A casino is a facility which houses and accommodates certain types of gambling activities. The industry that deals in casinos is called the gaming industry. Casinos are most built near or combined with hotels, retail shopping, cruise ships or other tourist attractions. There is much debate over whether the social and economic consequences of casino gambling outweigh the initial revenue that may be generated; some casinos are known for hosting live entertainment events, such as stand-up comedy and sporting events. The term "casino" is a confusing linguistic false friend for translators. Casino is of Italian origin; the term casino may mean summerhouse, or social club. During the 19th century, the term casino came to include other public buildings where pleasurable activities took place. In modern-day Italian a casino is either a brothel, a mess, or a noisy environment, while a gaming house is spelt casinò, with an accent. Not all casinos were used for gaming; the Catalina Casino, a famous landmark overlooking Avalon Harbor on Santa Catalina Island, has never been used for traditional games of chance, which were outlawed in California by the time it was built.
The Copenhagen Casino was a theatre, known for the mass public meetings held in its hall during the 1848 Revolution, which made Denmark a constitutional monarchy. Until 1937, it was a well-known Danish theatre; the Hanko Casino in Hanko, Finland—one of that town's most conspicuous landmarks—was never used for gambling. Rather, it was a banquet hall for the Russian nobility which frequented this spa resort in the late 19th century and is now used as a restaurant. In military and non-military usage in German and Spanish, a casino or kasino is an officers' mess; the precise origin of gambling is unknown. It is believed that gambling in some form or another has been seen in every society in history. From the Ancient Greeks and Romans to Napoleon's France and Elizabethan England, much of history is filled with stories of entertainment based on games of chance; the first known European gambling house, not called a casino although meeting the modern definition, was the Ridotto, established in Venice, Italy in 1638 by the Great Council of Venice to provide controlled gambling during the carnival season.
It was closed in 1774. In American history, early gambling establishments were known as saloons; the creation and importance of saloons was influenced by four major cities: New Orleans, St. Louis and San Francisco, it was in the saloons that travelers could find people to talk to, drink with, gamble with. During the early 20th century in America, gambling became outlawed and banned by state legislation and social reformers of the time. However, in 1931, gambling was legalized throughout the state of Nevada. America's first legalized casinos were set up in those places. In 1976 New Jersey allowed gambling in Atlantic City, now America's second largest gambling city. Most jurisdictions worldwide have a minimum gambling age. Customers gamble by playing games of chance, in some cases with an element of skill, such as craps, baccarat and video poker. Most games played have mathematically determined odds that ensure the house has at all times an overall advantage over the players; this can be expressed more by the notion of expected value, uniformly negative.
This advantage is called the house edge. In games such as poker where players play against each other, the house takes a commission called the rake. Casinos sometimes give out complimentary comps to gamblers. Payout is the percentage of funds returned to players. Casinos in the United States say that a player staking money won from the casino is playing with the house's money. Video Lottery Machines have become one of the most popular forms of gambling in casinos; as of 2011 investigative reports have started calling into question whether the modern-day slot-machine is addictive. Casino design—regarded as a psychological exercise—is an intricate process that involves optimising floor plan, décor and atmospherics to encourage gambling. Factors influencing gambling tendencies include sound and lighting. Natasha Dow Schüll, an anthropologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, highlights the decision of the audio directors at Silicon Gaming to make its slot machines resonate in "the universally pleasant tone of C, sampling existing casino soundscapes to create a sound that would please but not clash".
Dr Alan Hirsch, founder of the Smell & Taste Treatment and Research Foundation in Chicago, studied the impact of certain scents on gamblers, discerning that a pleasant albeit unidentifiable odour released by Las Vegas slot machines generated about 50% more in daily revenue. He suggested. Casino designer Roger Thomas is credited with implementing a successful, disruptive design for the Las Vegas Wynn Resorts casinos in 2008, he broke casino design convention by introducing natural sunlight and flora to appeal to women. Thomas put in skylights and antique clocks, defying the commonplace notion that a casino should be a timeless space; the following li
History of role-playing games
The history of role-playing games begins with an earlier tradition of role-playing, which combined with the rulesets of fantasy wargames in the 1970s to give rise to the modern role-playing game. A role-playing game is a type of game in which the participants assume the roles of characters and collaboratively create stories. Participants determine the actions of their characters based on their characterization, the actions succeed or fail according to a system of rules and guidelines. Within the rules, they may improvise freely. Role-playing games are different from competitive games such as ball games and card games; this has led to confusion among some non-players about the nature of fantasy gaming. The game Dungeons & Dragons was a subject of controversy in the 1980s when well-publicized opponents claimed it caused negative spiritual and psychological effects. Academic research has discredited these claims; some educators support role-playing games as a healthy way to hone arithmetic skills.
