Land-use planning is the process of regulating the use of land in an effort to promote more desirable social and environmental outcomes as well as a more efficient use of resources. Goals of land-use planning may include environmental conservation, restraint of urban sprawl, minimization of transport costs, prevention of land-use conflicts, a reduction in exposure to pollutants. By and large, the uses of land determine the diverse socioeconomic activities that occur in a specific area, the patterns of human behavior they produce, their impact on the environment. In urban planning, land-use planning seeks to order and regulate land use in an efficient and ethical way, thus preventing land-use conflicts. Governments use land-use planning to manage the development of land within their jurisdictions. In doing so, the governmental unit can plan for the needs of the community while safeguarding natural resources. To this end, it is the systematic assessment of land and water potential, alternatives for land use, economic and social conditions in order to select and adopt the best land-use options.
One element of a comprehensive plan, a land-use plan provides a vision for the future possibilities of development in neighborhoods, cities, or any defined planning area. In the United States, the terms land-use planning, regional planning, urban planning, urban design are used interchangeably, will depend on the state, and/or project in question. Despite confusing nomenclature, the essential function of land-use planning remains the same whatever term is applied; the Canadian Institute of Planners offers a definition that land-use planning means the scientific and orderly disposition of land, resources and services with a view to securing the physical and social efficiency and well-being of urban and rural communities. The American Planning Association states that the goal of land-use planning is to further the welfare of people and their communities by creating convenient, healthful and attractive environments for present and future generations. Land-use planning leads to land-use regulation, which encompasses zoning.
Zoning regulates the types of activities that can be accommodated on a given piece of land, as well as the amount of space devoted to those activities, the ways that buildings may be situated and shaped. The ambiguous nature of the term “planning”, as it relates to land use, is tied to the practice of zoning. Zoning in the US came about in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to protect the interests of property owners; the practice was found to be constitutionally sound by the Supreme Court decision of Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co. in 1926. Soon after, the Standard State Zoning Enabling Act gave authority to the states to regulate land use. So, the practice remains controversial today; the “taking clause” of the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits the government from taking private property for public use without just compensation. The case of Dolan v. City of Tigard demonstrated the criteria that determine the threshold of what is considered taking. One interpretation of the taking clause is that any restriction on the development potential of land through zoning regulation is a “taking”.
A deep-rooted anti-zoning sentiment exists in America, that no one has the right to tell another what he can or cannot do with his land. Although people are averse to being told how to develop their own land, they tend to expect the government to intervene when a proposed land use is undesirable. Conventional zoning has not regarded the manner in which buildings relate to one another or the public spaces around them, but rather has provided a pragmatic system for mapping jurisdictions according to permitted land use; this system, combined with the interstate highway system, widespread availability of mortgage loans, growth in the automobile industry, the over-all post-World War II economic expansion, destroyed most of the character that gave distinctiveness to American cities. The urban sprawl that most US cities began to experience in the mid-twentieth century was, in part, created by a flat approach to land-use regulations. Zoning without planning created unnecessarily exclusive zones. Thoughtless mapping of these zones over large areas was a big part of the recipe for suburban sprawl.
It was from the deficiencies of this practice that land-use planning developed, to envision the changes that development would cause and mitigate the negative effects of such change. As America grew and sprawl was rampant, the much-loved America of the older towns, cities, or streetcar suburbs became illegal through zoning. Unparalleled growth and unregulated development changed the look and feel of landscapes and communities, they strained commercial corridors and affected housing prices, causing citizens to fear a decline in the social and environmental attributes that defined their quality of life. Zoning regulations became politically contentious as developers and citizens struggled over altering zoning maps in a way, acceptable to all parties. Land use planning practices evolved as an attempt to overcome these challenges, it engages citizens and policy-makers to plan for development with more intention and community focus than had been used. Land use planning is defined as: the process by which optimum forms of land use and management are indicated, considering the biophysical, social and political conditions of a particular territory.
The objective of planning land use is to influence, control or direct changes in the use of land, so that it is dedicated to the most beneficial use, while maintaining t
A tower is a tall structure, taller than it is wide by a significant margin. Towers are distinguished from masts by their lack of guy-wires and are therefore, along with tall buildings, self-supporting structures. Towers are distinguished from "buildings" in that they are not built to be habitable but to serve other functions; the principal function is the use of their height to enable various functions to be achieved including: visibility of other features attached to the tower such clock towers. Towers can be stand alone structures or be supported by adjacent buildings or can be a feature on top of a large structure or building. Old English torr is from Latin turris via Old French tor; the Latin term together with Greek τύρσις was loaned from a pre-Indo-European Mediterranean language, connected with the Illyrian toponym Βου-δοργίς. With the Lydian toponyms Τύρρα, Τύρσα, it has been connected with the ethnonym Τυρρήνιοι as well as with Tusci, the Greek and Latin names for the Etruscans Towers have been used by mankind since prehistoric times.
