Herb Roe is a painter of large-scale outdoor murals and classical realist oil paintings. After attending the Columbus College of Art and Design in Columbus, Ohio for a short time, he apprenticed to mural artist Robert Dafford. After 15 years with Dafford Murals, Roe left to pursue his own art career, he resides in Lafayette, Louisiana. Roe was in born 1974 in Ohio, he spent his childhood across the Ohio River in Greenup County, but moved to Portsmouth while in his teens. In 1992 he received a scholarship to the Columbus College of Art and Design in Columbus and attended his freshman year there in 1992 to 1993. In the summer of 1993 he met the Louisiana mural artist Robert Dafford when he started a mural project in Portsmouth. Roe subsequently worked for Dafford for 15 years. During that time Roe worked on Dafford mural projects in Ohio. Subjects painted by Roe as a Dafford muralist include Native American history, early settlers such as Daniel Boone and Simon Kenton, Carnegie Libraries, industries such as river barges and hospitals, labor unions, African-American heritage, local notables such as Rosemary Clooney.
In May 2003 he was photographed painting the Lewis and Clark Expedition mural in Paducah by photographer Jim Roshan as part of the America 24/7 project. The image was used in Roshan's book Kentucky24/7 published in 2004. Roe was the only Dafford muralist to work on all of the Paducah murals, completing several of them by himself. In 2007 Roe left Dafford Murals to pursue his own commissions and devote more time to his own artwork under the name ChromeSun Productions. In 2009 he collaborated with Dafford on a poster project for the Zydeco Cajun Prairie Scenic Byway, in which he did the preliminary digital painting for the design; the year-long project highlights many local spots of interest. In 2010, Roe painted two new murals in Vicksburg. In July, he painted Evening Roll Call in Paducah, a mural depicting the 100-year history of local Boy Scouts of America Troop 1; the mural was dedicated on National Scouting Sunday February 6, 2011 with a parade and other festivities. In the fall of 2010, Roe teamed up with another former Dafford muralist, Benny Graeff, to paint the 55-foot "Run Thru History" mural in Vicksburg, Mississippi.
Roe's current artwork focuses on the traditional southwestern Louisiana Cajun celebration of the Courir de Mardi Gras. It is a series of hyper-realistic depictions of costumed celebrants playing music, dancing on the backs of horses, chasing after chickens. Roe shows acute attention to detail, they are started as Adobe Photoshop sketches based on models and surroundings he has lighted and digitally photographed. His compositions are influenced by classical art, he cites European artists of the sixteenth and seventeenth century Michelangelo, Peter Paul Rubens, Caravaggio as major influences. For his historical murals, he will pick a particular artist or illustrator from the time period he is depicting to emulate. After the composition is decided upon, he transfers it to the painting surface either by scaling the design and doing a grid transfer or with an overhead projector, he paints the murals either with industrial acrylic enamels or the longer lasting silicate mineral paints. His oil paintings are done in a classical realist style, subjects include portraiture, photo-realist abstract compositions, historical illustration.
These oil paintings may contain from three to 20 layers, from underpainting to the final colored glazes. Roe does conservation work on murals. In 2002 Roe was part of an exhibition with artist Wayne Ditch at the Cite des Arts in Lafayette, Louisiana during the Festival International de Louisiane. In 2008 he was included in the Acadiana Center for the Arts "Southern Open", an annual juried show open to residents of Texas, Mississippi and Florida; the juror for the show that year was Peter Frank. Solo Exhibit at the A. I. R. Studio in Paducah, Kentucky in September 2009. Masks & Mayhem – The Courir de Mardi Gras: An exhibit of Roe's oil paintings and graphite drawings of the traditional Cajun Courir de Mardi Gras during February 2012. In 2006 Roe completed three murals in the new Portsmouth High School; the murals depicted the previous high school building, school mascot Trojans welcoming new students into the building, an indoor sports-themed mural at the entrance to the gymnasium. In 2009 Roe completed three sports-themed murals on the new Clark Athletic Complex in Portsmouth, Ohio.
