The Main is a river in Germany. With a length of 525 kilometres, it is the longest right tributary of the Rhine, it is the longest river lying in Germany. The largest cities along the Main are Würzburg; the mainspring of the Main River flows through the German states of Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg and Hesse. Its basin competes with the Danube for water; the Main begins near Kulmbach in Franconia at the joining of its two headstreams, the Red Main and the White Main. The Red Main originates in the Franconian Jura mountain range, 50 km in length, runs through Creussen and Bayreuth; the White Main originates in the mountains of the Fichtelgebirge. In its upper and middle section, the Main runs through the valleys of the German Highlands, its lower section crosses the Lower Main Lowlands to Wiesbaden. Major tributaries of the Main are the Regnitz, the Franconian Saale, the Tauber, the Nidda; the name "Main" derives from the Latin Moenus or Menus. It is not related to the name of the city Mainz; the Main is navigable for shipping from its mouth at the Rhine close to Mainz for 396 km to Bamberg.
Since 1992, the Main has been connected to the Danube via the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal and the regulated Altmühl river. The Main has been canalized with 34 large locks to allow CEMT class V vessels to navigate the total length of the river; the 16 locks in the adjacent Rhine-Main-Danube Canal and the Danube itself are of the same dimensions. There are 34 dams and locks along the 380 km navigable portion of the Main, from the confluence with the Regnitz near Bamberg, to the Rhine. No.: Number of the lock. Name: Name of the lock. Location: City or town where the lock is located. Year built: Year when the lock was put into operation. Main-km: Location on the Main, measured from the 0 km stone in Mainz-Kostheim; the reference point is the center of the lock group. Distance between locks: length in km of impoundment. Altitude: height in meters above mean sea level of the upper water at normal levels. Height: Height of the dam in meters. Lock length: Usable length of the lock chamber in meters. Lock width: Usable width of the lock chamber in meters.
Most of the dams along the Main have turbines for power generation. No.: Number of the dam. Name: Name of the dam. Height: Height of the dam in meters. Power: Maximum power generation capacity in megawatts. Turbines: Type and number of turbines. Operator: Operator of the hydroelectric plant. Tributaries from source to mouth: Around Frankfurt are several large inland ports; because the river is rather narrow on many of the upper reaches, navigation with larger vessels and push convoys requires great skill. The largest cities along the Main are Würzburg; the Main passes the following towns and cities: Burgkunstadt, Bad Staffelstein, Eltmann, Haßfurt, Volkach, Marktbreit, Karlstadt, Gemünden, Marktheidenfeld, Miltenberg, Erlenbach/Main, Seligenstadt, Hanau, Hattersheim, Flörsheim, Rüsselsheim. The river has gained enormous importance as a vital part of European "Corridor VII", the inland waterway link from the North Sea to the Black Sea. In a historical and political sense, the Main line is referred to as the northern border of Southern Germany, with its predominantly Catholic population.
The river marked the southern border of the North German Federation, established in 1867 under Prussian leadership as the predecessor of the German Empire. The river course corresponds with the Speyer line isogloss between Central and Upper German dialects, sometimes mocked as Weißwurstäquator; the Main-Radweg is a major German bicycle path running along the Main River. It is 600 kilometres long and was the first long-distance bicycle path to be awarded 5 stars by the General German Bicycle Club ADFC in 2008, it starts from either Creußen or Bischofsgrün and ends in Mainz. Roman camp at Marktbreit Haus der Bayerischen Geschichte, Main und Meer - Porträt eines Flusses. Exhibition Catalogue to the Bayerische Landesausstellung 2013. WBG. ISBN 978-3-534-00010-4. Main River Website on the River Main by the Tourist Board of Franconia. "Main". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. "Main". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. There is literature about Main in the Hessian Bibliography Water levels of Bavarian rivers Wasser- und Schifffahrtsdirektion Süd Main Cycleway Historical map of the Main confluence at Steinenhausen from BayernAtlas
Residenz is a German word for "place of living", now obsolete except in the formal sense of an official residence. A related term, denotes a city where a sovereign ruler resided, therefore carrying a similar meaning as the modern expressions seat of government or capital; as there were many sovereign rulers in the Holy Roman Empire, ranking from Lord to prince elector and king, there are many cities and castles in this territory which used to be a residenz and are still so referred to today. The former residenz status of a city is reflected by the architecture of its center. During the baroque period many prestigious buildings were erected, sometimes new towns were founded. Today, former Residenzstädte still serve as cultural and administrative centers. Examples of buildings or cities: Munich Residenz, the former residence of the monarchs of Bavaria. Munich remains capital of the German state of Bavaria. Würzburg Residenz, the former residence of the prince-bishops of Würzburg. Würzburg today is capital of the Lower Franconia government district of Bavaria.
