A player-coach is a member of a sports team who holds both playing and coaching duties. A player-coach may be an assistant coach, they may make changes to the squad and play on the team. Few current major professional sports teams have head coaches who are players, though it is common for senior players to take a role in managing more junior athletes; when professional sports had less money to pay players and coaches or managers, player-coaches were more common. Where player-coaches exist today, they are more common at, but not exclusive to, the lower levels where money is less available; the player-coach was, for many decades, a long-time fixture in professional basketball. Many notable coaches in the NBA served including Bill Russell and Lenny Wilkens; this was true up through the 1970s, when the league was not as financially successful as it is today, player-coaches were used to save money. The practice fell out of favor in the 1980s. Today, the collective bargaining agreement between the NBA and the players' union prohibits the use of player-coaches, in order to avoid circumventing the league's salary cap, as coaches' salaries are not counted under the cap.

Therefore, if a player is to serve as a coach, he would have to receive commission from his contract as a player. The player is not technically an official coach of his team but instead a coach in name. One example of a player in recent years, groomed for eventual official coaching duties using this practice was Avery Johnson. In the early days of professional American football, player-coaches were a necessity, as coaching from the sidelines at the time was not allowed under the rules of most leagues; the National Football League allowed sideline coaches in the late 1920s, they became the norm. During the 1920s, legendary player-coaches in the NFL include Curly Lambeau and George Halas who held similar roles for the Chicago Bears, a team for which he was part-owner and business manager. Jimmy Conzelman was player-coach for four teams during the 1920s. In the mid-1950s Tom Landry played defensive back while serving as defensive coordinator for the New York Giants. In the early 1970s, when Landry was coach of the Dallas Cowboys, he made running back Dan Reeves a player-coach.

In the television era, pro football evolved into a higher-impact two-platoon game, so players serving as head coaches became impractical. More modern players have acted as player-assistant coaches in an unofficial capacity, such as journeyman quarterback Steve DeBerg, who served as an unofficial mentor for younger, more skilled arms while serving as their backup. With on-field playcalling a function assumed by the coaching staff by the dawn of the 21st Century, quarterbacks such as Peyton Manning, Brett Favre and Tom Brady assumed roles as on-field offensive coordinators by taking leading roles in playcalling and gameplanning. Player-coaches in cricket are unheard of, although professional coaches are a recent innovation and a similar role was filled by the team captain. Internationally, Shane Deitz was appointed non-playing coach of Vanuatu in 2014 and, after meeting the necessary residency qualifications, made his international playing debut in 2018, at the age of 42. Former Australian international Ryan Campbell was appointed as a non-playing batting coach of Hong Kong in 2013, after meeting the residency qualifications made his playing debut for Hong Kong in 2016, at the age of 44.

In association football, this situation arises when a manager leaves a team and the chairman has to make a quick decision to appoint someone new as a caretaker manager. The chairman will either ask a coach to take temporary charge or turn to one of the club's most senior players. If this particular player gains good results for the team during his time in charge, he may be appointed full-time manager, which leaves him a player–manager. However, there are instances when a free agent is appointed by a new team as a manager and offers his playing abilities. Notable football player–managers include Kenny Dalglish, Graeme Souness, Glenn Hoddle, Bryan Robson, Peter Reid, Ruud Gullit, Wayne Rooney and Gianluca Vialli. Dalglish won a double of the league title and FA Cup in his first season as player-manager, continued to win two more league titles and an FA Cup before retiring from playing five years after becoming manager. Souness won three Scottish league titles and several cup competitions when he was player-manager of Rangers.

He succeeded Dalglish as Liverpool manager just before Rangers won another Scottish league title, but at the age of 38 he did not register himself as a player for Liverpool. In 1997, Ruud Gullit won the FA Cup with Chelsea in his first season as player-manager making history by being the first foreign and non-white manager to win a major trophy in English football, he was sacked nine months and Chelsea appointed another player-manager in his place. Within weeks of taking over, Vialli guided Chelsea to victory in the League Cup, two months after that, they won the European Cup Winners' Cup. A number of bigger clubs have appointed player-managers on a temporary basis but

Electoral district of Doncaster

The Electoral district of Doncaster was a metropolitan electorate of the Victorian Legislative Assembly, located 13 kilometres north-east of Melbourne. It was part of the Upper House Eastern Metropolitan Region and sat within the City of Manningham, it was abolished and divided between the Electoral district of Bulleen and the Electoral district of Warrandyte Doncaster covered 25 square kilometres and comprised the majority of the suburbs of Doncaster, Doncaster East and Donvale, excluding portions of the northern parts of these suburbs, which all lie within the City of Manningham in Melbourne's eastern suburbs. A residential suburban electorate, Doncaster was a moderately hilly area north of the Koonung Creek and west of the Mullum Mullum Creek, its urban features included predominantly low-density suburban dwellings and reserves, shopping centres and an abundance of sports amenities. Prior to 1976, the area of Doncaster/Templestowe was included in the seats of South Bourke, Evelyn and Box Hill.

In 1976 increasing population led to the split-up of the seat of Box Hill into Doncaster and Box Hill. Doncaster district - Victorian Electoral Commission

Gianna Michaels

Gianna Michaels is an American former pornographic actress. Michaels was born in Washington, she started in the adult industry as a nude model moving on to pornography. 2006 XRCO Award – Best On-Screen Chemistry 2007 AVN AwardBest Group Sex Scene, Video – 12-person group scene 2007 FICEB Ninfa Award – Most Original Sex Sequence with Belladonna, Jenna Haze, Sandra Romain, Rocco Siffredi & 7 others 2008 AVN Award – Unsung Starlet of the Year 2008 AVN Award – Best Sex Scene in a Foreign-Shot Production – 10-person group scene 2008 AVN Award – Best All-Sex Release 2011 Urban X Award – Best Three-Way Sex Scene with Sophie Dee & Justin Long Official website Gianna Michaels on IMDb Gianna Michaels at the Internet Adult Film Database Gianna Michaels at the Adult Film Database