PlayStation Vita

The PlayStation Vita is a handheld video game console developed and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It was first released in Japan on December 17, 2011, in North America and other international territories beginning on February 22, 2012; the console is the successor to the PlayStation Portable, a part of the PlayStation brand of gaming devices. The original model of the handheld includes a 5-inch OLED multi-touch capacitive touchscreen, two analog joysticks, front and shoulder push-button input, supports Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, optional 3G. Internally, the Vita features a quad-core ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore processor and a quad-core SGX543MP graphics processing unit; the PS Vita 2000 series, a revised version of the system, was released across 2013 and 2014, sports all of the same features with a smaller size, extended battery life, an LCD screen replacing the OLED display. Sony released the PlayStation TV, a short-lived, re-purposed version of the Vita that allowed for the play of PS Vita games on a television screen similar to a home video game console, though the PS TV variant was discontinued by the end of 2015.

The system's design was created to meld the experience of big budget, dedicated video game platforms with the up-and-coming trend of mobile gaming through smart phones and tablets. However, in the year after the device's successful launch, sales of the hardware and its bigger budget games stalled, threatening to end its lifespan. A concentrated effort to attract smaller independent developers in the West, combined with strong support from mid-level Japanese companies, helped keep the platform afloat. While this led to less diversity in its game library, it did garner strong support in JRPGs and visual novels, alongside a wealth of Western-developed indie games, leading it to become a moderate seller in Japan, build a smaller, yet passionate userbase in the West. While Sony has not released exact sales figures, late-lifespan estimates in sales fall around 15 to 16 million units. In the platform's years, Sony promoted the PlayStation Vita's ability to work in conjunction with its other gaming products, notably the ability to play PlayStation 4 games on it through the process of Remote Play, similar to the Wii U's function of Off-TV Play.

Production of the system and physical cartridge games ended in March 2019. After the massive success of Nintendo's Game Boy line of handheld game consoles throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, with little in the way of market competition, Sony's massive success with its PlayStation and PlayStation 2 home video game consoles around the same time, Sony decided to enter the handheld market as well. In 2004, it released the PlayStation Portable to compete with the Nintendo DS as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles. After a slow start in the worldwide market, it was invigorated in Japan with multiple releases in the Monster Hunter series. With the series being less popular in western regions, it failed to revive the platform in the same way; the PSP ended up being a mixed result for the company. It was seen as a success in that it was the only handheld video game platform that had significantly competed with Nintendo for market share in a meaningful way, selling 80 million units in its lifespan the same amount as Nintendo's Game Boy Advance had during the sixth generation of video game consoles.

Despite this, it had still only managed to sell a little over half of what its actual market competitor, the DS, had sold, over 150 million units by the end of 2011. Rumors of a successor to the PSP came as early as July 2009 when Eurogamer reported that Sony was working on such a device, which would utilize the PowerVR SGX543MP processor and perform at a level similar to the original Xbox. Through mid-2010, websites continued to run stories about accounts of the existence of a "PSP 2". Reports arose during the Tokyo Game Show that the device was unveiled internally during a private meeting during mid-September held at Sony Computer Entertainment's headquarters in Aoyama, Tokyo. Shortly after, reports of development kits for the handheld had already been shipped to numerous video game developers including both first-party and third-party developers to start making games for the device, a report confirmed by Mortal Kombat Executive Producer Shaun Himmerick. By November, Senior Vice President of Electronic Arts, Patrick Soderlund, confirmed that he had seen that the PlayStation Portable successor existed, but could not confirm details.

In the same month, VG247 released pictures of an early prototype version showing a PSP Go-like slide-screen design along with two analog sticks, two cameras and a microphone, though the report mentioned that overheating issues had since caused them to move away from the design in favor of a model more similar to the original PlayStation Portable device. Throughout 2010, Sony would not confirm these reports of a PSP successor, but would make comments regarding making future hardware. Shuhei Yoshida, President of Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios revealed that his studio, despite being more involved with software, had a continued role in future hardware development at the time. In December, Sony Computer Entertainment CEO Kazuo Hirai stated that Sony aimed to appeal to a wide demographic of people by using multiple input methods on future hardware; the device was announced by Sony on January 27, 2011, at their "PlayStation Meeting" press conference held by the company in Japan. The system, only known by its c