Though role-playing has been accepted by some, a few religious organizations continue to object. Media attention both stigmatized certain games. In thirty years the genre has grown from a few hobbyists and boutique publishers to an economically significant part of the games industry, though grass-roots and small business involvement remains substantial. Games industry company Hasbro purchased fantasy game publisher Wizards of the Coast in 1998 for an estimated $325 million. Historical re-enactment has been practiced by adults for millennia; the ancient Han Chinese, for example, enjoyed organizing events in which everyone pretended to be from an earlier age, entertainment appears to have been the primary purpose of these activities. In 16th century Europe, traveling teams of players performed a form of improvisational theatre known as the Commedia dell'arte, with stock situations, stock characters and improvised dialogue. In the 19th and early 20th century, many board games and parlour games such as the game Jury Box included elements of role-playing.
Mock trials, model legislatures, the "Theatre Games" created by Viola Spolin arose, in which players took on the roles of characters and improvised, but without the formalised rules which would characterise modern role-playing games. There is some evidence that assassin-style games may have been played in New York city by adults as early as 1920. A simple version in which an assassination was performed by saying, "You're dead," was mentioned in Harpo Marx's autobiography, Harpo Speaks!, in a section covering the 1920s. In the 1960s, historical reenactment groups gave rise to "creative history" games, which originate with the founding of the Society for Creative Anachronism in Berkeley, California on May 1, 1966. A similar group, the Markland Medieval Mercenary Militia, began holding events on the University of Maryland, College Park in 1969; these groups were dedicated to recreating medieval history and culture, with only mild fantasy elements, were mostly influenced by historical re-enactment.
Wargames have origins in ancient strategy games Chess. It originated as Chaturanga, created in the 6th-century Indian subcontinent as a simulation of ancient Indian warfare the Kurukshetra War, with pieces representing roles such as rajas, infantry, cavalry and war elephants. Chaturanga is considered the most ancient ancestor of Dragons. According to RPG designer John Wick, Chess can be turned into a role-playing game if chess pieces such as the king, rooks, knights or pawns are given names, decisions are made based on their motivations. According to Wick, Dungeons & Dragons was a "sophisticated and complicated combat simulation board game that people were turning into a roleplaying game" just "like giving your rook a motive" in Chess. In Europe, from the late 18th century to the 19th century, chess variants evolved into modern wargames. Drawing inspiration from Chess, Master of Pages to the Duke of Brunswick created a battle emulation game in 1780. According to Max Boot's book War Made New, sometime between 1803 and 1809, the Prussian General Staff developed war games, with staff officers moving metal pieces around on a game table, using dice rolls to indicate random chance and with a referee scoring the results.
Realistic variations became part of military training in the 19th century in many nations, were called "kriegsspiel" or "wargames". Wargames or military exercises are still an important part of military training today. Wargaming moved from professional training to the hobby market with the publication of Little Wars, children's toy soldier game, by H. G. Wells in 1913. A niche hobby of wargaming emerged for adults that recreated model games around actual battles from the Napoleonic period onward. Although a single marker or miniature figure represented a squad of soldiers, some "skirmish level" or "man to man" games did exist where one figure represented one entity only; the board wargame Diplomacy, invented by Allan B. Calhamer in 1954 and released in 1959, made social interaction and interpersonal skills part of its gameplay. A live-action variant of Diplomacy named Slobbovia was used for character development rather than conflict. In the late 1960s, fantasy elements were used in wargames. Linguist M. A. R. Barker began to use wargame-like sessions to develop his creation Tékumel.