The oldest known may be the circular stone tower in walls of Neolithic Jericho. Some of the earliest towers were ziggurats, which existed in Sumerian architecture since the 4th millennium BC; the most famous ziggurats include the Sumerian Ziggurat of Ur, built the 3rd millennium BC, the Etemenanki, one of the most famous examples of Babylonian architecture. The latter was built in Babylon during the 2nd millennium BC and was considered the tallest tower of the ancient world; some of the earliest surviving examples are the broch structures in northern Scotland, which are conical towerhouses. These and other examples from Phoenician and Roman cultures emphasised the use of a tower in fortification and sentinel roles. For example, the name of the Moroccan city of Mogador, founded in the first millennium BC, is derived from the Phoenician word for watchtower; the Romans utilised octagonal towers as elements of Diocletian's Palace in Croatia, which monument dates to 300 AD, while the Servian Walls and the Aurelian Walls featured square ones.
The Chinese used towers as integrated elements of the Great Wall of China in 210 BC during the Qin Dynasty. Towers were an important element of castles. Other well known towers include the Leaning Tower of Pisa in Pisa, Italy built from 1173 until 1372 and the Two Towers in Bologna, Italy built from 1109 until 1119; the Himalayan Towers are stone towers located chiefly in Tibet built 14th to 15th century. Up to a certain height, a tower can be made with the supporting structure with parallel sides. However, above a certain height, the compressive load of the material is exceeded and the tower will fail; this can be avoided. A second limit is that of buckling—the structure requires sufficient stiffness to avoid breaking under the loads it faces those due to winds. Many tall towers have their support structures at the periphery of the building, which increases the overall stiffness. A third limit is dynamic; these are dealt with through a combination of simple strength and stiffness, as well as in some cases tuned mass dampers to damp out movements.
Varying or tapering the outer aspect of the tower with height avoids vibrations due to vortex shedding occurring along the entire building simultaneously. Although not called towers many modern skyscraper are called towers. In the United Kingdom, tall domestic buildings are referred to as tower blocks. In the United States, the original World Trade Center had the nickname the Twin Towers, a name shared with the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur; the tower throughout history has provided its users with an advantage in surveying defensive positions and obtaining a better view of the surrounding areas, including battlefields. They were rolled near a target. Today, strategic-use towers are still used at prisons, military camps, defensive perimeters. By using gravity to move objects or substances downward, a tower can be used to store items or liquids like a storage silo or a water tower, or aim an object into the earth such as a drilling tower. Ski-jump ramps use the same idea, in the absence of a natural mountain slope or hill, can be human-made.
In history, simple towers like lighthouses, bell towers, clock towers, signal towers and minarets were used to communicate information over greater distances. In more recent years, radio masts and cell phone towers facilitate communication by expanding the range of the transmitter; the CN Tower in Toronto, Canada was built as a communications tower, with the capability to act as both a transmitter and repeater. Its design incorporated features to make it a tourist attraction, including the world's highest observation deck at 147 storeys. Towers can be used to support bridges, can reach heights that rival some of the tallest buildings above-water, their use is most prevalent in cable-stayed bridges. The use of the pylon, a simple tower structure, has helped to build railroad bridges, mass-transit systems, harbors. Control towers are used to give visibility to help direct aviation traffic. To access tall or high objects: launch tower, service tower, service structure, tower c
Planning permission in the United Kingdom
Planning permission in the United Kingdom is the planning permission required in the United Kingdom and Ireland in order to be allowed to build on land, or change the use of land or buildings. Within the UK the occupier of any land or building will need title to that land or building, but will need "planning title" or planning permission. Planning title was granted for all pre-existing uses and buildings by the Town and Country Planning Act 1947, which came into effect on 1 July 1948. Since that date any new "development" has required planning permission. "Development" as defined by law consists of any building, engineering or mining operation, or the making of a material change of use in any land or building. Certain types of operation such as routine maintenance of an existing building are excluded from the definition of development. Specified categories of minor or insignificant development are granted an automatic planning permission by law, therefore do not require any application for planning permission.