Alte Residenz, the former residence of the Archbishops of Salzburg. Salzburg today is capital of the Salzburg state of Austria. Prussia's three Residenzstädte, where, in theory at least, the royal family could live, were Berlin, Königsberg, Breslau. Residenzes newly founded in the baroque era: Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden, general field marshal of the Holy Roman Empire, nicknamed "Turkish Louis" for his successes against the Turks and now in possession of a great war prize, in 1699 altered plans for a hunting lodge being built near the village of Rastatt since 1697. Aiming to become prince elector, he spent 12 million guilders on Rastatt Castle; the village grew accordingly and was incorporated as a town in 1700. Louis William lived at the castle from 1702, the court followed from Baden in 1705. Eberhard Louis, Duke of Württemberg, had in 1704 begun reconstruction of a destroyed hunting lodge north of his residenz of Stuttgart. In 1705, he named the site Ludwigsburg. Plans were enlarged again in 1715, resulting in Ludwigsburg Palace.
In 1709, Eberhard Louis moved to the new castle. Beginning in the same year, a planned community was constructed near the palace, incorporated as a town in 1718. Ludwigsburg became the Württemberg residenz in 1718. After Eberhard Louis' death in 1733, his successor took the court back to Stuttgart. Once again from 1764 to 1775, Charles Eugene, in quarrelling with the duchy's estates over yet another residenz, the Stuttgart New Palace, moved the residenz to Ludwigsburg. In 1715, Margrave Charles William of Baden-Durlach chose to build a new residenz in a space in the woods he called Karlsruhe. From 1717 on, Karlsruhe was residenz of Baden-Durlach of the grand duchy of Baden, in 1719 the administration had been transferred from Durlach. After 1952, when the states of Baden and Württemberg were merged into Baden-Württemberg, the Württemberg capital Stuttgart becoming capital of the new state, Karlsruhe not only remained capital of a government district of the same name, but in compensation became "Residenz des Rechts" for all Germany, seating the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Court of Justice.
Charles III Philip, Elector Palatine since 1716, in 1720 transferred his residenz from Heidelberg to Mannheim, a fort at the confluence of the rivers Rhine and Neckar, destroyed in the war and was now being reconstructed. Construction of Mannheim Palace began in 1720 in place of the former citadel
Bavaria the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Nuremberg; the history of Bavaria includes its earliest settlement by Iron Age Celtic tribes, followed by the conquests of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, when the territory was incorporated into the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. It became a stem duchy in the 6th century AD following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, became an independent kingdom, joined the Prussian-led German Empire while retaining its title of kingdom, became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century AD, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War. Bavaria has a unique culture because of the state's Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, architecture, festivals such as Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism; the state has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a rather wealthy German region. Modern Bavaria includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia; the Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps inhabited by Celts, part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German, unlike other Germanic groups, they did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by the Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century; these peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Allemanni, Thuringians, Scirians, Heruli.
The name "Bavarian" means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520. A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BC. From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III, deposed by Charlemagne. Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555, their daughter, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.
After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy, his son, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death the duchy passed from neighboring Alemannia. Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface, tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo, he was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748. Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Tassilo III succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria.
He ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands. After 781, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and deposed him in 788; the deposition was not legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback; the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, he died a monk; as all of his family were forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and
Jakob Wassermann was a German writer and novelist of Jewish descent. Born in Fürth, Wassermann lost his mother at an early age, he published various pieces in small newspapers. Because his father was reluctant to support his literary ambitions, he began a short-lived apprenticeship with a businessman in Vienna after graduation, he completed his military service in Würzburg. Afterward, he stayed in Zurich. In 1894 he moved to Munich. Here he worked as a secretary and as a copy editor at the paper Simplicissimus. Around this time he became acquainted with other writers Rainer Maria Rilke, Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Thomas Mann. In 1896 he released Melusine. From 1898 he was a theater critic in Vienna. In 1901 he married Julie Speyer, whom he divorced in 1915. Three years he was married again to Marta Karlweis. After 1906, he alternated between Altaussee in Styria. In 1926, he was elected to the Prussian Academy of Arts, he resigned in 1933. In the same year, his books were banned in Germany owing to his Jewish ancestry.
He died on 1 January 1934 at his home in Altaussee of a heart attack. Wassermann's work includes poetry, essays and short stories, his most important works are considered the novel The Maurizius Case and the autobiography, My Life as German and Jew, in which he discussed the tense relationship between his German and Jewish identities. Melusine Die Juden von Zirndorf Schläfst du, Mutter? Die Geschichte der jungen Renate Fuchs Der Moloch Der niegeküsste Mund Die Kunst der Erzählung Alexander von Babylon Donna Johanna von Castilien Die Schwestern Caspar Hauser oder Die Trägheit des Herzens Die Gefangenen auf der Plassenburg Die Masken Erwin Reiners Der goldene Spiegel Geronimo de Aguilar Faustina Der Mann von vierzig Jahren Das Gänsemännchen Christian Wahnschaffe Die Prinzessin Girnara, Weltspiel und Legende "Golowin" Mein Weg als Deutscher und Jude Imaginäre Brücken Sturreganz Ulrike Woytich Faber, oder die verlorenen Jahre Laudin und die Seinen Das Amulett Der Aufruhr um den Junker Ernst Das Gold von Caxamalca Christoph Columbus (Biography, 1929 Selbstbetrachtungen Novel trilogy: Der Fall Maurizius Etzel Andergast Joseph Kerkhovens dritte Existenz Christian Wahnschaffe, directed by Urban Gad The Masks of the Devil, directed by Victor Sjöström L'affaire Maurizius, directed by Julien Duvivier Il caso Maurizius, directed by Anton Giulio Majano Der Fall Maurizius, directed by Theodor Kotulla John Carl Blankenagel: The writings of Jakob Wassermann.