The murals depict the three sports played at the new facility: a baseball game, tennis match, football game. In the summer of 2010 Roe added a new mural to the Paducah Wall to Wall Project, showing the 100-year history of the local Boy Scout troop. Troop 1 is one of only a handful of troops who share their centennial with the centennial of the national scouting organization itself; the dedication for the mural was held on National Scout Sunday, February 6, 2011. Roe teamed up with Benny Graeff, a fellow former Dafford muralist, to paint the 55-foot long "Run thru History" mural in Vicksburg, Mississippi in the fall of 2010; the mural is located across the street from the Vicksburg Riverfront Murals Project on Grove Hill. The mural's subject matter is the annual 10k run through the Vicksburg National Military Park, it shows several prominent monuments from the park. Official Website Interview on "The Exchange" with Cheryl Castille, KRVS The artistic side of the wall Ohio River floodwall murals picture history, color revitalization, The Plain Dea
A mound is a heaped pile of earth, sand, rocks, or debris. Most mounds are earthen formations such as hills and mountains if they appear artificial. A mound may be any rounded area of topographically higher elevation on any surface. Artificial mounds have been created for a variety of reasons throughout history, including ceremonial and commemorative purposes. In the archaeology of the United States and Canada, a mound is a deliberately constructed elevated earthen structure or earthwork, intended for a range of potential uses. In European and Asian archaeology, the word "tumulus" may be used as a synonym for an artificial hill if the hill is related to particular burial customs. While the term "mound" may be applied to historic constructions, most mounds in the United States are pre-Columbian earthworks, built by Native American peoples. Native Americans built a variety of mounds, including flat-topped pyramids or cones known as platform mounds, rounded cones, ridge or loaf-shaped mounds; some mounds took such as the outline of cosmologically significant animals.
These are known as effigy mounds. Some mounds, such as a few in Wisconsin, have rock formations, or petroforms within them, on them, or near them. While these mounds are not as famous as burial mounds, like their European analogs, Native American mounds have a variety of other uses. While some prehistoric cultures, like the Adena culture, used mounds preferentially for burial, others used mounds for other ritual and sacred acts, as well as for secular functions; the platform mounds of the Mississippian culture, for example, may have supported temples, the houses of chiefs, council houses, may have acted as a platform for public speaking. Other mounds would have been part of defensive walls to protect a certain area; the Hopewell culture used mounds as markers of complex astronomical alignments related to ceremonies. Mounds and related earthworks are the only significant monumental construction in pre-Columbian Eastern and Central North America. Mounds are given different names depending on, they can be located all across the world in spots such as Asia and the Americas.
"Mound builders" have more been associated with the mounds in the Americas. They all have different meanings and sometimes are constructed as animals and can be seen from aerial views. Kankali Tila is a famous mound located at Mathura in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. A Jain stupa was excavated here in 1890-91 by Dr. Fuhrer. Mound, as a technical term in archaeology, is not in favor in the rest of the world. More specific local terminology is preferred, each of these terms has its own article. Cairn Chambered cairn Effigy mound Kofun Platform mound Subglacial mound Tell Tumulus Bank barrow Bell barrow Bowl barrow Chambered long barrow Kurgan Long barrow Oval barrow List of burial mounds in the United States Fort Ancient Kofun period Kurgan hypothesis Mississippian Period Neolithic Europe Olmec La Venta San Jose Mogote Petroform Pyramid Prehistoric Britain Stupa Woodland Period Crystal River Archaeological State Park ZigguratAnimalsMound-building termites The dictionary definition of mound at Wiktionary "Mound".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. 1911
Mesoamerican pyramids or pyramid-shaped structures form a prominent part of ancient Mesoamerican architecture. Although similar to each other in some ways these New World structures with their flat tops and their stairs bear only a weak architectural resemblance to Egyptian pyramids; the Mesoamerican region's largest pyramid by volume – the largest pyramid in the world by volume – is the Great Pyramid of Cholula, in the east-central Mexican state of Puebla. The builders of certain classic Mesoamerican pyramids have decorated them copiously with stories about the Hero Twins, the feathered serpent Quetzalcoatl, Mesoamerican creation myths, ritualistic sacrifice, etc.written in the form of hieroglyphs on the rises of the steps of the pyramids, on the walls, on the sculptures contained within. The Aztecs, a people with a rich mythology and cultural heritage, dominated central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, their capital was Tenochtitlan on the shore of Lake Texcoco – the site of modern-day Mexico City.