These categories are referred to as permitted development. In the case of any proposal there is therefore a two-stage test: "is the proposal development at all?" and, if the proposal is development, "is it permitted development?" Only if a development is not permitted development would an application for planning permission be required. An application for planning permission should be made to the local planning authority. LPAs are the local borough or district council, although an application for a mining operation, minerals extraction, or a waste management facility would be decided by the local county council in non-metropolitan areas. Within a national park planning applications are submitted to the national park authority. All LPAs have their own website which will access relevant application forms, contact details and other relevant documents, they are receptive to pre-application discussion in order to clarify whether a proposal will require planning permission and, assuming that it does, the probability of such planning permission being granted.
The law requires that all applications for planning permission should be decided in accordance with the policies of the "development plan" – unless material planning considerations indicate otherwise. The decision on any planning application is therefore "policy-led" rather than "influence-led". Although the public and nearby residents will be consulted about any planning application, the decision will not be made on the grounds of popularity or unpopularity; the framing of the decision by reference to published planning policy prevents the decision on a planning application being made on grounds which are arbitrary, perverse, or subject to impropriety. It is therefore most important that applicants for planning permission satisfy themselves about the relevant local development plan policies before making an application; these can be viewed via the LPA's website, or the UK government's Planning Portal, which provides a nationwide clearing house on planning information and advice for both government and local planning policies.
As a practical matter it is advisable to discuss proposals with the LPA or an experienced planning consultant who can provide independent advice before incurring the fees and other costs that are involved in making a planning application, or the delays and abortive costs that would arise from the refusal of planning permission. A number of different types of planning permission can be applied for: Full planning permission: a full planning permission would grant permission for all aspects of the proposed development, although it would be subject to various conditions. Outline planning permission: outline planning permission establishes whether the scale and nature of a proposed development would be acceptable to the local planning authority, it might be appropriate when an applicant is seeking an agreement "in principle" to a proposed development, without being committed to a particular form of design or layout. Approval of "reserved matters": seeking permission for those aspects that were not dealt with in an outline planning permission, or seeking approval of aspects of a development which were reserved by a planning condition in an earlier grant of full planning permission.
Hybrid: a LPA may accept a'hybrid' application, that is, one that seeks outline planning permission for one part and full planning permission for another part of the same site. Once a permission has been granted, the following additional applications may be made: Renewal of planning permission: This would arise when an earlier outline or full planning permission was subject to a time-limiting condition which has since expired. In essence this requires the entire planning application to be reviewed in light of current rather than previous planning policies. Applications for renewal of an earlier planning permission are granted anew, unless there has been a significant change in the relevant material considerations which are to be weighed in the decision. Removal or alteration of a planning condition: As a matter of law, conditions should only be imposed on a grant of planning permission when compliance with that condition is essential to make an unacceptable development acceptable – so it would be refused planning permission were it not for that condition.
If the applicant or developer wished to proceed with a development without compliance with a condition, or with the condition in an alternative form an application can be made to "vary" the condition concerned – by deleting it or offering an alternative form of words. Note that the LPA cannot alter any planning condition which imposes a time limit when the development is to be commenced; that would require a re-applicat
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but one using the electromagnetic spectrum, in a one-to-many model. Broadcasting began with AM radio, which came into popular use around 1920 with the spread of vacuum tube radio transmitters and receivers. Before this, all forms of electronic communication were one-to-one, with the message intended for a single recipient; the term broadcasting evolved from its use as the agricultural method of sowing seeds in a field by casting them broadly about. It was adopted for describing the widespread distribution of information by printed materials or by telegraph. Examples applying it to "one-to-many" radio transmissions of an individual station to multiple listeners appeared as early as 1898. Over the air broadcasting is associated with radio and television, though in recent years, both radio and television transmissions have begun to be distributed by cable; the receiving parties may include the general public or a small subset.
The field of broadcasting includes both government-managed services such as public radio, community radio and public television, private commercial radio and commercial television. The U. S. Code of Federal Regulations, title 47, part 97 defines "broadcasting" as "transmissions intended for reception by the general public, either direct or relayed". Private or two-way telecommunications transmissions do not qualify under this definition. For example and citizens band radio operators are not allowed to broadcast; as defined, "transmitting" and "broadcasting" are not the same. Transmission of radio and television programs from a radio or television station to home receivers by radio waves is referred to as "over the air" or terrestrial broadcasting and in most countries requires a broadcasting license. Transmissions using a wire or cable, like cable television, are considered broadcasts but do not require a license. In the 2000s, transmissions of television and radio programs via streaming digital technology have been referred to as broadcasting as well.
