click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Plateway

A plateway is an early kind of railway, tramway or wagonway, where the rails are made from cast iron. They were used for about 50 years up to 1830, though some continued later. Plateways consisted of "L" shaped rails where a flange on the rail guided the wheels in contrast to edgeways, where flanges on the wheels guide it along the track. Plateways were horsedrawn, but cable haulage and small, light locomotives were sometimes used on; the plates of the plateway were made of cast iron cast by the ironworks that were their users. On most lines this system was replaced by rolled wrought iron "edge rails", which along with realignment to increase the radius of curves converted them to modern railways better suited to locomotive operation. Plateways were favoured in South Wales and the Forest of Dean, in some cases replacing existing edge rails. Other notable plateways included the Hay Railway, the Gloucester and Cheltenham Railway, the Surrey Iron Railway, the Derby Canal Railway, the Kilmarnock and Troon Railway, the Portreath Tramroad in Cornwall and lines at Coalbrookdale, Shropshire.

The plates of a plateway rested on stone blocks or sleepers, which served to spread the load over the ground, to maintain the gauge. The plates were made from cast iron and had differing cross sections depending on the manufacturer, they were very short about 3 feet long, able to stretch only from one block to the next. The L section plateway was introduced for underground use by John Curr of Sheffield Park Colliery in about 1787. Joseph Butler of Wingerworth near Chesterfield, constructed a line using flanged plates in 1788. A leading advocate of plate rails was Benjamin Outram whose first line was from quarries at Crich to Bullbridge Wharf on the Cromford Canal; the early plates were prone to break so different cross sections were employed, such as a second flange underneath. Some lines introduced chairs to support the plates on the blocks and wrought iron plates, increasing the length to 6 ft and 9 ft, spanning several sleeper blocksWilliam Jessop had used edge rails cast in three foot lengths, with "fish-bellying" to give greater strength along the length of the rail on a line between Nanpantan and Loughborough, Leicestershire in 1789.

However, after he became a partner in Benjamin Outram and Company he designed the Surrey Iron Railway and the Kilmarnock and Troon Railway as plateways. An alternative design with the flange on the outside designed to be additionally used with flanged wheels was unsuccessfully trialed on the Monmouthshire Canal Company's line shortly before reconstruction as a modern railway; the early plateways were operated on a toll basis, with any rolling stock owner able to operate their wagons on the tracks. Sometimes the plateway company was forbidden to operate its own wagons, so as to prevent a monopoly situation arising; some plateways such as the Gloucester and Cheltenham Railway were single track with passing loops at frequent intervals. The single track sections were arranged so that wagon drivers could see from one loop to the next, wait for oncoming traffic if necessary; however others such as the Surrey Iron Railway, the Kilmarnock and Troon Railway and the Monmouthshire Canal Company's tramroads and the Severn and Wye Railway were wholly or double track.

Plateways tended to grit leading to wear. Edgeways avoid the stone obstruction problem. Stone blocks had an advantage over timber sleepers in that they left the middle of the track unhindered for the hooves of horses. Timber sleepers had an advantage over stone blocks in that they prevented the track from spreading, the gauges of some tramroads increased by a couple of inches after decades of horses passing up the middle, but being loose on the axles the wheels could be adjusted with washers. Older than plateways were wagonways which used wooden rails. Despite its ancient appearance, the Haytor Granite Tramway, the track with ledges cut in stone blocks to produce a similar effect as tram plates, was contemporary with plateways, being built in 1820. Calvert, J. "Tramway Engineering"

New Mexico State Road 55

State Road 55 is a state highway in the US state of New Mexico. Its total length is 96.8 miles. NM 55's southern terminus is at U. S. Route 54 west-northwest of Ancho and the northern terminus is in the village of Estancia at NM 41. In the 1930s, the section of highway between Cuba and Farmington was known as NM 55. By 1940, NM 44 was moved to the road NM 55 followed, the NM 55 designation was removed. In the early 1940s the portion from Estancia to Tajique was named NM 55 when NM 10 was extended south over the remainder of NM 15. For a brief time in the early 1940s, the segment between Claunch and US 54 was designated NM 195. In 1988, NM 14 was broken up into several routes to eliminate concurrent segments with other routes, NM-55 assumed the former portion of NM 14 south of Tajique, it covers the entire length of the original route NM 15. U. S. Roads portal