They were related to the preceding cultures in the basin of Mexico such as the culture of Teotihuacan whose building style they adopted and adapted. El Tepozteco Malinalco Santa Cecilia Acatitlan Templo Mayor Tenayuca Tenochtitlan The Maya are a people of southern Mexico and northern Central America with some 3,000 years of history. Archaeological evidence shows the Maya started to build ceremonial architecture 3,000 years ago; the earliest monuments consisted of simple burial mounds, the precursors to the spectacular stepped pyramids from the Terminal Pre-classic period and beyond. These pyramids relied on intricate carved stone. Many of these structures featured a top platform upon which a smaller dedicatory building was constructed, associated with a particular Maya deity. Maya pyramid-like structures were erected to serve as a place of interment for powerful rulers. Maya pyramidal structures occur in a great variety of forms and functions, bounded by regional and periodical differences. Aguateca Altun Ha Calakmul Caracol Chichen Itza Cholula Comalcalco Copan Dos Pilas Edzna El Mirador El Tigre La Danta Kaminaljuyu Lamanai La Venta Los Monos Lubaantun Moral_Reforma Nim Li Punit Palenque: Temple of the Inscriptions Tazumal Tikal: Tikal Temple I.
The region is inhabited by the modern descendants of the Purépecha. Purépechan architecture is noted for "T"-shaped step pyramids known as yácatas. Tzintzuntzan The Teotihuacan civilization, which flourished from around 300 BCE to 500 CE, at its greatest extent included most of Mesoamerica. Teotihuacano culture collapsed around 550 and was followed by several large city-states such as Xochicalco and the ceremonial site of Tula. El Castillo & High Priest's Temple in Chichen Itza Pyramids of the Sun, the Moon and Temple of the Feathered Serpent in Teotihuacan Xochicalco Tula Talud-tablero The site called Tula, the Toltec capitol, in the state of Mexico is one of the best preserved five-tier pyramids in Mesoamerican civilization; the ground plan of the site has two pyramids, Pyramid B and Pyramid C. The best known Classic Veracruz pyramid, the Pyramid of Niches in El Tajín, is smaller than those of their neighbours and successors but more intricate. El Tajín The Zapotecs were one of the earliest Mesoamerican cultures and held sway over the Valley of Oaxaca region from the early first millennium BCE to about the 14th century.
Monte Albán Mitla The following sites are from northern Mesoamerica, built by cultures whose ethnic affiliations are unknown: This astronomical and ceremonial center was the product of the Chalchihuite culture. Its occupation and development had a period of 800 years; this zone is considered an important archaeological center because of the astonishing, accurate functions of the edifications. The ones that stand out the most are: The Moon Plaza, The Votive Pyramid, the Ladder of Gamio and The labyrinth. In The Labyrinth you can appreciate with precision and accuracy, the respective equinoxes and the seasons. A great quantity of buildings were constructed on artificial terraces upon the slopes of a hill; the materials used here include stone clay. The most important structures are: The Hall of Columns, The Ball Court, The Votive Pyramid, The Palace and the Barracks. On the most elevated part of the hill is The Fortress; this is composed of a small pyramid and a platform, encircled by a wall, more than 800m long and up to six feet high.
