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A plasmid is a small, extrachromosomal DNA molecule within a cell, physically separated from chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently. They are most found as small circular, double-stranded DNA molecules in bacteria. In nature, plasmids carry genes that benefit the survival of the organism and confer selective advantage such as antibiotic resistance. While chromosomes are large and contain all the essential genetic information for living under normal conditions, plasmids are very small and contain only additional genes that may be useful in certain situations or conditions. Artificial plasmids are used as vectors in molecular cloning, serving to drive the replication of recombinant DNA sequences within host organisms. In the laboratory, plasmids may be introduced into a cell via transformation. Plasmids are considered replicons, units of DNA capable of replicating autonomously within a suitable host. However, like viruses, are not classified as life. Plasmids are transmitted from one bacterium to another through conjugation.

This host-to-host transfer of genetic material is one mechanism of horizontal gene transfer, plasmids are considered part of the mobilome. Unlike viruses, which encase their genetic material in a protective protein coat called a capsid, plasmids are "naked" DNA and do not encode genes necessary to encase the genetic material for transfer to a new host; the size of the plasmid varies from 1 to over 200 kbp, the number of identical plasmids in a single cell can range anywhere from one to thousands under some circumstances. The term plasmid was introduced in 1952 by the American molecular biologist Joshua Lederberg to refer to "any extrachromosomal hereditary determinant." The term's early usage included any bacterial genetic material that exists extrachromosomally for at least part of its replication cycle, but because that description includes bacterial viruses, the notion of plasmid was refined over time to comprise genetic elements that reproduce autonomously. In 1968, it was decided that the term plasmid should be adopted as the term for extrachromosomal genetic element, to distinguish it from viruses, the definition was narrowed to genetic elements that exist or predominantly outside of the chromosome and can replicate autonomously.

In order for plasmids to replicate independently within a cell, they must possess a stretch of DNA that can act as an origin of replication. The self-replicating unit, in this case, the plasmid, is called a replicon. A typical bacterial replicon may consist of a number of elements, such as the gene for plasmid-specific replication initiation protein, repeating units called iterons, DnaA boxes, an adjacent AT-rich region. Smaller plasmids make use of the host replicative enzymes to make copies of themselves, while larger plasmids may carry genes specific for the replication of those plasmids. A few types of plasmids can insert into the host chromosome, these integrative plasmids are sometimes referred to as episomes in prokaryotes. Plasmids always carry at least one gene. Many of the genes carried by a plasmid are beneficial for the host cells, for example: enabling the host cell to survive in an environment that would otherwise be lethal or restrictive for growth; some of these genes encode traits for antibiotic resistance or resistance to heavy metal, while others may produce virulence factors that enable a bacterium to colonize a host and overcome its defences or have specific metabolic functions that allow the bacterium to utilize a particular nutrient, including the ability to degrade recalcitrant or toxic organic compounds.

Plasmids can provide bacteria with the ability to fix nitrogen. Some plasmids, have no observable effect on the phenotype of the host cell or its benefit to the host cells cannot be determined, these plasmids are called cryptic plasmids. Occurring plasmids vary in their physical properties, their size can range from small mini-plasmids of less than 1-kilobase pairs to large megaplasmids of several megabase pairs. At the upper end, little differs between a minichromosome. Plasmids are circular, but examples of linear plasmids are known; these linear plasmids require specialized mechanisms to replicate their ends. Plasmids may be present in an individual cell in varying number, ranging from one to several hundreds; the normal number of copies of plasmid that may be found in a single cell is called the Plasmid copy number, is determined by how the replication initiation is regulated and the size of the molecule. Larger plasmids tend to have lower copy numbers. Low-copy-number plasmids that exist only as one or a few copies in each bacterium are, upon cell division, in danger of being lost in one of the segregating bacteria.