KMTY

KMTY is a radio station licensed to serve Gibbon, United States. The station is owned by Joseph Vavricek, through licensee Legacy Communications, LLC. KMTY broadcasts a country music format branded as "Big Country 97.7" to the greater Kearney, area. KMTY aired an adult hits music format branded as "Jack FM" and before that a similar adult hits format as "Bob FM". In addition to its music programming, KMTY broadcasts Major League Baseball games as an affiliate of the Kansas City Royals radio network; the station was assigned the KMTY call sign by the U. S. Federal Communications Commission on April 1, 1996. On September 30, 2011, KMTY was granted an FCC construction permit to change the city of license from Holdrege, Nebraska to Gibbon, move to a new transmitter site, increase ERP to 100,000 watts and decrease HAAT to 42 meters. In May 2013, Armada Media and Legacy Broadcasting traded some stations in Nebraska, with two stations in Holdrege going to Legacy and eight others in the Scottsbluff and North Platte markets going to Armada Media.

The transaction was completed on October 11, 2013, for a purchase price of $800,000. On June 17, 2013 KMTY changed their format from adult hits to country, branded as "Big Country 97.7". The move from Holdrege to Gibbon was licensed by the FCC on August 25, 2014. Query the FCC's FM station database for KMTY Radio-Locator information on KMTY Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KMTYFCC construction permit Northpine

Zieria covenyi

Zieria covenyi known as the Coveny's zieria, is a plant in the citrus family Rutaceae and is endemic to a small area in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales. It is an erect shrub which multiples asexually from root suckers and has three-part, clover-like leaves and clusters of white to pink flowers with four petals and four stamens. Zieria covenyi is an erect shrub which grows to a height of 2 m and only reproduces from root suckers, it has star-shaped hairs on its leaves, at least when they are young. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs and are composed of three leaflets with the central one heart-shaped with the narrower end towards the base, 25–35 mm long and 8–10 mm wide and with a petiole 7–10 mm long; the leaflets are dark green with small oil glands on the upper surface and grey-green with soft hairs on the lower surface. White to pale pink flowers, 10–13 mm in diameter are arranged in clusters of between 3 and 21 in leaf axils; the clusters are about the same length as the leaves.

The sepals are triangular, about 4 mm long and covered with soft hairs. The four petals are about 6 mm long, overlap each other and have a layer of hairs on the outside and there are four stamens. Flowering occurs from October to December and although insects have been observed visiting the flowers they have not carried fertile pollen from this species and fruit has not been recorded. Covenyi's zieria was first formally described in 2002 by James Andrew Anderson from a specimen collected near Bomaderry Creek; the description was published in Australian Systematic Botany. The specific epithet honours the Australian herbarium collector, Robert George Coveny who, with James Armstrong, collected the type specimen. Zieria covenyi is only known from two populations totalling about 270 plants on Narrow Neck Peninsula in the Blue Mountains, where it grows in sandy soil in eucalypt woodland. Covenyi's zieria is listed as "Endangered" under the New South Wales Threatened Species Conservation Act and under the Commonwealth Government Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 Act.

Some of the threats to the species are habitat damage due to road maintenance, frequent fires and the inability of the species to reproduce from seed

American Me

American Me is a 1992 American crime drama film produced and directed by Edward James Olmos, his first film as a director, written by Floyd Mutrux and Desmond Nakano. Olmos stars as the film's protagonist, Montoya Santana. Executive producers included record producer Lou Adler, screenwriter Mutrux, Irwin Young, it depicts a fictionalized account of the founding and rise to power of the Mexican Mafia in the California prison system from the 1950s into the 1980s. The film depicts 30 years of Chicano gang life in Los Angeles, it focuses on Montoya Santana, a teen who forms a gang along with his friends J. D. and Mundo. They soon are arrested. In juvenile hall, Santana murders a fellow inmate who had raped him and as a result, has his sentence extended into Folsom State Prison after he turns 18. Once there, Santana becomes the leader of La Eme. Upon his release he tries to relate his life experiences to the society that has changed so much since he left. La Eme has become a feared criminal organization beyond Folsom, committing murder.