La Quemada was occupied from 800 to 1200. Their founders and occupants have not been identified with certainty but belonged to either the Chalchihuites culture or that of the neighbouring Malpaso culture. List of Mesoamerican pyramids Egyptian pyramids Mesoamerican architecture Pyramid Platform mound South American pyramids Step pyramid Triadic pyramid Ziggurat Meso-American pyramids Photos and descriptions of Yaxha, Edzna, El Mirador and other Meso-American pyramids
A charnel house is a vault or building where human skeletal remains are stored. They are built near churches for depositing bones that are unearthed while digging graves; the term can be used more as a description of a place filled with death and destruction. In countries where ground suitable for burial was scarce, corpses would be interred for five years following death, thereby allowing decomposition to occur. After this, the remains would be exhumed and moved to an ossuary or charnel house, thereby allowing the original burial place to be reused. In modern times, the use of charnel houses is a characteristic of cultures living in rocky or arid places, such as the Cyclades archipelago and other Greek islands in the Aegean Sea. Saint Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai is famous for having a working charnel house. Saint Catherine's was founded by Justinian in the early 6th century, on the site of an older monastery founded about 313 AD and named for Helena of Constantinople; the monastery comprises the whole Autonomous Church of Sinai, under the Patriarchate of Jerusalem.
The site lies at the foot of Mount Sinai where Christians believe Moses received the Ten Commandments. Since the Sinai is an inhospitable place, the brethren of St. Catherine's have struggled to eke out a subsistence-level existence; the difficulty in establishing a large cemetery in the rocky ground notwithstanding, relics are gathered for temporal and spiritual reasons: a reminder to the monks of their impending death and fate in the hereafter. The Archbishop of Saint Catherine's is the Abbot as well. After death, he is afforded the dignity of a special niche within the "Skull-House". A charnel house is a structure seen in some Native American societies of the Eastern United States. Major examples are the Hopewell Mississippian cultures; these houses were used for mortuary services and, although they required many more resources to build and maintain than a crypt, they were used. They offered shelter as well as enough workspace for mortuary proceedings; these proceedings included cremation as well as defleshing of the body before the cremation.
Once the houses had served their purpose, they were burned to the ground and covered by earth, creating a sort of burial mound. Anthropologist William F. Romain in Mysteries of the Hopewell notes that these charnel houses were built in the form of a square, their diagonals could be aligned to the direction of maximum and minimum moon-sets both north and south. Charnel houses do not appear to have been common in England; the earliest reference found to a charnel house was in the parish of St Mary-at-Hill in London, during the sixteenth century. Few other charnel houses are attested in the seventeenth century within overcrowded urban contexts. Mortuary house Ossuary Papaioannou, Evangelos The Monastery of St. Catherine, Sinai, St. Catherine's Monastery: Guidebook, 48 pp. Cairo: Isis Press; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Charnel House". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. Cambridge University Press. P. 947. Media related to Charnel house at Wikimedia Commons
The Hohokam were an ancient Native American culture centered in the present US state of Arizona. The Hohokam are one of the four major cultures of the American Southwest and northern Mexico in Southwestern archaeology. Considered part of the Oasisamerica tradition, the Hohokam established significant trading centers such as at Snaketown, are considered to be the builders of the original canal system around the Phoenix metropolitan area, which the Mormon pioneers rebuilt when they settled the Lehi area of Mesa near Red Mountain. Variant spellings in current, official usage include Hobokam and Huhukam; the Hohokam culture was differentiated from others in the region in the 1930s by archaeologist Harold S. Gladwin, who applied the existing O'odham term for the culture, huhu-kam, meaning "all used up" or "those who are gone", to classify the remains he was excavating in the Lower Gila Valley. According to the National Park Service Website, Hohokam is an O'odham word used by archaeologists to identify a group of people who lived in the Sonoran Desert.