Such single-copy plasmids have systems that attempt to distribute a copy to both daughter cells. These systems, which include the parABS system and parMRC system, are referred to as the partition system or partition function of a plasmid. Plasmids may be classified in a number of ways. Plasmids can be broadly classified into non-conjugative plasmids. Conjugative plasmids contain a set of transfer or tra genes which promote sexual conjugation between different cells. In the complex process of conjugation, plasmids may be transferred from one bacterium to another via sex pili encoded by some of the tra genes. Non-conjugative plasmids are incapable of initiating conjugation, hence they can be transferred only wit

Gifted education in Georgia

Gifted Education in public schools is mandated by Georgia law and is governed by the Georgia Board of Education Rule 160-4-2-.38 and GBOE-approved regulations. The GBOE Gifted Education Rule was initiated November 13, 1997, reinitiated January 8, 1998 and adopted on February 12, 1998 in the final form. According to Georgia law, a gifted student is: a student who demonstrates a high degree of intellectual and/or creative ability, exhibits an exceptionally high degree of motivation, and/or excels in specific academic fields, who needs special instruction and/or special ancillary services to achieve at levels commensurate with his or her abilities. Two Options for Eligibility: Option A - GaDOE rule 160-4-2-.08: A student must meet eligibility requirements in both Mental Abilities and Achievement. Mental Ability: 99th percentile or 96th percentile on a standard test of mental ability- Composite Score only Achievement: 90th percentile in total battery, total reading or total math section of a standardized achievement battery.

Option B - GaDOE rule 160-4-2-.038: The Multiple-Criteria eligibility rule is based upon mental ability, achievement and motivation. Mental Ability: To be eligible for programs in grades K-2, a student must score in the 99th percentile on a standardized test of mental ability and in the 96% percentile for grades 3-12. Georgia law requires that students score at or above the 90th percentile on the battery, math or reading section of a standardized achievement test. A student must score at or above the 90th percentile on the total battery score of a standardized test of creative thinking, or receive a score at or above the 90th percentile on standardized creativity characteristics rating scale, or receive from a panel of three or more qualified evaluators a score at or above 90 on a scale of 1-100 on a structured observation/evaluation of creative products and/or performances. Motivation is determined with a standardized motivational characteristics rating scale, receive from a panel of three or more qualified evaluators a score at or above 90 on a scale of 1-100 on a structured observation/evaluation of student generated products and/or performances, or have a grade point average of at least 3.5 on a 4.0 scale.

For a teacher to teach a gifted students in a designated gifted education class, they must be certified by the Georgia Professional Standards Commission and either hold the Gifted In-field Endorsement or the Gifted P-12 Consultative. Resource Class -- All students must have been identified as gifted using criteria established by the Georgia State Board of Education; the Resource Class Model is designed to meet the needs of gifted learners outside the regular classroom/core curriculum—-it provides students time to explore areas of interest in depth. The Resource Model is not intended for delivery of core content instruction, but the classes should have an academic content foundation focused on interdisciplinary enrichment activities. Advanced Content Class -- This is the most used delivery model for gifted education services in the middle and high schools in Georgia. Students are homogeneously grouped on the basis of achievement and interest in a specific academic content area; the local school district may elect to include other high-achieving students who are not identified as gifted but who have demonstrated exceptional ability and motivation in a particular content area.

Depending on the needs of the students, the services might include: Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate Courses—The teacher must have the appropriate content area certification. In addition, the teacher must have been trained by the College Board in that specific AP course and have had at least 10 clock hours of staff development in characteristics of gifted learners and curriculum differentiation for gifted students. International Baccalaureate Courses—The teacher must have the appropriate content area certification. In addition, the teacher must have been trained by the International Baccalaureate Program in that specific IB subject area and have had at least 10 clock hours of staff development in characteristics of gifted learners and curriculum differentiation for gifted students. Honors Courses—The teacher of a locally developed honors course curriculum must have the appropriate content area certification and hold the gifted endorsement in order to count the gifted students in the class at the gifted FTE weight.

Cluster Grouping -- Identified gifted students are placed as a group of 5-8 into an otherwise heterogeneous classroom, rather than being dispersed among all of the rooms/courses at that grade level. General education teachers differentiate instruction for students based on their area of strength or interest. Collaborative Teaching -- Direct instruction may be provided by a regular classroom teacher, but there must be substantial scheduled collaborative planning between the content area teacher and the gifted education specialist. Mentorship/Internship -- A gifted student works with a mentor to explore a profession of interest. Joint Enrollment/Postsecondary Options-- High school students may be enrolled in college, university, or technical school courses. Fulton County Supporters of the Gifted The Georgia Association for Gifted Children National Association for