Santana starts to see the error of his ways but before he can take action, is sent back to prison for drug possession. There, he tells his former lieutenant J. D. that he is no longer interested in leading La Eme. However, following a precedent set by Santana himself earlier in the film, his men murder him to show the other prison gangs that, despite having no leader, they are not weak, he is stabbed fatally and thrown off the balcony to his death; the character of Montoya Santana is modeled after Rodolfo Cadena, a high-ranking and founding member of the prison gang La Eme, known popularly as the Mexican Mafia. In real life, Cadena unsuccessfully attempted to steer La Eme into left-wing activism before being stabbed to death by members of the rival Nuestra Familia. In the film, Santana is killed by his own gang; the character of J. D. was based on Joe "Pegleg" Morgan, a Croatian-American gang member and prisoner who preferred the company of Chicanos and along with Cadena helped found La Eme, becoming a high-ranking and feared member of the Latino gang though he was of Croatian descent.

Morgan died from liver cancer in 1993, while he was incarcerated at California State Prison, Corcoran. Olmos, in neo-realist fashion, used actual prisoners as extras and bit players when he filmed at Folsom Prison. Filming locations include East Los Angeles, California; the producers of the film used the following tagline to market the film: In prison, they are the law. On the streets, they are the power. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times liked the reality that came through in the film and that it rang true: "What I felt watching American Me, however, is that it is based on a true situation—on the reality that street gangs and prison, mixed with the drug sales that finance the process, work together to create a professional criminal class."Janet Maslin writes in The New York Times, "But Mr. Olmos's direction...is dark and solemn, so much so that it diverts energy from the film's fundamental frankness. Violent as it is, American Me is dramatic enough to bring its material to life."Marjorie Baumgarten, a film critic for The Austin Chronicle, wrote, "American Me is crafted with heart and conviction and intelligence.

It demands no less of its audience. It insists that there are no quick fixes, but that solutions are of the utmost urgency."The film was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1992 Cannes Film Festival. The review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes lists American Me with a 75% positive approval rating, with 6 out of 8 reviews by professional movie critics listed as positive; the film opened in wide release in the United States on March 13, 1992. The opening weekend's gross was $3,378,100 and the total receipts for the first three weeks were $9,108,435; the film was in wide release for three weeks. In its widest release the film was featured in 830 theaters across the country; the final box office gross amounted to $13,086,430. The Mexican Mafia was enraged by the film; the lead character, Santana Montoya, is portrayed as having been raped as a juvenile, is stabbed to death by his own followers at the end of his criminal career, which never happened to any Mexican Mafia member who bears any similarity to Santana.

Whether as retaliation over the offensive depiction, or as a routine criminal racket, Mexican Mafia member Joe "Pegleg" Morgan attempted to extort money from Olmos. Court documents show that Olmos was a victim in one extortion count contained in a 33-count federal indictment. According to reportage by CBS News weekly 60 Minutes, three consultants on this film were murdered because of the depiction of a homosexual rape scene which offended the Mexican Mafia gangsters' machismo; the first killing occurred 12 days after the film's premiere when one of the film's consultants, Charles "Charlie Brown" Manriquez, a member of La Eme, was slain in Ramona Gardens, L. A.'s oldest public housing project. Another consultant to the film, 49-year-old grandmother Ana Lizarraga known as "The Gang Lady", was murdered when she was gunned down in her East Los Angeles driveway while unloading groceries. A federal indictment accused La Eme of ordering the 1992 murder of Lizarraga. Lizarraga was a former gang member who was, by an anti-gang counselor.

She played a grandmother in the film. Her murder occurred eight months. Since the film deals with a Latino subculture, the music included in the soundtrack was Latino oriented; the original soundtrack was re

