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PlayStation 2

The PlayStation 2 is a home video game console developed and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It was first released in Japan on March 4, 2000, in North America on October 26, 2000, in Europe and Australia on November 24, 2000, is the successor to the original PlayStation, as well as the second installment in the PlayStation console line-up. A sixth-generation console, it competed with Sega's Dreamcast, Nintendo's GameCube, Microsoft's original Xbox. Announced in 1999, the PS2 offered backward-compatibility for its predecessor's DualShock controller, as well as its games; the PS2 is the best-selling video game console of all time, having sold over 155 million units worldwide, as confirmed by Sony. Over 3,800 game titles have been released with over 1.5 billion copies sold. Sony manufactured several smaller, lighter revisions of the console known as Slimline models in 2004. With the release of its successor, the PlayStation 3, the PS2 remained popular well into the seventh generation, continued to be produced until 2013, when Sony announced it had been discontinued after over twelve years of production – one of the longest lifespans of a video game console.

Despite the announcement, new games for the console continued to be produced until the end of 2013, including Final Fantasy XI: Seekers of Adoulin for Japan, FIFA 13 for North America, Pro Evolution Soccer 2014 for Europe. Repair services for the system in Japan ended on September 7, 2018. Though Sony has kept details of the PlayStation 2's development secret, work on the console began around the time that the original PlayStation was released. Insiders stated that it was developed in the U. S. West Coast by former members of Argonaut Software. By 1997 word had leaked to the press that the console would have backward-compatibility with the original PlayStation, a built-in DVD player, Internet connectivity. Sony announced the PlayStation 2 on March 1, 1999; the video game console was positioned as a competitor to Sega's Dreamcast, the first sixth-generation console to be released, although the main rivals of the PS2 were Nintendo's GameCube and Microsoft's Xbox. The Dreamcast itself launched successfully in North America that year, selling over 500,000 units within two weeks.

Soon after the Dreamcast's North American launch, Sony unveiled the PlayStation 2 at the Tokyo Game Show on September 20, 1999. Sony showed playable demos of upcoming PlayStation 2 games including Gran Turismo 2000 and Tekken Tag Tournament – which showed the console's graphic abilities and power; the PS2 was launched in March 2000 in Japan, October in North America, November in Europe. Sales of the console and accessories pulled in $250 million on the first day, beating the $97 million made on the first day of the Dreamcast. Directly after its release, it was difficult to find PS2 units on retailer shelves due to manufacturing delays. Another option was purchasing the console online through auction websites such as eBay, where people paid over a thousand dollars for the console; the PS2 sold well on the basis of the strength of the PlayStation brand and the console's backward-compatibility, selling over 980,000 units in Japan by March 5, 2000, one day after launch. This allowed the PS2 to tap the large install base established by the PlayStation – another major selling point over the competition.

Sony added new development kits for game developers and more PS2 units for consumers. The PS2's built-in functionality expanded its audience beyond the gamer, as its debut pricing was the same or less than a standalone DVD player; this made the console a low cost entry into the home theater market. The success of the PS2 at the end of 2000 caused Sega problems both financially and competitively, Sega announced the discontinuation of the Dreamcast in March 2001, just 18 months after its successful Western launch. Despite the Dreamcast still receiving support through 2001, the PS2 remained the only sixth generation console for over 6 months before it faced competition from new rivals: Nintendo's GameCube and Microsoft's Xbox. Many analysts predicted a close three-way matchup among the three consoles; the Xbox had the most powerful hardware, while the GameCube was the least expensive console, Nintendo changed its policy to encourage third-party developers. While the PlayStation 2 theoretically had the weakest specification of the three, it had a head start due to its installed base plus strong developer commitment, as well as a built-in DVD player.

While the PlayStation 2's initial games lineup was considered mediocre, this changed during the 2001 holiday season with the release of several blockbuster games that maintained the PS2's sales momentum and held off its newer rivals. Sony countered the Xbox by temporarily securing PlayStation 2 exclusives for anticipated games such as the Grand Theft Auto series and Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Sony cut the price of the console in May 2002 from US$299 to $199 in North America, making it the same price as the GameCube and $100 less than the Xbox, it planned to cut the price in Japan around that time. It cut the price twice in Japan in 2003. In 2006, Sony cut the cost of the console in anticipation of the release of the PlayStation 3. Sony, unlike Sega with its Dreamcast placed little emphasis on online gaming during its first few years, although that changed upon the launch of the online-capable Xbox. Coinciding with the release of Xbox Live, Sony released the PlayStation Network Adapter in late 2002, with several online first–party titles released alongside it, such as SOCOM: U.

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Consumer import of prescription drugs

Consumer import of prescription drugs refers to an individual person a patient, getting prescription drugs from a foreign country for their own personal use in their own country. People might have drugs shipped to them from online pharmacies, they may travel internationally for the purpose of medical tourism, purchase drugs there to be used back home. Individual consumers will only consider seeking drugs from other countries if they have some barrier to access in their own country. One barrier to access is high local prices compared to other markets. Another barrier to access could be legal restrictions preventing an individual from getting a drug they want or need. In some markets, drug prices are influenced by the prices in other, nearby markets. In Europe, for example and travel to different countries, the price of a certain drug in one country affects the price in other, nearby countries. Having this kind of competitive exchange can keep prices low, but it can lead to lowered drug accessibility.

Sometimes a manufacturer may choose not to offer a drug in one market, to ensure success in selling the drug at a higher price in a different market. Businesses and drug retailers wish to control the supply of pharmaceuticals in their own marketplace; as such, if low-cost drugs entered a market from other lower-cost territories, what might develop is pure price-based selling. The TRIPS agreement is an example of a World Trade Organization treaty which regulates how drugs can be traded in the international marketplace; some developing countries might receive access to lower-cost drugs through compulsory licenses. Compulsory licenses affect markets outside the country. Drugs which are legal in one place may not be legal in another. People in the United States have easy access to Canada; the quality of medicine in Canada is comparable to that of the United States. Drug prices are much lower in Canada than in the United States. To save money, some consumers in the United States seek to purchase drugs in Canada.

Different people have published different perspectives on this practice. One major on-line supplier, Canada Drugs, announced its closure on July 13, 2018 as part of an agreement with the U. S. Department of Justice. Consumers may feel that prescription drugs which are available to multiple countries to be of equivalent quality, feel comfortable buying and using drugs by choosing to purchase from the country which offers the drugs at the lowest price. Governments oversee the import of prescription drugs so bringing a prescription drug from a foreign country could be Illegal drug trade

List of video game websites

This is a list of video gaming-related websites. A video game is an electronic game that involves human interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor; the word video in video game traditionally referred to a raster display device, but it now implies any type of display device that can produce two- or three-dimensional images. List of video game webcomics Lists of video games Playing to Learn: Video Games in the Classroom. Pp. 229–230. From Gamer to Game Designer. Pp. 278–279. "Development and validation of an instrument to evaluate the content effectiveness of video games: a pilot study". "Most video game websites and magazines offer their own classifications...." "Introduction to video games, their publishers, social responsibility concerning video game addiction". P. 6