Nans-sous-Sainte-Anne is a commune in the Doubs department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France. The commune lies 44 km south of Besançon on the central plateau of the Jura mountains. Nans is known for its spectacular geological features, including the Source de Lison, the Via Ferrata and the Grotte Serazin; the artist Gustave Courbet was active in the area. His depiction of the Grotte Serazin hangs in the Getty Museum in Los Angeles and his painting of the Source de Lison is in the Alte Nationalegalerie in Berlin. Nans is home to the historical Tillandiarie, a 16th-century water-powered workshop. Communes of the Doubs department INSEE Nans-sous-Sainte-Anne on the intercommunal Web site of the department Places to stay in Nans Sous Sainte Anne Residence de Vaux, 29 Grand Rue, +33 3 81 86 65 87 A l'Ombre du Chateau, 6 Rue du Chateau, +33 6 35 38 40 11 L'Atelier des Chefs

Israel Gutman

Israel Gutman was a Polish-born Israeli historian and a survivor of the Holocaust. Israel Gutman was born in Second Polish Republic. After participating and being wounded in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, he was deported to the Majdanek and Mauthausen concentration camps, his parents and siblings died in the ghetto. In January 1945, he survived the death march from Auschwitz to Mauthausen, where he was liberated by U. S. forces. In the immediate post-war period, he joined the Jewish Brigade in Italy. In 1946, he immigrated to Mandate Palestine and joined Kibbutz Lehavot HaBashan, where he raised a family, he was a member of the kibbutz for 25 years. In 1961, he testified at the trial of Adolf Eichmann. Gutman was a professor of history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and deputy chairman of the International Auschwitz Council at Auschwitz-Birkenau Foundation, he was the editor-in-chief of the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust and won the Yitzhak Sadeh Prize for Military Studies. At Yad Vashem, he headed the International Institute for Holocaust Research, served as Chief Historian and was the Academic Advisor.

He was an advisor to the Polish government on Jewish Affairs and Holocaust Commemoration. He died, aged 90, in Israel. Resistance: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Anatomy of Auschwitz Death Camp The Jews of Poland Between Two World Wars Emanuel Ringelblum – The Man and the Historian Unequal Victims: Poles and Jews in World War Two Israel Gutman in an online exhibition by Yad Vashem Israel Gutman on Daniel Goldhagen's book Hitler's Willing Executioners

Bill Brown (footballer, born 1931)

William Dallas Fyfe Brown was a Scottish football goalkeeper. Brown played for Dundee between 1949 and 1959, for Tottenham Hotspur between 1959 and 1966, he was part of the Spurs team that won the Double of Football League and FA Cup in 1961 - the first club to achieve the feat in the 20th century. He was capped 28 times for the Scotland national team. Brown played as a youth for Carnoustie Panmure, he started his senior career with Dundee as a teenager and made over 200 appearances in the Scottish Football League. Brown was signed in 1959 for £16,500 to Tottenham Hotspur in June 1959, he was at White Hart Lane for seven years, winning the Double in 1961 missing only one game the entire season. He helped the team win the FA Cup again in 1962,and the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1963, he produced one of his best performances in the match against Bratislava in quarter-final of 1962–63 European Cup Winners' Cup. He suffered injuries in the mid-1960s, with the arrival of Pat Jennings to the team, he began to lose his place in the starting lineup.

He played his last game for the club in a friendly in October 1966, transferred to Northampton Town the same month. He next had a spell at Northampton Town. Brown moved to Canada to end his playing days with the Toronto Falcons during the 1967 National Professional Soccer League season. Brown was played in the 1958 World Cup, he played for his country at'B' team and schoolboy level. Brown represented the Scottish League XI while he was with Dundee. After he finished playing, he stayed in Canada and worked as a property developer and for the government, he died in 2004, aged 73. The news broke just before Tottenham played a League Cup tie against Liverpool and, as a tribute, they wore black armbands for the occasion. Dundee Scottish League Cup: 1952, 1953Tottenham Hotspur Football League First Division: 1960-61 FA Cup: 1961, 1962 FA Charity Shield: 1961, 1962 European Cup Winners' Cup: 1963

Henry Bonello

Henry Bonello is a Maltese international footballer who plays for Valletta, as a goalkeeper. Bonello has played club football for Sliema Wanderers, Vittoriosa Stars and Valletta. In a match for Sliema Wanderers on 29 January 2012, Bonello was described as a "hero" for his performance, he signed for Birkirkara in January 2017, with Rowen Muscat making the move in the opposite direction. He made his senior international debut for Malta on 29 February 2012, in the 2–1 win over Liechtenstein. On 23 March 2019, he saved a penalty in the 2–1 win over Faroe Islands in a UEFA Euro 2020 qualifier, as Malta won their first competitive home match in 13 years. Henry Bonello – UEFA competition record