The earliest broadcasting consisted of sending telegraph signals over the airwaves, using Morse code, a system developed in the 1830s by Samuel F. B. Morse, physicist Joseph Henry and Alfred Vail, they developed an electrical telegraph system which sent pulses of electric current along wires which controlled an electromagnet, located at the receiving end of the telegraph system. A code was needed to transmit natural language using only these pulses, the silence between them. Morse therefore developed the forerunner to modern International Morse code; this was important for ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore communication, but it became important for business and general news reporting, as an arena for personal communication by radio amateurs. Audio broadcasting began experimentally in the first decade of the 20th century. By the early 1920s radio broadcasting became a household medium, at first on the AM band and on FM. Television broadcasting started experimentally in the 1920s and became widespread after World War II, using VHF and UHF spectrum.
Satellite broadcasting was initiated in the 1960s and moved into general industry usage in the 1970s, with DBS emerging in the 1980s. All broadcasting was composed of analog signals using analog transmission techniques but in the 2000s, broadcasters have switched to digital signals using digital transmission. In general usage, broadcasting most refers to the transmission of information and entertainment programming from various sources to the general public. Analog audio vs. HD Radio Analog television vs. Digital television WirelessThe world's technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks more than quadrupled during the two decades from 1986 to 2007, from 432 exabytes of information, to 1.9 zettabytes. This is the information equivalent of 55 newspapers per person per day in 1986, 175 newspapers per person per day by 2007. There have been several methods used for broadcasting electronic media audio and video to the general public: Telephone broadcasting: the earliest form of electronic broadcasting.
Telephone broadcasting began with the advent of Théâtrophone systems, which were telephone-based distribution systems allowing subscribers to listen to live opera and theatre performances over telephone lines, created by French inventor Clément Ader in 1881. Telephone broadcasting grew to include telephone newspaper services for news and entertainment programming which were introduced in the 1890s located in large European cities; these telephone-based subscription services were the first examples of electrical/electronic broadcasting and offered a wide variety of programming. Radio broadcasting. Radio stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast common radio programs, either in broadcast syndication, simulcast or subchannels. Television broadcasting, experimentally from 1925, commercially from t
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government and to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states, local government comprises the third tier of government, whereas in unitary states, local government occupies the second or third tier of government with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions; the question of municipal autonomy is a key question of public governance. The institutions of local government vary between countries, where similar arrangements exist, the terminology varies. Common names for local government entities include state, region, county, district, township, borough, municipality, shire and local service district.
Local government traditionally had limited power in Egypt's centralized state. Under the central government were twenty-six governorates; these were subdivided into villages or towns. At each level, there was a governing structure that combined representative councils and government-appointed executive organs headed by governors, district officers, mayors, respectively. Governors were appointed by the president, they, in turn, appointed subordinate executive officers; the coercive backbone of the state apparatus ran downward from the Ministry of Interior through the governors' executive organs to the district police station and the village headman. Before the revolution, state penetration of the rural areas was limited by the power of local notables, but under Nasser, land reform reduced their socioeconomic dominance, the incorporation of peasants into cooperatives transferred mass dependence from landlords to government; the extension of officials into the countryside permitted the regime to bring development and services to the village.
The local branches of the ruling party, the Arab Socialist Union, fostered a certain peasant political activism and coopted the local notables—in particular the village headmen—and checked their independence from the regime. State penetration did not retreat under Mubarak; the earlier effort to mobilize peasants and deliver services disappeared as the local party and cooperative withered, but administrative controls over the peasants remained intact. The local power of the old families and the headmen revived but more at the expense of peasants than of the state; the district police station balanced the notables, the system of local government integrated them into the regime. Sadat took several measures to decentralize power to the towns. Governors acquired more authority under Law Number 43 of 1979, which reduced the administrative and budgetary controls of the central government over the provinces; the elected councils acquired, at least formally, the right to approve or disapprove the local budget.
In an effort to reduce local demands on the central treasury, local government was given wider powers to raise local taxes. But local representative councils became vehicles of pressure for government spending, the soaring deficits of local government bodies had to be covered by the central government. Local government was encouraged to enter into joint ventures with private investors, these ventures stimulated an alliance between government officials and the local rich that paralleled the infitah alliance at the national level. Under Mubarak decentralization and local autonomy became more of a reality, local policies reflected special local conditions. Thus, officials in Upper Egypt bowed to the powerful Islamic movement there, while those in the port cities struck alliances with importers. In recent years, Mali has undertaken an ambitious decentralization program, which involves the capital district of Bamako, seven regions subdivided into 46 cercles, 682 rural community districts; the state retains an advisory role in administrative and fiscal matters, it provides technical support and legal recourse to these levels.
