SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Plateosaurus

Plateosaurus is a genus of plateosaurid dinosaur that lived during the Late Triassic period, around 214 to 204 million years ago, in what is now Central and Northern Europe and Greenland, North America. Plateosaurus is a basal sauropodomorph dinosaur, a so-called "prosauropod"; as of 2011, two species are recognised: the type species P. engelhardti from the late Norian and Rhaetian, the earlier P. gracilis from the lower Norian. However, others have been assigned in the past, there is no broad consensus on the species taxonomy of plateosaurid dinosaurs. There are a plethora of synonyms at the genus level. Discovered in 1834 by Johann Friedrich Engelhardt and described three years by Hermann von Meyer, Plateosaurus was the fifth named dinosaur genus, still considered valid. Although it had been described before Richard Owen formally named Dinosauria in 1842, it was not one of the three genera used by Owen to define the group, because at the time, it was poorly known and difficult to identify as a dinosaur.

It is now among the dinosaurs best known to science: over 100 skeletons have been found, some of them nearly complete. The abundance of its fossils in Swabia, has led to the nickname Schwäbischer Lindwurm. Plateosaurus was a bipedal herbivore with a small skull on a long, flexible neck, sharp but plump plant-crushing teeth, powerful hind limbs, short but muscular arms and grasping hands with large claws on three fingers used for defence and feeding. Unusually for a dinosaur, Plateosaurus showed strong developmental plasticity: instead of having a uniform adult size grown individuals were between 4.8 and 10 metres long and weighed between 600 and 4,000 kilograms. The animals lived for at least 12 to 20 years, but the maximum life span is not known. Despite the great quantity and excellent quality of the fossil material, Plateosaurus was for a long time one of the most misunderstood dinosaurs; some researchers proposed theories that were shown to conflict with geological and palaeontological evidence, but have become the paradigm of public opinion.

Since 1980 the taxonomy, taphonomy and palaeobiology of Plateosaurus have been re-studied in detail, altering the interpretation of the animal's biology and behaviour. Plateosaurus had the typical body shape of a herbivorous bipedal dinosaur: a small skull, a long and flexible neck composed of 10 cervical vertebrae, a stocky body, a long, mobile tail composed of at least 40 caudal vertebrae; the arms of Plateosaurus were short compared to most other "prosauropods". However, they were built, with hands adapted for powerful grasping; the shoulder girdle was narrow, with the clavicles touching at the body's midline, as in other basal sauropodomorphs. The hind limbs were held under the body, with flexed knees and ankles, the foot was digitigrade, meaning the animal walked on its toes; the proportionally long lower leg and metatarsus show that Plateosaurus could run on its hind limbs. The tail of Plateosaurus was dinosaurian and with high mobility; the skull of Plateosaurus is small and narrow, rectangular in side view, nearly three times as long as it is high.

There is an rectangular lateral temporal foramen at the back. The large, round orbit, the sub-triangular antorbital fenestra and the oval naris are of equal size; the jaws carried many small, leaf-shaped, socketed teeth: 5 to 6 per premaxilla, 24 to 30 per maxilla, 21 to 28 per dentary. The thick, leaf-shaped, bluntly serrated tooth crowns were suitable for crushing plant material; the low position of the jaw joint gave the chewing muscles great leverage, so that Plateosaurus could deliver a powerful bite. These features suggest that it fed to on plants, its eyes were directed to the sides, rather than the front, providing all-round vision to watch for predators. Some fossil skeletons have preserved sclerotic rings; the ribs were connected to the dorsal vertebrae with two joints, acting together as a simple hinge joint, which has allowed researchers to reconstruct the inhaled and exhaled positions of the ribcage. The difference in volume between these two positions defines the air exchange volume, determined to be 20 L for a P. engelhardti individual estimated to have weighed 690 kg, or 29 mL/kg bodyweight.

This is a typical value for birds, but not for mammals, indicates that Plateosaurus had an avian-style flow-through lung, although indicators for postcranial pneumaticity can be found on the bones of only a few individuals, were only recognised in 2010. Combined with evidence from bone histology this indicates; the type species of Plateosaurus is P. engelhardti. Adults of this species reached 4.8 to 10 metres in length, ranged in mass from 600 to 4,000 kilograms. The geologically older species, P. gracilis, was somewhat smaller, with a total length of 4 to 5 metres. In 1834, physician Johann Friedrich Engelhardt discovered some vertebrae and leg bones at Heroldsberg near Nuremberg, Germany. Three years German palaeontologist Hermann von Meyer designated them as the type specimen of a new genus

Lisa Durden

Lisa Durden is an African American media commentator and producer. Durden was born and raised in Newark, New Jersey and graduated from Seton Hall University with a degree in journalism, she has provided commentary on The Kelly File and other television programs on subjects including racism, Black Lives Matter, celebrity culture. Durden hosts The Lisa Durden Show, that airs on Newark and Manhattan cable channels, she was the associate producer for the documentary Brick City, producer of the documentary Soul Food Junkies, which won the 2012 Grand Jury Prize of Best Documentary at the American Black Film Festival. On June 6, 2017, Durden appeared on Fox News in an interview with Tucker Carlson, discussing a Black Lives Matter chapter that held a Memorial Day event for black people. Durden defended the chapter's actions, saying "Boo-hoo-hoo... You white people are angry because you couldn’t use your ‘white privilege’ card to get invited to the Black Lives Matter’s all-black Memorial Day celebration."