In 1970, the New England Wargamers Association demonstrated a fantasy wargame called Middle Earth at a conv
Emperor: Battle for Dune
Emperor: Battle for Dune is a Dune video game, released by Westwood Studios on June 12, 2001. It is based in Frank Herbert's science fiction Dune universe, it is the third real-time strategy game set in the Dune universe, following its predecessors, Dune II and Dune 2000. While Dune II was a distinct story to that of Dune, Dune 2000 was a remake of Dune II, Emperor is a direct sequel to the previous games. In particular, it is a sequel to Dune 2000, carrying on from where it left off, with several of the characters and actors returning. Like Dune 2000 and many of the other Westwood games that came before it, Emperor features cut scenes filmed with live actors. Emperor is set shortly after Dune 2000. Emperor Corrino has been killed by his concubine, Lady Elara, the Landsraad has been thrown into chaos; the Spacing Guild has presented the three remaining Houses with a unique challenge: a war of assassins on the planet Arrakis. Whichever House wins the war will become the new leader of the Landsraad, its leader the new Padishah Emperor, Emperor of the Known Universe.
It becomes clear during the campaign that the Tleilaxu are scouring Arrakis with hidden motives, with various probes spotted collecting flesh samples from dead sandworms. After the last battle with any one of the opponent Houses on their home planet, the Spacing Guild leaves the victorious House stranded on the enemies' conquered homeworld, attempting to control Arrakis with House Tleilaxu by genetically engineering an Emperor Worm with immense psychic powers empowered by Lady Elara, they release a mind influencing drug in all the remaining forces water supply on Arrakis to make them slaves under the Guild. It becomes clear that a last-ditch attempt must be made back on Arrakis to destroy the Emperor Worm before he awakes, by using the Smugglers Guild to get back to Arrakis; the player destroys the Emperor Worm, the Guild's plan is foiled. The victorious house regains control of Arrakis and the spice melange and proclaims their side's leader Emperor of Dune. While each campaign has the story culminating up to the battle with the Emperor Worm, the three campaigns have subplots revolving around each faction's intents to conquer Arrakis.
House Atreides' campaign involves regaining the trust of the Fremen, with whom they have had an uneasy relationship due to unspecified past events. Many of the starting missions revolve around forming an alliance with the Fremen. On in the campaign, a party of Fremen diplomats are sent to Caladan, where they and the Duke Achillus are under attack by Tleilaxu soldiers; this attack is thwarted and the Fremen pledge their allegiance to House Atreides. The general benevolence of House Atreides is apparent in their motivation for each map's campaign and they have little to no ulterior motives in lending assistance to any of the factions on Arrakis. House Harkonnen's campaign revolves around the ailing Baron Rakan and his two sons and Copec, who both vie to take the Baron's place upon his death. Copec and Gunseng are at one another's throats, compete for the Baron's favor as the latter's days grow shorter. Gunseng goes to Arrakis to oversee the spice mining. Copec grows impatient and poisons Rakan's food.
Copec assumes the title, goes to Arrakis to have his brother swear allegiance to his new baron. Believing that Copec has usurped the title, Gunseng rebels against him; the player character chooses to either side with Gunseng or Copec, both opposing factions battle on Giedi Prime. Depending on who emerges victorious, the game will feature Gunseng or Copec as the reigning baron of House Harkonnen. House Ordos' campaign revolves around their ability to create gholas; the house creates a ghola of the deceased Emperor Shaddam Corrino, who will serve as a puppet emperor subservient to House Ordos. Ordos motives are insidious in that they attempt to manipulate many of the subhouses into conflict with the major houses they are fighting, using gholas and other forms of treachery to thwart any attempts at alliance among their enemies and secure alliances for House Ordos; the Ordos are led by the Executrix, four beings that share a single mind and communicate only through a creature known as the "Speaker".
