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Plasticine

Plasticine, a brand of modelling clay, is a putty-like modelling material made from calcium salts, petroleum jelly and aliphatic acids. Plasticine is used extensively for children's play, but as a modelling medium for more formal or permanent structures; because of its non-drying property, it is a popular choice of material for stop-motion animation, including several Oscar-winning films by Nick Park. The brand-name clay is sometimes mentioned in British music, such as the "plasticine porters" in the Beatles' "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds", the Oasis songs "Little James" and "Shakermaker", the Placebo song "Plasticine". William Harbutt, an art teacher in Bath, formulated Plasticine in 1897. Harbutt wanted a non-drying clay for his sculpture students, he created a non-toxic, sterile and malleable clay that did not dry on exposure to air. Harbutt received a patent in 1899 and commercial production started at a factory in Bathampton in 1900; the original Plasticine was grey. Four colours were produced for initial sale to the public.

Plasticine was popular with children, was used in schools for teaching art, has found a wide variety of other uses. Plasticine is 65% bulking agent, 10% petroleum jelly, 5% lime, 10% lanolin and 10% stearic acid, it cannot be hardened by firing, melts when exposed to heat, is flammable at higher temperatures. Harbutt patented a different formulation in 1915, which added wool fibres to give plasticine a stronger composition intended for ear plugs, as a sterile dressing for wounds and burns; the Harbutt company marketed Plasticine as a children's toy by producing modelling kits based on characters from children's stories, such as Noddy, the Mr. Men and Paddington Bear; the original Plasticine factory was replaced by a modern building. The Harbutt company produced Plasticine in Bathampton until 1983, when production was moved to Thailand; the Colorforms company was the major American licensee of Plasticine from 1979 until at least 1984. The use of a different chalk compound caused a product inconsistency, the US version was considered inferior to the original mix.

Bluebird Toys plc acquired Plasticine through its purchase of Harbutt's parent company. In 1998, Mattel bought Bluebird and the brand was sold to Humbrol Ltd, famous for its model paints and owner of the Airfix model kit brand. Flair Leisure licensed the brand from Humbrol in relaunched Plasticine, it acquired the brand outright. A similar product, "Kunst-Modellierthon", was invented by Franz Kolb of Munich, Germany, in 1880; this product is still available, known as "Münchner Künstler Plastilin". In Italy, the product Pongo is marketed as "plastilina" and shares the main attributes of Plasticine. Play-Doh, based on flour and water, dries on exposure to air. In France, it is made by Herbin, marketed as Plastiline. Plasticine and similar materials are used in clay animation. One of its main proponents is Aardman Animations' Nick Park, who used characters modelled in Plasticine in his four Oscar-winning Wallace and Gromit short films A Grand Day Out, The Wrong Trousers, A Close Shave and A Matter of Loaf and Death, as well as the feature film The Curse of the Were-Rabbit.

This technique is popularly known as claymation in the US, is a form of stop motion animation. Plasticine-like materials are appealing to animators because the material can be used with ease: it is mouldable enough to create a character, flexible enough to allow that character to move in many ways, dense enough to retain its shape when combined with a wire armature, it does not melt under hot studio lighting. Plasticine is used in long jump and triple jump competitions to help officials determine if the competitors are making legal jumps. A 10 centimetres -wide'indicator board' is placed beyond and above the take-off line; the edges of this are edged with plasticine. If an athlete leaves a mark in the plasticine, it is considered proof that the jump was a foul, the attempt is not measured. Plasticine is used rather than sand, so that several boards may be prepared in advance: if a board is marked it may be replaced by a smoothed board to avoid delaying the competition, but keeping the marked board available in case of challenges.

An indicator board is used, rather than a wide strip of plasticine, as this provides a firm footing should the athlete step on it. Plasticine-like clays are used in commercial party games such as Barbarossa. Television presenter James May together with Chris Collins, Jane McAdam Freud, Julian Fullalove and around 2000 members of the public created a show garden made of Plasticine for the 2009 Chelsea Flower Show. Called'Paradise in Plasticine', it took 6 weeks and 2.6 tons of Plasticine in 24 colours to complete. May said, "This is, to our knowledge, the largest and most complex model of this type created." It couldn't be considered as part of the standard judging criteria as it contained no real plants, but was awarded an honorary gold award made from Plasticine. The garden was popular with the public and went on to win the Royal Horticultural Society's'peoples choice' for best small garden. During World War II, Plasticine was used by bomb disposal officer Major John P. Hudson R. E. as part of the defuzing process for the new German "Type Y" battery-powered bomb fuze.