Carlson responded by calling Durden "hostile and separatist and crazy" and "demented". Two days Durden was suspended from her position of adjunct professor at Essex County College in Newark. Two weeks she was fired. Durden described the experience as being "publicly lynched". College president Anthony Munroe said the firing was in response to concerns and fears expressed by students and prospective students following Durden's remarks on television. A legal analysis by the campus free speech organization Foundation for Individual Rights in Education said that the firing violated established First Amendment law for public employees, rejected Munroe's claim that Durden's remarks made it impossible for her to do her job. FIRE stated that "if offending others and causing an'outpouring' of criticism and consternation were sufficient to overcome a faculty member's First Amendment rights, freedom of expression on campus would be reduced to a nullity."On July 25, 2017, Durden announced she would be running for New Jersey Lieutenant Governor on the Green Party ticket alongside Seth Kaper-Dale.

They lost. Official website Lisa Durden on IMDb

Bridget Jones (film series)

Bridget Jones is a British-American romantic comedy film series based on the Helen Fielding novels of the same name. The series consists of Bridget Jones's Diary, Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason, Bridget Jones's Baby; the film series has grossed over $756 million worldwide against a combined budget of $100 million. Bridget Jones is a binge drinking, chain smoking, overweight thirty-something British woman who tries to keep her love life in order and while dealing with her job as a publisher; when she attends a Christmas party with her parents, they try to set her up with their neighbours' son, Mark. After being snubbed by Mark, she starts to fall for her boss Daniel, a handsome man who begins to send her suggestive e-mails that leads to a dinner date. Daniel reveals that he and Mark attended college together, in that time Mark had an affair with his fiancée. Bridget decides to get a new job as a TV presenter after finding Daniel being frisky with a colleague. At a dinner party, she runs into Mark who expresses his affection for her, Daniel claims he wants Bridget back, the two fight over her and Bridget must make a decision who she wants to be with.

Bridget is living a happy life with her lawyer boyfriend Mark Darcy, however not only does she starts to become threatened and jealous of Mark's new young intern, she is angered by the fact Mark is a conservative voter. With so many issues at hand, things get worse for Bridget as her ex-lover, Daniel Cleaver, re-enters her life. Bridget Jones is struggling with her current state of life, including her break up with her love Mark Darcy; as she pushes forward and works hard to find fulfilment in her life seems to do wonders until she meets a dashing and handsome American named Jack Quant. Things from on go great, until she discovers that she is pregnant but the biggest twist of all, she does not know if Mark or Jack is the father of her child; the first film received positive reviews and holds an 81% approval rating on review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes with an average score of 6.9/10, based on 154 reviews. The site's critical consensus reads: "Though there was controversy over the choice of casting, Zellweger's Bridget Jones is a sympathetic, funny character, giving this romantic comedy a lot of charm."

On Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average score out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, calculated an average score of 66, based on 33 reviews, considered to be "generally favorable reviews". Critic Roger Ebert gave the film 3.5 out of 4 possible stars. Renée Zellweger was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress, the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role, the Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Actress, the Empire Award for Best Actress, the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy, the MTV Movie Award for Best Kiss, the Satellite Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy, the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Leading Role, the Teen Choice Award for Choice Chemistry, the Teen Choice Award for Choice Liplock, the Dallas–Fort Worth Film Critics Association Award for Best Actress. Firth won the European Film Awards Audience Award for Best Actor and the European Film Award – Jameson People's Choice Award – Best Actor and was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role and the Satellite Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy.

Grant won the Evening Standard British Film Awards' Peter Sellers Award for Comedy and was nominated for the Empire Award for Best British Actor, the Satellite Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy, the European Film Award – Jameson People's Choice Award – Best Actor. Richard Curtis, Andrew Davies, Helen Fielding were nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Adapted Screenplay; the film was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best British Film, the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy, the Satellite Award for Best Film – Musical or Comedy. The film was voted Evening Standard Readers' Film of 2004, it was on the shortlist for the Orange Film of the Year Award at the 2005 BAFTAs. For her performance as Bridget Jones, Zellweger gained another Golden Globe Award nomination and won the People's Choice Awards for Favorite Leading Lady in 2005; the film was nominated at the 2017 Diversity in Media Awards for Movie of the Year and won the ASPAC Award.

The first film on VHS was released in 2001 containing over 35 minutes of bonus material which includes: Deleted Scenes, Exclusive Interviews, Bridget's Guide to “Getting It Right”. There was a VHS of "The Making of Bridget Jones". In 2001 the film was released on DVD containing brand new bonus material and in 2011 a Blu-ray version of the film was released. A Collective Edition of the film was released in 2004 with new bonus material including; the second film was released on DVD in 2004 with a variety of bonus features