The Ordos are calculated in their thinking machine-like. Advising the "Commander" is the cold female Mentat Roma Atani. There subplots within subhouses and factions on Arrakis. Ix and the Tleilaxu have made it clear that that they cannot be united, force the player to choose one or the other, though it is possible to have the support of two. A Sardaukar coffin containing a trooper in suspended animation can sometimes be found in the battlefield; these troopers ally themselves with the faction that awakens them. Computer Gaming World reviewed the game, saying it had "nice graphics, fun cinematics, some interesting units, a fun interactive campaign map." However, they panned it for having "outdated graphics, iffy AI and pathfinding, crummy multiplayer, an overwhelming sense of deja vu" as well as a lack of standard control features in similar RTS games. Emperor: Battle for Dune at MobyGames Emperor: Battle for Dune at Dune2K.com
Pac-Man is the protagonist fictional character of the game franchise of the same name by Namco, first introduced in the Japanese arcade game Pac-Man on May 22, 1980, in Japan, released in the United States in October the same year. He has since appeared in more than 30 licensed game spin-offs, as well as in numerous unauthorized clones and bootlegs, spawned a variety of Pac-Man merchandise with his image, as well as a television series. Pac-Man has become Bandai Namco's mascot. Pac-Man's origins are debated. According to the character's creator Toru Iwatani, the inspiration was pizza without a slice, which gave him a vision of "an animated pizza, racing through a maze and eating things with its absent-slice mouth". However, he said in a 1986 interview that the design of the character came from simplifying and rounding out the Japanese character for a mouth, kuchi; the character's name comes from an onomatopoeic Japanese word for gobbling something up. The character's name was written in English as "Puck-Man", but when Namco localized the game for the United States they changed it to "Pac-Man", fearing that vandals would change the P in Puck to an F.
The arcade art on the original Pac-Man portrayed him as a yellow circle with a large mouth as well as hands, eyes and a long nose. In-game Pac-Man was represented as a two-dimensional sprite of a simple yellow circle with a mouth, his current design as of 2018. 1984's Pac-Land was the first game to use his arcade art in-game. More Pac-Man appears as a full three-dimensional polygonal model, his design went through two minor changes from the Puck-Man cabinet art over the years, the first made his nose smaller in the 1990s and the second altered his eyes and shoes in 2010. Pac-Man first appeared in the original action game of the same name. Despite Pac-Man's legacy, Pac-Man himself would not appear again until the 1982 arcade release of Super Pac-Man, which introduced a change into Super Pac-Man. Arcade games include Pac-Land, Pac-Mania and Pac-Man Arrangement, a remake of the original Pac-Man. Pac-Man World was released in 1999 on the PlayStation, introduced new abilities to him; the game contributed to the series as well as the character and spawned two sequels and a spin-off as well.
Pac-Man World 2 features Pac-Man on an adventure to rescue Pac-Land from an ancient spirit known as Spooky. Pac-Man World 3 was released in 2005 to celebrate Pac-Man's 25th anniversary. In Pac'n Roll, a young Pac-Man is being trained by the great Pac-Master. Several spin-offs have been released, such as a racing game Pac-Man World Rally. Midway Games established a spin-off titled Ms. Pac-Man, created without Namco's consent. Pac-Man appears in Street Fighter X Tekken as a playable guest fighter, riding a giant Mokujin robot, in Everybody's Golf 6 as a playable guest golfer. Pac-Man has appeared in all three Mario Kart Arcade GP installments as a playable racer along with Ms. Pac-Man. Pac-Man is a playable character in Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS and Wii U, co-developed by Sora Ltd. and Bandai Namco Games. Sporting his classic design used in artwork for the original game and in the Pac-Man World trilogy, Pac-Man's moveset is based around early Pac-Man games and various other Namco arcade titles, such as deploying a Power Pellet and dashing after it, summoning fire hydrants from Pac-Land, or jumping on the trampoline from Mappy.
An Amiibo figure released of Pac-Man allows Pac-Man elements to appear in compatible Nintendo titles, such as Mario Kart 8 and Super Mario Maker. Pac-Man returns as a playable character in Super Smash Bros. Ultimate. "Pac-Man Fever", a hit single named after the character, reached number nine on the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States in March 1982 and was certified Gold by the RIAA that same month. In the late 2000s, a feature film was reported to be in development; the character was the main mascot of the children's play area Pac-Man Land, located in Six Flags Over Texas from 1983–1985, before it was changed to Looney Tunes Land. Pac-Man starred in the 1982–1983 Pac-Man cartoon voiced by Marty Ingels. In the series, Pac-Man works to keep Mezmaron and the Ghost Monsters from finding the Power Pellet Forest. In 2010, a computer-generated animated series was reported to be in the works, it was revealed as Pac-Man and the Ghostly Adventures, which aired on Disney XD in 2013. The series revolves around a teenage Pac-Man, who protects Pac-World from ghosts alongside his high school friends.