The "Type Y" fuze has an anti-disturbance device that had to be disabled before the fuze could be removed. Plasticine was used to build a dam around the head of the fuze to hold some liquid oxygen; the liq

Fossickers Way

The Fossickers Way is a series of country roads located in the Northern Tablelands region of New South Wales, Australia that, when joined together, come to form a 379-kilometre scenic and tourist drive. The road's southern terminus is located in Nundle with its northwest terminus in Warialda; the majority of the Fossickers Way is designated as B95. The scenic route draws its name of Fossickers Way due to the many deposits of gold and the variety of gemstones that have been found in the area since the early 1850s. Prior to this time, local Aboriginal tribes such as the Werawai people of Nundle and its surrounds were known to use local minerals and stones for the purpose of making tools, such as axe heads. Fossickers Way transverses the western slopes of the Northern Tablelands and passes through some of the world’s richest gem areas. In these parts, zircon, prase, rhodonite and gold may be found; the highway passes through open wheat and grazing lands and wooded slopes, through country towns rich in gold rush history.

Towns along the Fossickers' Way include Nundle, Manilla and Bingara, Delungra and Glen Innes. The Fossickers Way, a scenic drive that incorporates seven shires in northern NSW, is an alternate route between Sydney and Brisbane. In this area, zircon, prase, ridonite and gold may be found along various quarries and creeks, such as Swamp Oak Creek, just out of the town of Nundle where gold was discovered in 1851 by a local squatter, Nathan Burrows It has been reported that he made the discovery immediately informed folks in nearby Tamworth and the gold rush began thereafter; the Gwydir Highway passes through open wheat and grazing lands and wooded slopes through country towns, rich in gold rush history. Many events occur along Fossicker's Way throughout the year, including the annual Tamworth Country Music Festival in January; the Fossicker's Way Treasure Hunt is an annual event which takes participants through all eight towns on the trail. List of highways in New South Wales

Some People Can Do What They Like

Some People Can Do What They Like is the third solo album by Robert Palmer, released in 1976. It includes "Man Smart, Woman Smarter" which peaked at number 63 on the Billboard Pop Singles chart and number 46 in the UK in 1977; the album peaked at number 68 in the US. The album was dedicated to Mongezi Feza; the model on the front cover, engaging Palmer in a game of strip poker, is Playboy magazine's April 1976 Playmate of the Month, Denise Michele. "One Last Look" – 4:22 "Keep in Touch" – 3:25 "Man Smart" – 2:35 "Spanish Moon" – 5:58 "Have Mercy" – 3:50 "Gotta Get a Grip on You" – 3:57 "What Can You Bring Me" – 3:43 "Hard Head" – 4:30 "Off the Bone" – 2:18 "Some People Can Do What They Like" – 4:09 Robert Palmer – vocals Pierre Brock, Chuck Raineybass guitar Richie Hayward, Jeff Porcaro, Spider Webb, Robert Greenidgedrums Chilli Charles – timbales Sam Claytonpercussion, background vocals Jody Linscott – percussion, congas Paul Barrere – guitar, background vocals Freddie Harris, Carol Kaye, Freddie Wall – guitar Bill Paynekeyboards, background vocals James Allen Smith, William "Smitty" Smith – keyboards Greg Carrollharmonica Arthur Smithocarina, whistle Producer – Steve Smith Engineered & Mixed by Phill Brown at Clover Studios.

Assistant Engineer – Toby Scott Additional Engineer on Tracks #2, 8 & 10 – Richard Digby Smith Mastered by George Marino at Sterling Sound, NYC Cover Photography – Moshe Brakha Design – Ria Lewerke Management – Connie De Nave List of albums released in 1976

Edna O. Simpson

Edna Oakes Simpson was a U. S. Representative from Illinois, wife of Sidney E. Simpson. Born in Carrollton, Edna Simpson was elected as a Republican to the Eighty-sixth Congress, she did not seek renomination in 1960. She was a resident of Carrollton, until her death in Alton, Illinois, on May 15, 1984. Women in the United States House of Representatives United States Congress. "Edna O. Simpson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Edna O. Simpson at Find a Grave This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov

A Feather on the Breath of God

A Feather on the Breath of God is an award-winning album of sacred vocal music written in the 12th century by the German abbess Hildegard of Bingen, recorded by British vocal ensemble Gothic Voices with English soprano Emma Kirkby. It was released by the Hyperion Records label in April 1985, it is an album of early medieval plainchant of which the title is taken from a passage in Hildegard's writings in which she describes herself: Listen: there was once a king sitting on his throne. Around him stood great and wonderfully beautiful columns ornamented with ivory, bearing the banners of the king with great honour, it pleased the king to raise a small feather from the ground and he commanded it to fly. The feather flew, not because the air bore it along, thus am I'"A feather on the breath of God." The album received the Early-Medieval Gramophone Award for 1982–1983 and the maximum rating of five stars from AllMusic. It was recorded in St. Jude's Church, Hampstead Garden Suburb, London, on 14 September 1981.