Boston, The Christopher publishing house, 1942. Henry Miller: Reflections on The Maurizius case: a humble appraisal of a great book. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Capra Press, 1974. Alice Cohn Hanberg: The humanism of Jakob Wassermann. Thesis-University of California. Microfilm. Los Angeles, University of California, Library Photographic Service, 1953. Stephen H. Garrin: The concept of justice in Jakob Wassermann’s trilogy. Bern: Lang, 1979. Works by Jakob Wassermann at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Jakob Wassermann at Internet Archive Works by Jakob Wassermann at LibriVox Guide to the Jakob Wassermann Autographs Collection at the Leo Baeck Institute, New York
Trebgast is a municipality in the district of Kulmbach in Bavaria in Germany. Trebgast is arranged in the following boroughs: Feuln Lindau Trebgast Waizendorf
Frederick I, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
Frederick I of Ansbach and Bayreuth was born at Ansbach as the eldest son of Albert III, Margrave of Brandenburg by his second wife Anna, daughter of Frederick II, Elector of Saxony. His elder half-brother was the Elector Johann Cicero of Brandenburg. Friedrich succeeded his father as Margrave of Ansbach in 1486 and his younger brother Siegmund as Margrave of Bayreuth in 1495. After depleting the finances of the margraviate with his lavish lifestyle, Frederick I was deposed by his two elder sons and George, in 1515, he was locked up at Plassenburg Castle by his eldest son Casimir in a tower room from which he could not escape for 12 years. Thereupon, his son Casimir took up the rule of the Margraviate of Bayreuth and his son George took up the rule of the Margraviate of Ansbach. However, the overthrow of Frederick did outrage his other younger sons and led to far-reaching political countermeasures; when Elector Joachim I of Brandenburg visited Kulmbach during his journey to Augsburg, wanted to plead for Frederick's release, he was denied entry to Plassenburg Castle.
The dispute was cleared when an agreement was reached in 1522, in which the demands of the younger sons of Frederick were met. On 14 February 1479, at Frankfurt, Frederick I was married to Princess Sophia of Poland, daughter of King Casimir IV of Poland by his wife Elisabeth of Austria, sister of King Sigismund I of Poland, they had seventeen children: Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. Elisabeth, died young. Margarete of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach. George, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach. Sophie of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach, married on 14 November 1518 to Duke Frederick II of Legnica. Anna of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach, married on 1 December 1518 to Duke Wenceslaus II of Cieszyn. Barbara, died young. Albert, 1st Duke of Prussia, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order from 1511 to 1525, first Duke of Prussia from 1525. Frederick of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach. Johann, Viceroy of Valencia Elisabeth of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach, married in Pforzheim on 29 September 1510 to Margrave Ernest of Baden-Durlach.
Barbara of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach, married in Plassenburg on 26 July 1528 to Landgrave George III of Leuchtenberg. Frederick of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach, a canon in Würzburg and Salzburg. Wilhelm, Archbishop of Riga John Albert, Archbishop of Magdeburg Frederick Albert, died young. Gumprecht of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach, a canon in Bamberg. Marek, Miroslav. "House of Hohenzollern". Genealogy. EU
Goldkronach is a town in the district of Bayreuth, in Bavaria, Germany. It is situated near 12 km northeast of Bayreuth. On 25 June 1836, at 22:15, residents awoke to a man yelling "Fire! Fire!". In 2 hours half of the eastern part of the town was burnt down, including the parish church, the two schools, City Hall, 55 houses, 16 outbuildings. 127 families were rendered homeless. Three years on 18 June 1839 midnight, another fire broke out in the market. Within two hours, 29 houses and 17 outbuildings in the south side of town were the victims of the fire. 1961: 2945 1970: 2935 1987: 2903 2000: 3598 2010: 3606 Sigismund von Reitzenstein and diplomat of Baden Georgius Agricola, scholar of the Renaissance and the father of the mineralogy. For Goldkronach in his writings, Agricola called a weekly gold transfer of 1500 Gulden. Alexander von Humboldt, German natural scientist, from 1792 to 1796 Oberbergmeister and Oberbergrat in the Prussian Goldkronach. Humboldt revolutionized mining from a technical point of view, but introduced measures for the education and social protection of miners