The character has made numerous cameo appearances in various television cartoon series and movies, including Tron, Tiny Toon Adventures, The Simpsons, South Park, Drawn Together, Family Guy, Annoying Orange, Robot Chicken, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2, Wreck-It Ralph, its sequel Ralph Breaks the Internet. Pac-Man appears, in a larger role, in the 2015 film Pixels among the arcade game characters that the aliens unleash as monsters upon Earth, his creator Tōru Iwatani appears in the movie as an Elec
A cutscene or event scene is a sequence in a video game, not interactive, breaking up the gameplay. Such scenes could be used to show conversations between characters, set the mood, reward the player, introduce new gameplay elements, show the effects of a player's actions, create emotional connections, improve pacing or foreshadow future events. Cutscenes feature "on the fly" rendering, using the gameplay graphics to create scripted events. Cutscenes can be pre-rendered computer graphics streamed from a video file. Pre-made videos used in video games are referred to as "full motion videos" or "FMVs". Cutscenes can appear in other forms, such as a series of images or as plain text and audio; the term "cutscene" was coined by game designer Ron Gilbert to describe non-interactive plot sequences in the 1987 adventure game Maniac Mansion. Pac-Man is credited as the first game to feature cutscenes, in the form of brief comical interludes about Pac-Man and Blinky chasing each other, though Space Invaders Part II employed a similar technique in the same year.
In 1983, the laserdisc video game Bega's Battle introduced animated full-motion video cutscenes with voice acting to develop a story between the game's shooting stages, which became the standard approach to game storytelling years later. The games Karateka helped introduce the cutscene to home computers. Other early video games known to use cutscenes extensively include Portopia Renzoku Satsujin Jiken in 1983. Since cutscenes have been part of many video games in action-adventure and role-playing video games. Cutscenes became much more common with the rise of CD-ROM as the primary storage medium for video games, as its much greater storage space allowed developers to use more cinematically impressive media such as FMV and high-quality voice tracks. Live-action cutscenes have many similarities to films. For example, the cutscenes in Wing Commander IV used both constructed sets, well known actors such as Mark Hamill and Malcolm McDowell for the portrayal of characters; some movie tie-in games, such as Electronic Arts' The Lord of the Rings and Star Wars games, have extensively used film footage and other assets from the film production in their cutscenes.
Another movie tie-in, Enter the Matrix, used film footage shot concurrently with The Matrix Reloaded, directed by the film's directors, the Wachowskis. Pre-rendered cutscenes are animated and rendered by the game's developers, take advantage of the full array of techniques of CGI, cel animation or graphic novel-style panel art. Like live-action shoots, pre-rendered cutscenes are presented in full motion video. Real time cutscenes are rendered on-the-fly using the same game engine as the graphics during gameplay; this technique is known as Machinima. Real time cutscenes are of much lower detail and visual quality than pre-rendered cutscenes, but can adapt to the state of the game. For example, some games allow the player character to wear several different outfits, appear in cutscenes wearing the outfit the player has chosen, it is possible to give the player control over camera movement during real time cutscenes, as seen in Dungeon Siege, Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty, Halo: Reach, Kane & Lynch: Dead Men.
Many games use both pre-rendered and real time cutscenes as the developer feels is appropriate for each scene. During the 1990s in particular, it was common for the techniques of live action, pre-rendering, real time rendering to be combined in a single cutscene. For example, popular games such as Myst, Wing Commander III, Phantasmagoria use film of live actors superimposed upon pre-rendered animated backgrounds for their cutscenes. Though Final Fantasy VII uses real-time cutscenes, it has several scenes in which real-time graphics are combined with pre-rendered full motion video. Though rarer than the other two possible combinations, the pairing of live action video with real time graphics is seen in games such as Killing Time. Interactive cutscenes involve the computer taking control of the player character while prompts appear onscreen, requiring the player to follow them in order to continue or succeed at the action; this gameplay mechanic called quick time events, has its origins in interactive movie laserdisc video games such as Dragon's Lair, Road Blaster, Space Ace.