The music and Latin texts are from a contemporary medieval manuscript edited by Dr. Christopher Page, who directed the recorded performance itself. All compositions written by Hildegard of Bingen. “Columba aspexit” “Ave, generosa” “O ignis spiritus” “O Ierusalem” “O Euchari” “O viridissima virga” “O presul vere civitatis” “O Ecclesia” Emma Kirkby – soprano Emily Van Evera – soprano Poppy Holden – soprano Judith Stell – soprano Margaret Philpot – contralto Andrew Parrotttenor Kevin Breen – tenor Howard Milner – tenor Doreen Muskett – symphony Robert White – reed drones Christopher Page – director Tony Faulkner – recording engineer Martin Compton – recording producer Terry Shannon – front design Edward Perry – executive producer

Charles Goethe

Charles Matthias Goethe was an American eugenicist, land developer, conservationist, founder of the Eugenics Society of Northern California, a native and lifelong resident of Sacramento, California. Charles M. Goethe was born on March 1875 in Sacramento California, he pronounced his last name as GAY-tee. Goethe's grandparents had immigrated to California from Germany in the 1870s. Charles' father was interested in wild life. Both men pursued careers in real estate as Charles made most of his money as a real estate broker. Charles did not pursue a career in law; as a child, Charles was interested in agriculture and the human body. In his diary, he kept a record of his diet and exercise noting days in which his regimen was not sufficient. Goethe's additional childhood interest in various plants and animals evolved as he pressed and catalogued his findings, his ideas concerning nature tied into his views on eugenics, as he connected the evolution of nature to heredity. Goethe explained in his memoir Seeking to Serve that his original interest in eugenics began as a child.

Goethe wrote admiringly of California’s Forty-Niners, the State’s giant redwood trees, loved the outdoors. Goethe worked with organizations including the Audubon Society, he and his wife have been called "The father and mother of the Nature Guide Movement,' initiating interpretive programs with the U. S. National Park Service; the National Park Service made Goethe the “Honorary Chief Naturalist” for his work in this field. This was motivated by their experience with nature programs in Europe and desire to educate visitors in the U. S. National Parks, his motto was "Learn to Read the Trail-side as a Book." Goethe encouraged the general public to educate themselves about the evolution of nature as well spending time dedicated to learning about different plants and animals. He introduced the Boy Scouts to Sacramento, due to his interest in furthering biological education for children; as an adult, Goethe was a conservationist. Goethe founded California State University, which in turn treated Goethe with the reverence of a founding father, appointed him chairman of the University's advisory board, dedicated the Goethe Arboretum to him in 1961, organized an elaborate gala and'national recognition day' to mark his 90th birthday in 1965, when he received letters of appreciation - solicited by his friends at CSUS - from the president of the Nature Conservancy, then-Governor Edmund G. Brown, then-President Lyndon B. Johnson.

As a result, in 1963, Goethe changed his will to make CSUS his primary beneficiary, bequeathing his residence, eugenics library, $640,000 to the University. When Goethe died, CSUS received the largest share of his $24 million estate. Charles Goethe worked near Arizona. Following his work in Arizona, Goethe desired to understand “the extent of the mestizo peril to the American ‘seed stock.'" Goethe was determined to discover the threat of Mexicans to the American population, in a eugenic sense. As a result, Goethe created the Immigration Study Commission. With the help of his organization, Goethe hoped to ban Mexican entry into the United States of America. In addition, Goethe portrayed Mexicans as carriers of different germs. While he believed that certain Mexicans could appear as free of disease, they could in fact be silent carriers due to their health practices, his ideas contributed to 1920s perceptions that the American melting pot had begun to integrate germs from certain races the Mexican race.

Goethe was a strong proponent of positive eugenics. His mentor was eugenicist Madison Grant. Like Grant, Goethe promoted his anti-immigrant and racist ideas through pamphlets and other tracts, he lobbied with politicians and other bureaucrats. Goethe created tiny pamphlets that he distributed to explain his beliefs concerning specific ethnic groups. In these booklets, he explained the importance of family planning and eugenic practices to ensure the superiority of certain races, he invested nearly 1 million dollars to produce and distribute these pamphlets to increase biological literacy. In addition to investing in these booklets, Goethe invested in research for plant and biological genetics. Goethe recommended compulsory sterilization of the'socially unfit', opposed immigration, praised German scientists who used a comprehensive sterilization program to'purify' the Aryan race before the outbreak of World War II. Goethe funded anti-Asian campaigns, praised the Nazis before and after World War II, practiced discrimination in his business dealings, refusing to sell real estate to Mexicans and Asians.

Goethe believed a variety of social successes and social problems could be traced to inherited biological attributes associated with'racial temperament'. Working with the Human Betterment Foundation in Pasadena, Goethe lobbied the State to restrict immigration from Mexico and carry out involuntary sterilizations of poor women, defined as'feeble-minded' or'socially inadequate' by medical authorities between 1909 and the 1960s. Goethe was involved in the publication of multiple journals in which he expressed his views on eugenics. Goethe was involved with the journal Survey Graphic, serving as a member of the council; the journal had published information