According to local oral tradition, the Hohokam may be the ancestors of the historic Pima and Tohono O'odham peoples in Southern Arizona. Gila and lower Salt River drainages in what is known as the Phoenix basin; this is referred to as opposed to the Hohokam Peripheries. Collectively, the Core and Peripheries formed what is referred to as the Hohokam Regional System, which occupied the northern or Upper Sonoran Desert in what is now Arizona; the Hohokam extended into the Mogollon Rim region. Within a larger context, the Hohokam culture area inhabited a central trade position between the Patayan situated along the Lower Colorado River and in southern California. In North America, the Hohokam were the only culture to rely on irrigation canals to water their crops since as early as 800, their irrigation systems supported the largest population in the Southwest by 1300. Archaeologists working at a major archaeological dig in the 1990s in the Tucson Basin, along the Santa Cruz River, identified a culture and people that were ancestors of the Hohokam who might have occupied southern Arizona as early as 2000 BCE.
This prehistoric group from the Early Agricultural Period grew corn, lived year-round in sedentary villages, developed sophisticated irrigation canals. The Hohokam used the waters of the Salt and Gila Rivers and constructed an assortment of simple canals combined with weirs in their various agricultural pursuits. Since the 9th century and extending into the 15th century, they maintained what was to become extensive irrigation networks that rivaled the complexity of those used in the ancient Near East and China; these were constructed using simple excavation tools, without the benefit of advanced engineering technologies, achieved drops of a few feet per mile, balancing erosion and siltation. Over 70 years of archaeological research has revealed that the Hohokam cultivated varieties of cotton, maize and squash, as well as harvested a vast assortment of wild plants. Late in the Hohokam Chronological Sequence, they used extensive dry-farming systems to grow agave for food and fiber, their reliance on agricultural strategies based on canal irrigation, vital in their less than hospitable desert environment and arid climate, provided the basis for the aggregation of rural populations into stable urban centers.
Overall, Hohokam villages and smaller settlements can be classified within the ranchería-tradition. Many features of early Hohokam domestic architecture, such as large square or rectangular pithouses, seem to have been transplanted intact from early Formative Period examples first developed in the Tucson basin. But, by the seventh century, a distinct Hohokam architectural tradition emerged. Throughout the Hohokam Chronological Sequence, individual residential structures were excavated 40 cm below ground level, with plastered or compacted floors that covered between 12 and 35 m2, featured a circular, bowl-shaped, clay-lined hearth situated near the wall-entry. Hohokam burial practices varied over time; the primary method employed was flexed inhumation, similar to the tradition used by the southern Mogollon culture, located to the east. In the late Formative and Preclassic periods, the Hohokam cremated their dead, again strikingly similar to the traditions documented among the historic Patayan culture situated to the west along the Lower Colorado River.
Although the particulars of the practice changed somewhat, the Hohokam cremation tradition remained dominant until around 1300. At this time, extended inhumation, similar to that used by the Salado tradition to the north and northeast, was adopted. Many of the details of the late Hohokam burial patterns were similar to the tradition practiced by the historic Tohono and Akimel O'odham; as an archaeological construct, the Hohokam chronological sequence uses a culture history-based period/phase scheme designed to provide a narrative of what has been perceived as a sequence of significant cultural change. Overall, the reason the HCS is confusing is that two primary methods of expressing this information are used, within this context, a vast plethora of theoretical variants have been posited. Only the two
Mesoamerica is a historical region and cultural area in North America. It extends from central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and northern Costa Rica, within this region pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas. In the 16th century, European diseases like smallpox and measles caused the deaths of upwards of 90% of the indigenous people, it is one of five areas in the world where ancient civilization arose independently, the second in the Americas along with Norte Chico in present-day Peru, in the northern coastal region. As a cultural area, Mesoamerica is defined by a mosaic of cultural traits developed and shared by its indigenous cultures. Beginning as early as 7000 BCE, the domestication of cacao, beans, avocado, vanilla and chili, as well as the turkey and dog, caused a transition from paleo-Indian hunter-gatherer tribal grouping to the organization of sedentary agricultural villages. In the subsequent Formative period and cultural traits such as a complex mythological and religious tradition, a vigesimal numeric system, a complex calendric system, a tradition of ball playing, a distinct architectural style, were diffused through the area.