Opportunities for direct political participation, increased local responsibility for development have been improved. In August–September 1998, elections were held for urban council members, who subsequently elected their mayors. In May/June 1999, citizens of the communes elected their communal council members for the first time. Female voter turnout was about 70% of the total, observers considered the process open and transparent. With mayors and boards in place at the local level, newly elected officials, civil society organizations, decentralized technical services, private sector interests, other communes, donor groups began partnering to further development; the cercles will be reinstituted with a legal and financial basis of their own. Their councils will be chosen from members of the communal councils; the regions, at the highest decentralized level, will have a similar legal and financial autonomy, will comprise a number of cercles within their geographical boundaries. Mali needs to build capacity at these levels to mobilize and manage financial resources.
South Africa has a two tiered local government system comprising local munici
Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission
The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission is a public organization in Canada with mandate as a regulatory agency for broadcasting and telecommunications. It was created in 1976. Prior to 1976, it was known as the Canadian Radio and Television Commission, established in 1968 by the Parliament of Canada to replace the Board of Broadcast Governors, its headquarters is located in the Central Building of Les Terrasses de la Chaudière in Gatineau, Quebec. The CRTC was known as the Canadian Radio-Television Commission. In 1976, jurisdiction over telecommunications services, most of which were delivered by monopoly common carriers, was transferred to it from the Canadian Transport Commission although the abbreviation CRTC remained the same. On the telecom side, the CRTC regulated only held common carriers: BC Tel, which served British Columbia, in which a U. S. company held a substantial stake Bell Canada, which served much of Ontario and Quebec, the eastern part of the Northwest Territories telephone operations owned by crown corporation Canadian National Railways in Newfoundland, the Northwest Territories and northern B.
C.. Other telephone companies, many of which were publicly owned and within a province's borders, were regulated by provincial authorities until court rulings during the 1990s affirmed federal jurisdiction over the sector, which included some fifty small independent incumbents, most of them in Ontario and Quebec. Notable in this group were: Newfoundland Telephone Maritime Telegraph and Telephone Island Telephone New Brunswick Telephone Manitoba Telephone System SaskTel Alberta Government Telephones Northern Telephone Télébec municipal telephone services in Prince Rupert, B. C. and Thunder Bay The CRTC regulates all Canadian broadcasting and telecommunications activities and enforces rules it creates to carry out the policies assigned to it. The CRTC reports to the Parliament of Canada through the Minister of Canadian Heritage, responsible for the Broadcasting Act, has an informal relationship with Industry Canada, responsible for the Telecommunications Act. Provisions in these two acts, along with less-formal instructions issued by the federal cabinet known as orders-in-council, represent the bulk of the CRTC's jurisdiction.
In many cases, such as the cabinet-directed prohibition on foreign ownership for broadcasters and the legislated principle of the predominance of Canadian content, these acts and orders leave the CRTC less room to change policy than critics sometimes suggest, the result is that the commission is the lightning rod for policy criticism that could arguably be better directed at the government itself. Complaints against broadcasters, such as concerns around offensive programming, are dealt with by the Canadian Broadcast Standards Council, an independent broadcast industry association, rather than by the CRTC, although CBSC decisions can be appealed to the CRTC if necessary. However, the CRTC is sometimes erroneously criticized for CBSC decisions — for example, the CRTC was erroneously criticized for the CBSC's decisions pertaining to the airing of Howard Stern's terrestrial radio show in Canada in the late 1990s, as well as the CBSC's controversial ruling on the Dire Straits song "Money for Nothing".
The commission is not equivalent to the U. S. Federal Communications Commission, which has additional powers over technical matters, in broadcasting and other aspects of communications, in that country. In Canada, Innovation and Economic Development Canada is responsible for allocating frequencies and call signs, managing the broadcast spectrum, regulating other technical issues such as interference with electronics equipment; the CRTC has in the past regulated the prices cable television broadcast distributors are allowed to charge. In most major markets, prices are no longer regulated due to increased competition for broadcast distribution from satellite television; the CRTC regulates which channels broadcast distributors must or may offer. Per the Broadcasting Act the commission gives priority to Canadian signals—many non-Canadian channels which compete with Canadian channels are thus not approved for distribution in Canada; the CRTC argues that allowing free trade in television stations would overwhelm the smaller Canadian market, preventing it from upholding its responsibility to foster a national conversation.
Some people, consider this tantamount to censorship. The CRTC's simultaneous substitution rules require that when a Canadian network licences a television show from a US network and shows it in the same time slot, upon request by the Canadian broadcaster, Canadian broadcast distributors must replace the show on the US channel with the broadcast of the Canadian channel, along with any overlays and commercials; as Grey's Anatomy is on ABC, but is carried in Canada on CTV at the same time, for instance, the cable, satellite, or other broadcast distributor must send the CTV feed over the signal of the carried ABC affiliate where the ABC version is somehow different commercials. Viewers via home antenna who receive both Amer