Director Steven Spielberg, director Guillermo del Toro, game designer Ken Levine, all of whom are avid video gamers, criticized the use of cutscenes in games, calling them intrusive. Spielberg states that making the story flow into the gameplay is a challenge for future game developers. Hollywood writer Danny Bilson called cinematics the "last resort of game storytelling," as a person doesn't want to watch a movie when they are playing a video game. Game designer Raph Koster criticized cutscenes as being the part that has "the largest possibility for emotional engagement, for art dare we say," while being the bit that can be cut with no impact on the actual gameplay. Koster claims that because of this, many of the memorable peak emotional moments in video games are not given by the game itself at all, it is a common criticism that cutscenes belong to a different medium. Others see cutscenes. An article on Gamefront calls upon a number of successful video games that make excessive use of cutscenes for storytelling
Live action role-playing game
A live action role-playing game is a form of role-playing game where the participants physically portray their characters. The players pursue goals within a fictional setting represented by the real world while interacting with each other in character; the outcome of player actions may be mediated by game rules or determined by consensus among players. Event arrangers called gamemasters decide rules to be used and facilitate play; the first LARPs were run in the late 1970s, inspired by tabletop role-playing games and genre fiction. The activity spread internationally during the 1980s and has diversified into a wide variety of styles. Play may be game-like or may be more concerned with dramatic or artistic expression. Events can be designed to achieve educational or political goals; the fictional genres used vary from realistic modern or historical settings to fantastic or futuristic eras. Production values can involve elaborate venues and costumes. LARPs range in size from small private events lasting a few hours to large public events with thousands of players lasting for days.
LARP has been referred to as live role-playing, interactive literature, free form role-playing. Some of these terms are still in common use, it is sometimes written as larp. The live action in LARP is analogous to the term live action used in film and video to differentiate works with human actors from animation. Playing a LARP is called larping, one who does it is a larper; the participants in a LARP physically portray characters in a fictional setting, improvising their characters' speech and movements somewhat like actors in improvisational theatre. This is distinct from tabletop role-playing games. LARPs may last for hours or days. There is no audience. Players may dress as their character and carry appropriate equipment, the environment is sometimes decorated to resemble the setting. LARPs can be one-off events or a series of events in the same setting, events can vary in size from a handful of players to several thousand. Events are put on for the benefit of the players, who take on roles called player characters that the players may create themselves or be given by the gamemasters.
Players sometimes play the same character at separate events, progressively developing the character and its relations with other characters and the setting. Arrangers called gamemasters determine the rules and setting of a LARP, may influence an event and act as referees while it is taking place; the GMs may do the logistical work, or there may be other arrangers who handle details such as advertising the event, booking a venue, financial management. Unlike the GM in a tabletop role-playing game, a LARP GM has an overview of everything, happening during play because numerous participants may be interacting at once. For this reason, a LARP GM's role is less concerned with maintaining a narrative or directly entertaining the players, more with arranging the structure of the LARP before play begins and facilitating the players and crew to maintain the fictional environment during play. Participants sometimes known as the crew may help the GMs to set up and maintain the environment of the LARP during play by acting as stagehands or playing non-player characters who fill out the setting.
Crew receive more information about the setting and more direction from the GMs than players do. In a tabletop role-playing game, a GM plays all the NPCs, whereas in a LARP, each NPC is played by a separate crew member. Sometimes players are asked to play NPCs for periods of an event. Much of play consists of interactions between characters; some LARP scenarios feature interaction between PCs. Other scenarios focus on interaction between PCs and aspects of the setting, including NPCs, that are under the direction of the GMs. LARP does not have a single point of origin, but was invented independently by groups in North America and Australia; these groups shared an experience with genre fiction or tabletop role-playing games, a desire to physically experience such settings. In addition to tabletop role-playing, LARP is rooted in childhood games of make believe, play fighting, costume parties, roleplay simulations, Commedia dell'arte, improvisational theatre, military simulations, historical reenactment groups such as the Society for Creative Anachronism.
