example in England and some in Canada, volumes are not numbered independently of the year: thus the year and volume number are required to identify which book of the series has the case reported within its covers. In such citations, it is usual in these jurisdictions to apply square brackets "" to the year.
The Internet brought with it the opportunity for courts to publish their decisions on websites and most published court decisions now appear in that way. They can be found through many national and other websites, such as WorldLII and AfricanLII, that are operated by members of the Free Access to Law Movement; the resulting flood of non-paginated information has led to numbering of paragraphs and the adoption of a medium-neutral citation system. This contains the following information: Year of decision Abbreviated title of the court Decision number Rather than utilizing page numbers for pinpoint references, which would depend upon particular printers and browsers, pinpoint quotations refer to paragraph numbers. In common law countries with an adversarial system of justice, the names of the opposing parties are separated in the case title by the abbreviation v of the Latin word versus, which means against; when case titles are read out loud, the v can be pronounced, depending on the context, as and, versus, or vee.
Some Commonwealth countries follow English legal style: Civil cases are pronounced with and. For example, Smith v Jones would be pronounced "Smith and Jones". Criminal cases are pronounced with against. For example, R v Smith would be pronounced "the Crown against Smith"; the Latin words Rex and versus are all rendered into English. Versus and vee are incorrect. In the United States, there is no consensus on the pronunciation of the abbreviation v; this has led to much confusion about the pronunciation and spelling of court cases: Versus is most used, leading some newspapers to use the common abbreviation vs. in place of the legal abbreviation v. Vee is heard but is not as common. Against is a matter of personal style. For example, Warren E. Burger and John Paul Stevens preferred to announce cases at the Supreme Court with against, and is used by some law professors, but other law professors regard it as an affectation. During oral arguments in Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the participants demonstrated the lack of consensus by using different pronunciations of v. Solicitor General Ken Starr managed to use all three of the most common American pronunciations interchangeably: Kenneth W. Starr: This is the process of analysis, quite familiar to the Court lengthily laid out by Justice Harlan in his dissent in Poe versus Ullman, adumbrated in his concurring opinion in Griswold against Connecticut....
Well, I think that, the necessary consequence of Roe vee Wade. Legal citation in Australia mirrors the methods of citation used in England. A used guide to Australian legal citation is the Australian Guide to Legal Citation, published jointly by the Melbourne University Law Review and the Melbourne Journal of International Law; the standard case citation format in Australia is: As in Canada, there has been divergence among citation styles. There exist commercial citation guides published by Butterworths and other legal publishing companies, academic citation styles and court citation styles; each court in Australia may cite the same case differently. There is presently a movement in convergence to the comprehensive academic citation style of the Australian Guide to Legal Citation published jointly by the Melbourne University Law Review and the Melbourne Journal of International Law. Australian courts and tribunals have now adopted a neutral citation standard for case law; the format provides a naming system that does not depend on the publication of the case in a law report.
Most cases are now published on AustLII using neutral citations. The standard format looks like this: So the above-mentioned Mabo case would be cited like this: Mabo v Queensland HCA 23. There is a unique court identifier code for most courts; the court and tribunal identifiers include: Australian Guide to Legal Citation There are a number of citation standards in Canada. Many legal publishing companies and schools have their own standard for citation. Since the late 1990s, much of the legal community has converged to a single standard—formulated in The Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation / Manuel canadien de la référence juridique known as the "McGill Guide" after the McGill Law Journal, which first published it; the following format reflects this standard: Hunter v Southam, 2 SCR 145. Broken into its component parts, the format is: The Style of Cause is italicized as in all other countries and the party names are separate
Tricholoma roseoacerbum is an agaric fungus of the genus Tricholoma. The species was first described by Italian mycologist Alfredo Riva in 1979 as Tricholoma pseudoimbricatum var. roseobrunneum, but that name competed with an older homonym, William Murrill's 1913 Tricholoma roseobrunneum. Riva published the species with a new replacement name in 1984. T. roseoacerbum is found in northeastern North America. The specific epithet roseoacerbum alludes to the rosy colouration in its cap, overall resemblance to T. acerbum. This species is conspecific with Tricholoma radotinense Pilát & Charvát. List of North American Tricholoma List of Tricholoma species Tricholoma roseoacerbum in Index Fungorum
Semi Tuleca Koroilavesau is a Fijian politician and Member of the Parliament of Fiji. He is the Minister for Fisheries, he is a member of the FijiFirst party. Koroilavesau grew up in Nalotu in Kadavu Province, he was educated at Yawe District primary school, Richmond High School, Lelean Memorial School. After sixth form, he joined the Fijian Navy as an officer cadet. In his military career he reached the rank of Commander. In 1988 he started a tourism company, Captain Cook Cruises, in 2003 retired from the Navy to manage it. Koroilavesau was elected in the 2014 election, in which he won 1,611 votes