2014–15 IIHF European Women's Champions Cup

The 2014-15 IIHF European Women's Champions Cup was the eleventh competition held for the IIHF European Women's Champions Cup. It was the last holding of the tournament before its scheduled stoppage in 2015. SKIF Nizhny Novgorod of Russia's Women's Hockey League won the tournament for the second time; the tournament was the backdrop to the first instance of the “four-man officiating system” - two referees and two linesmen - being implemented in an IIHF women’s hockey tournament. The first puck-drop with four officials occurred in the Round 2 game between the Vienna Capitals and HC Poprad in Nizhny Novgorod with referees Kaisa Ketonen and Marie Picavet, linesmen Yekaterina Mikhalyova and Olga Steinberg; the first round was played 17-19 October 2014. The winners of each group and the three best runners up out of all of the groups moved on to the next round. Host City: Ankara, Turkey Standings Top Scorers Janka Čulíková, ŽHK Poprad, 10 points Karina Felzink, Aisulu Almaty, 7 points Zarina Tukhtieva, Aisulu Almaty, 6 points Anna Džurňáková, ŽHK Poprad, 5 points Nadezhda Filimonova, Aisulu Almaty, 5 points Group A Best Players Selected by the Directorate Best Goaltender: Tanay Gunay, Milenyum Ankara Best Defenceman: Rayna Cruickshank, Aisulu Almaty Best Forward: Janka Čulíková, ŽHK Poprad Host City: Karviná, Czech Republic Standings Top Scorers Anna Meixner, EHV Sabres Vienna, 10 points Karolina Późniewska, TH Unia Oświęcim, 10 points Pia Pren, EHV Sabres Vienna, 9 points Kaitlin Spurling, EHV Sabres Vienna, 8 points Venla Hovi, EHV Sabres Vienna, 6 points Group B Best Players Selected by the Directorate Best Goaltender: Victoria Vigilanti, EHV Sabres Vienna Best Defenceman: Regan Boulton, EHV Sabres Vienna Best Forward: Anna Meixner, EHV Sabres Vienna Host City: Liepāja, Latvia Standings Top Scorers Maria Olausson, Herlev Hornets, 11 points Silke Glud, Herlev Hornets, 8 points Marie Henriksen, Herlev Hornets, 7 points Agnese Apsīte, SHK Laima Rīga, 5 points Christina Andersen, Herlev Hornets, 5 points Host City: Bolzano, Italy Standings Top Scorers Chelsea Furlani, EV Bozen Eagles, 12 points Anna de la Forest, EV Bozen Eagles, 12 points Eleonora Dalprà, EV Bozen Eagles, 11 points Cindy Debuquet, HC Neuilly-sur-Marne, 8 points Lili Pintér, UTE Marilyn Budapest, 6 points The second round was played 5-7 December 2014.

The winner of each group progressed to the finals. Host City: Nizhny Novgorod, Russia Standings Top Scorers Olga Sosina, SKIF Nizhny Novgorod, 6 points Pia Pren, EHV Sabres Vienna, 5 points Maria Pechnikova, SKIF Nizhny Novgorod, 5 points Aneta Ledlova, SK Karviná, 4 points Anna Meixner, EHV Sabres Vienna, 3 points Group E Best Players Selected by the Directorate Best Goaltender: Meeri Räisänen, SKIF Nizhny Novgorod Best Defenceman: Regan Boulton, EHV Sabres Vienna Best Forward: Karoliina Rantamäki, SKIF Nizhny Novgorod Host City: Lugano, Switzerland Standings Top Scorers Bettina Meyer, HC Lugano, 7 points Silke Glud, HC Lugano, 6 points Sophie Kratzer, ESC Planegg, 6 points Evelina Raselli, HC Lugano, 5 points Kerstin Spielberger, ESC Planegg, 5 points Nicole Gifford, HC Lugano, 5 points Host City: Linköping, Sweden Standings Top Scorers Denise Altmann, Linköpings HC, 8 points Michelle Karvinen, Espoo Blues, 7 points Pernilla Winberg, Linköpings HC, 6 points Minttu Tuominen, Espoo Blues, 4 points Stefanie Marty, Linköpings HC, 4 points Emilia Andersson, Linköpings HC, 4 points Tatyana Koroleva, Aisulu Almaty, 4 points The tournament Finals were held 20–22 February 2015.

The round was hosted in Espoo and all games were played at the Espoonlahti Ice Rink. Stefanie Marty, Linköpings HC, 8 points Denise Altmann, Linköpings HC, 7 points Olga Sosina, SKIF Nizhny Novgorod, 6 points Karoliina Rantamäki, SKIF Nizhny Novgorod, 5 points Pernilla Winberg, Linköpings HC, 5 points Michelle Karvinen, Espoo Blues, 5 points Tournament statistics and data from: "IIHF European Women Champions Cup: Tournament Reports". Webarchive.iihf.com. International Ice Hockey Federation. Retrieved 2019-11-19. "Coupe d'Europe de hockey sur glace féminin 2014/15". Hockeyarchives.info. Retrieved 2019-09-04. "IIHF European Women's Champions Cup 2014/2015 - Summary of the competition". The-sports.org. Retrieved 2019-09-03. 2014–15 EWCC Tournament Reports at the IIHF Webarchives