In this period, villages began to become stratified and develop into chiefdoms with the development of large ceremonial centers, interconnected by a network of trade routes for the exchange of luxury goods, such as obsidian, cacao, Spondylus shells and ceramics. While Mesoamerican civilization did know of the wheel and basic metallurgy, neither of these technologies became culturally important. Among the earliest complex civilizations was the Olmec culture, which inhabited the Gulf Coast of Mexico and extended inland and southwards across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Frequent contact and cultural interchange between the early Olmec and other cultures in Chiapas and Oaxaca laid the basis for the Mesoamerican cultural area. All this was facilitated by considerable regional communications in ancient Mesoamerica along the Pacific coast; this formative period saw the spread of distinct religious and symbolic traditions, as well as artistic and architectural complexes. In the subsequent Preclassic period, complex urban polities began to develop among the Maya, with the rise of centers such as El Mirador and Tikal, the Zapotec at Monte Albán.
During this period, the first true Mesoamerican writing systems were developed in the Epi-Olmec and the Zapotec cultures, the Mesoamerican writing tradition reached its height in the Classic Maya hieroglyphic script. Mesoamerica is one of only three regions of the world where writing is known to have independently developed. In Central Mexico, the height of the Classic period saw the ascendancy of the city of Teotihuacan, which formed a military and commercial empire whose political influence stretched south into the Maya area and northward. Upon the collapse of Teotihuacán around 600 AD, competition between several important political centers in central Mexico, such as Xochicalco and Cholula, ensued. At this time during the Epi-Classic period, the Nahua peoples began moving south into Mesoamerica from the North, became politically and culturally dominant in central Mexico, as they displaced speakers of Oto-Manguean languages. During the early post-Classic period, Central Mexico was dominated by the Toltec culture, Oaxaca by the Mixtec, the lowland Maya area had important centers at Chichén Itzá and Mayapán.
Towards the end of the post-Classic period, the Aztecs of Central Mexico built a tributary empire covering most of central Mesoamerica. The distinct Mesoamerican cultural tradition ended with the Spanish conquest in the 16th century. Over the next centuries, Mesoamerican indigenous cultures were subjected to Spanish colonial rule. Aspects of the Mesoamerican cultural heritage still survive among the indigenous peoples who inhabit Mesoamerica, many of whom continue to speak their ancestral languages, maintain many practices harking back to their Mesoamerican roots; the term Mesoamerica means "middle America" in Greek. Middle America refers to a larger area in the Americas, but it has previously been used more narrowly to refer to Mesoamerica. An example is the title of the 16 volumes of The Handbook of Middle American Indians. "Mesoamerica" is broadly defined as the area, home to the Mesoamerican civilization, which comprises a group of peoples with close cultural and historical ties. The exact geographic extent of Mesoamerica has varied through time, as the civilization extended North and South from its heartland in southern Mexico.
The term was first used by the German ethnologist Paul Kirchhoff, who noted that similarities existed among the various pre-Columbian cultures within the region that included southern Mexico, Belize, El Salvador, western Honduras, the Pacific lowlands of Nicaragua and northwestern Costa Rica. In the tradition of cultural history, the prevalent archaeological theory of the early to middle 20th century, Kirchhoff defined this zone as a cultural area based on a suite of interrelated cultural similarities brought about by millennia of inter- and intra-regional interaction. Mesoamerica is recognized as a near-prototypical cultural area, the term is now integrated in the standard terminology of pre-Columbian anthropological studies. Conversely, the sister terms Aridoamerica and Oasisamerica, which refer to northern Mexico and the western United States have not entered into widespread usage; some of the significant cultural traits defining the Mesoamerican cultural tradition are: sedentism based on maize agricultu
The Etowah plates, including the Rogan Plates, are a collection of Mississippian copper plates discovered in Mound C at the Etowah Indian Mounds near Cartersville, Georgia. Many of the plates display iconography that archaeologists have classified as part of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex "Birdman" imagery associated with warriors and the priestly elite; the plates are a combination of foreign imports and local items manufactured in emulation of the imported style. The designs of the Rogan plates are in the Classic Braden style from the American Bottom area, it is thought that some of the plates were manufactured at Cahokia before ending up at sites in the Southeast. The plates are similar to a number of other plates found in locations across the southeastern and midwestern United States, including the plates of the Wulfing cache found in southeast Missouri and the numerous plates found in the mortuary chamber of the Craig Mound at the Spiro site in eastern Oklahoma; the designs of the plates from these locations, together with the iconography found on artifacts at the Moundville Archaeological Site in Hale County, were the basis from which archaeologists developed the concept of the S.