Oshri Cohen

Oshri Cohen is an Israeli actor. He started out as a child at the Beit Lessin Theater in Tel Aviv. In 2006 Cohen won the Israeli Theater's award for "Promise of the Year" for his role in The Indian patient. Today he is a part of the Israel national theater "Habima" with a play called: All His Life in Front of Him, based on a French novel. In addition to television roles, Cohen has performed in films such as Bonjour Monsieur Shlomi and Campfire. In 2007 Cohen starred in the Israeli war film Beaufort, which tells the true story of the last unit of soldiers on the legendary Beaufort outpost, he has starred in Lost Islands and Lebanon, which won the Golden Lion at the 66th Venice International Film Festival. Cohen play guest role of Igal in the fifth season of the American TV series Homeland. In 2018 he starred as Joseph in the BBC/AMC drama McMafia. Oshri Cohen on IMDb Oshri Cohen at Zohar agency website

The Reform Jewish cantorate during the 19th century

The modern Reform Cantorate is seen as a result of developments that took place during the 19th century in Europe. The process continued to evolve in America following the emigration of German Reform Jews towards the end of the century. We may attribute these events to a new dialectic obtaining between Jews who saw themselves as reformers and the views held at the time by the majority of Jews in the world. Although a modernist tendency was present within European Jewish thought, the French Revolution and its aftermath gave free rein to those who wished to remake Judaism based on the new relationship Judaism had with Western society; the novel experience of life "as citizens" was for Jews, as if a mirror had been cast in front of them. They appraised themselves in relation to non-Jews as they never had before and felt the need to accommodate the new situation in religious as well as in civic life....ancient Jewish ritual practices stood in pale contrast to the enlightened modern church. The church offered participatory rites punctuated by the singing of moving hymns by the congregation and impressive performances by professional choirs singing the glorious music of Bach and Mozart—complete with stirring instrumental accompaniments.

The synagogue offered unaccompanied Eastern chants known only to a limited inner circle of chazzanim, recited in an antique backward and incomprehensible language. How could Judaism hope to compete on such a stage? The only possible answer was to reformulate Judaism to suit the sensibilities of the modern era; the model for change tended to be the staid Protestant service. The Orthodox service marked by its fervor changed into a "modern" synagogue ritual in an attempt to achieve the decorum, thought to go with recognition by the state. Many aspects of the way in which prayer was rendered changed rapidly. "Unsuitable traditional singing which interrupts the prayer" was curtailed, congregants were "reminded and ordered to follow the cantor's prayers and silently"Rather than rabbis, the first figures to make and attempt reform were laymen. The first successful reformer of synagogue ritual was Israel Jacobson, a wealthy and influential merchant, his goal was to reform ritual as well as religious education of the Jews in Germany.

In Seesen in 1810, he erected the first Reform temple on the grounds of a boys' school. Many innovations were based on the Christian model; the temple had a bell used to announce the time of prayer. For the first time sermons were delivered in German. Jacobson was the first to introduce confirmation; as well as taking responsibility for re-arranging the ritual, the music was changed. Jacobson installed an organ. A children's service was set, into which he introduced hymns that used tunes from Protestant chorales; the chanting of the Pentateuch and Prophets and prayers according to traditional modes were discarded. The service was read without chant. Not only were congregants quieted, but the high and low voiced singers who used to accompany the chazzan were replaced by decorous choruses as change spread across the German lands community by community throughout the first half of the nineteenth century. Hymns in German replaced the old piyutim, which began to be proscribed altogether; the pioneer of Jewish musicology A. Z. Idelsohn observes that as long as Jews lived in the belief that their stay in the Diaspora was compulsory galut, as long as it was necessary to hope for a return to Palestine, they instinctively preserved the Semitic-Oriental element in themselves and in their cultural creations.

Again, this self-assessment was altered by their self-appraisal as'citizens' of a nation. The Reform usage of the term'temple' for their places of worship was intended to convey a renunciation of any desire to rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem. Since it was no longer necessary to engender this hope via stylistic elements in their music, Western European melodic and harmonic techniques could be embraced without constraint. Idelsohn explains: reform their Judaism, by which they meant to cut away exotic, Semitic-Oriental parts, retain only that part of Judaism, of a general religious and ethical nature; the idea was so to remodel Judaism that it should not be a stumbling block by reason of its Orientalism and medievalism, that it should be as easy to observe as is Christianity, furthermore, the modern Jew should not be offended by its strangeness and should be attracted by its European exterior. But there was a limit to the amount of change the a liberal congregation would accept. In Berlin, Jacob Herz Beer a banker and sugar manufacturer, the father of the composer Giacomo Meyerbeer opened a temple in his home according to Jacobson's program.

His son arranged the music. But from the beginning, Beer was constrained to engage a chazzan in order to attract a greater audience. Back in Seer, Jacobson acquiesced to public demand and engaged Chazzan Hirsch Goldberg. Together with Julius Freudenthal they modernized synagogue song publishing a collection of solos and two-part choir arrangements. At this point, the new Reform model retained the chazzan's title, but he was beginning to be valued less for his abilities as