The earliest recorded LARP group is Dagorhir, founded in 1977 in the United States and focuses on fantasy battles. Soon after the release of the movie Logan's Run in 1976, rudimentary live role-playing games based on the movie were run at US science fiction conventions. In 1981, the International Fantasy Gaming Society started, with rules influenced by Dungeons & Dragons. IFGS was named after a fictional group in the 1981 novel Dream Park, which described futuristic LARPs. In 1982, the Society for Interactive Literature, a predecessor of the Live Action Roleplayers Association, formed as the first recorded theatre-style LARP group in the US. Treasure Trap, formed in 1982 at Peckforton Castle, was the first recorded LARP game in the UK and influenced the fantasy LARPs that followed there; the first recorded LARP in Australia was run in 1983. In 1993, White Wolf Publishing released Mind's Eye Theatre, still played internationally and is the most commercially successful published LARP; the first German events were in about 1994, with fantasy LARP in particular growing qu
Role-playing video game
A role-playing video game is a video game genre where the player controls the actions of a character immersed in some well-defined world. Many role-playing video games have origins in tabletop role-playing games and use much of the same terminology and game mechanics. Other major similarities with pen-and-paper games include developed story-telling and narrative elements, player character development, complexity, as well as replayability and immersion; the electronic medium increases combat resolution speed. RPGs have evolved from simple text-based console-window games into visually rich 3D experiences. Role-playing video games use much of the same terminology and game mechanics as early tabletop role-playing games such as Dungeons & Dragons. Players control a central game character, or multiple game characters called a party, attain victory by completing a series of quests or reaching the conclusion of a central storyline. Players explore a game world, while engaging in combat. A key feature of the genre is that characters grow in power and abilities, characters are designed by the player.
RPGs challenge a player's physical coordination or reaction time, with the exception of action role-playing games. Role-playing video games rely on a developed story and setting, divided into a number of quests. Players control one or several characters by issuing commands, which are performed by the character at an effectiveness determined by that character's numeric attributes; these attributes increase each time a character gains a level, a character's level goes up each time the player accumulates a certain amount of experience. Role-playing video games typically attempt to offer more complex and dynamic character interaction than what is found in other video game genres; this involves additional focus on the artificial intelligence and scripted behavior of computer-controlled non-player characters. The premise of many role-playing games tasks the player with saving the world, or whichever level of society is threatened. There are twists and turns as the story progresses, such as the surprise appearance of estranged relatives, or enemies who become friends or vice versa.
The game world tends to be set in a fantasy or science fiction universe, which allows players to do things they cannot do in real life and helps players suspend their disbelief about the rapid character growth. To a lesser extent, settings closer to near future are possible; the story provides much of the entertainment in the game. Because these games have strong storylines, they can make effective use of recorded dialog and voiceover narration. Players of these games tend to appreciate long cutscenes more than players of faster action games. While most games advance the plot when the player defeats an enemy or completes a level, role-playing games progress the plot based on other important decisions. For example, a player may make the decision to join a guild, thus triggering a progression in the storyline, irreversible. New elements in the story may be triggered by mere arrival in an area, rather than completing a specific challenge; the plot is divided so that each game location is an opportunity to reveal a new chapter in the story.
Pen-and-paper role-playing games involve a player called the gamemaster who can dynamically create the story and rules, react to a player's choices. In role-playing video games, the computer performs the function of the gamemaster; this offers the player a smaller set of possible actions, since computers can't engage in imaginative acting comparable to a skilled human gamemaster. In exchange, the typical role-playing video game may have storyline branches, user interfaces, stylized cutscenes and gameplay to offer a more direct storytelling mechanism. Characterization of non-player characters in video games is handled using a dialog tree. Saying the right things to the right non-player characters will elicit useful information for the player, may result in other rewards such as items or experience, as well as opening up possible storyline branches. Multiplayer online role-playing games can offer an exception to this contrast by allowing human interaction among multiple players and in some cases enabling a player to perform the role of a gamemaster.
Exploring the world is an important aspect of many RPGs. Players will walk through, talking to non-player characters, picking up objects, avoiding traps; some games such as NetHack and the FATE series randomize the structure of individual levels, increasing the game's variety and replayability. Role-playing games where players complete quests by exploring randomly generated dungeons and which include permadeath are called roguelikes, named after the 1980 video game Rogue; the game's story is mapped onto exploration, where each chapter of the story is mapped onto a different location. RPGs allow players to return to visited locations. There is nothing left to do there, although some locations change throughout the story and offer the player new things to do in response. Players must acquire enough power to overcome a major challenge in order to progress to the next area, this structure can be compared to the boss characters at the end of levels in action games; the player must complete a linear sequence of certain quests in order to reach the end of the game's story, although quests in some games such as Arcanum or Geneforge can limit o