E. C. C. Beginning in 1945; the two most famous of the Rogan plates, Catalogue No. A91117 and A91113, Department of Anthropology, NMNH, were interred as a pair and are similar to one another, they were discovered in 1885 in a stone box grave by John P. Rogan during excavations of Mound C at the Etowah near Cartersville, Georgia; the first is 20 inches and the second 16 inches in height. Holes in the plates suggest; these plates are stylistically associated with the Greater Braden Style and are thought to have been made in copper workshops at Cahokia in the 13th century. The two plates depict a character known as the "Birdman or falcon dancer", a figure now identified as representing the Upper World in the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex; each of the figures is in an energetic stance dancing. They have upraised right arms holding ceremonial stone maces and lowered left arms holding severed heads. On the figures' heads are elaborate headdresses with bi-lobed arrow motifs and beaded forelocks. On the front of the headdress, in the forehead area, is a rectangular object, thought by scholars to represent a sacred medicine bundle.
Each figure has a long sash hanging from a belt and a motif known as the "bellows apron" attached at the waist. This is thought to represent a "scalp", as the ornament has the same sort of bundle as the figures wear in their hair, attached to a shape interpreted as hair; the faces of the severed heads have the forked eye motif, in contrast to the faces of the figures. Since the 1990s, research in various fields has shown that many of the attributes and the persona of the Birdman were represented in the figure of Red Horn; this is a mythic figure of the historic Ioway and Hocąk nations, both among the Siouan language-speaking peoples of the Great Plains. Three of the Rogan plates are avian beings, similar to plates from the Wulfing cache from southeast Missouri, although they are not stylistically close enough to be considered in the Malden style; the first was found in the bottom of a stone box grave with a bundled set of bones. Although fragmentary, the avian being shows evidence of having the Forked Eye motif, simple lined collar, the scalloped wing design of the Malden plates.
It differs in that the head faces to the left, the ventral spots on the chest are a different number and are in a different pattern. The legs are in a different position, sticking outward from the body instead of straight down; the wings of the Rogan plate differ from the Malden style in that there are more feathers, the axillary feathers at the top of the wing are represented by a different pattern, the scalloped markings on the wings are not staggered as they are in the Wulfing plates. A second plate represents "fighting birds"; the plates have been associated with the introduction of a new religion into the Etowah area during the Early Wilbanks Phase. The abandoned site was repopulated and the residents began a new building scheme of platform mounds and elite burials; this new religion relates to the reported Muskhogean myth of the Cult-Bringer. Anthropologists and archaeologists have identified the religion with the S. E. C. C; the Cult-Bringer is an anthropomorphic supernatural being who comes to the Muscogee people and brings a new religion, lives with the people for a time, imparts his wisdom to them before dying.
This being is directly linked to brass and copper plates said to have been imbued with supernatural power. The elite of Etowah based their political power on this new ideology and used it as a mythical charter for their control over their society. Using the themes of physical prowess and the afterlife, they identified with the Birdman ideology and displayed this symbolically through the wearing of special shell gorgets and the repoussé copper plates. Since the majority of the copper plates found in Mound C were near the skulls of the buried remains, archaeologists believe they were used as headdresses. Another batch of plates were found by Warren K. Moorehead during a series of excavations into Mound C in 1925. Many of these other plates are in a different style, they indicate that local arti