National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro
Goalkeeper (association football)
The goalkeeper shortened to keeper or goalie, is one of the major positions of association football. It is the most specialised position in the sport; the goalkeeper's primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring. This is accomplished by the goalkeeper moving into the path of the ball and either catching it or directing it away from the vicinity of the goal line. Within the penalty area goalkeepers are able to use their hands, making them the only players on the field permitted to handle the ball; the special status of goalkeepers is indicated by them wearing different coloured kits from their teammates. The back-pass rule prevents goalkeepers handling direct passes back to them from teammates. Goalkeepers perform goal kicks, give commands to their defense during corner kicks and indirect free kicks, marking. Goalkeepers play an important role in directing on field strategy as they have an unrestricted view of the entire pitch, giving them a unique perspective on play development.
The goalkeeper is the only required position of a team. If they are injured or sent off, a substitute goalkeeper has to take their place, otherwise an outfield player must take the ejected keeper's place in goal. In order to replace a goalkeeper, sent off, a team substitutes an outfield player for the backup keeper, they play the remainder of the match with nine outfield players. If a team does not have a substitute goalkeeper, or they have used all of their permitted substitutions for the match, an outfield player has to take the dismissed goalkeeper's place and wear the goalkeeper shirt; the squad number for a first choice goalkeeper is number 1, although they may wear any jersey number between 1 and 99. Association football, like many sports, has experienced many changes in tactics resulting in the generation and elimination of different positions. Goalkeeper is the only position, certain to have existed since the codification of the sport. In the early days of organised football, when systems were limited or non-existent and the main idea was for all players to attack and defend, teams had a designated member to play as the goalkeeper.
The earliest account of football teams with player positions comes from Richard Mulcaster in 1581 and does not specify goalkeepers. The earliest specific reference to keeping goal comes from Cornish Hurling in 1602. According to Carew: "they pitch two bushes in the ground, some eight or ten foot asunder. One of these is appointed by lots, to the one side, the other to his adverse party. There is assigned for their guard, a couple of their best stopping Hurlers". Other references to scoring goals begin in English literature in the early 16th century. In a 1613 poem, Michael Drayton refers to "when the Ball to throw, And drive it to the Gole, in squadrons forth they goe", it seems inevitable that wherever a game has evolved goals, some form of goalkeeping must be developed. David Wedderburn refers to what has been translated from Latin as to "keep goal" in 1633, though this does not imply a fixed goalkeeper position; the word "goal-keeper" is used in the novel Tom Brown's School Days. The author is here referring to an early form of rugby football: You will see in the first place, that the sixth-form boy, who has the charge of goal, has spread his force so as to occupy the whole space behind the goal-posts, at distances of about five yards apart.
The word "goal-keeper" appeared in the Sheffield Rules of 1867, but the term did not refer to a designated player, but rather to "that player on the defending side who for the time being is nearest to his own goal". The goal-keeper, thus defined, did not enjoy any special handling privileges; the FA's first Laws of the Game of 1863 did not make any special provision for a goalkeeper, with any player being allowed to catch or knock-on the ball. Handling the ball was forbidden in 1870; the next year, 1871, the laws were amended to introduce the goalkeeper and specify that the keeper was allowed to handle the ball "for the protection of his goal". The restrictions on the ability of the goalkeeper to handle the ball were changed several times in subsequent revisions of the laws: 1871: the keeper may handle the ball only "for the protection of his goal". 1873: the keeper may not "carry" the ball. 1883: the keeper may not carry the ball for more than two steps. 1887: the keeper may not handle the ball in the opposition's half.
1901: the keeper may handle the ball for any purpose. 1912: the keeper may handle the ball only in the penalty area. 1931: the keeper may take up to four steps while carrying the ball. 1992: the keeper may not handle the ball after it has been deliberately kicked to him/her by a team-mate. 1997: the keeper may not handle the ball for more than six seconds. Goalkeepers played between the goalposts and had limited mobility, except when trying to save opposition shots. Throughout the years, the role of the goalkeeper has evolved, due to the changes in systems of play, to become more active; the goalkeeper is the only player in association football allowed to use their han
Jacques Kallis is a former South African cricketer, and, a former Test and ODI captain. As a right-handed batsman and right-arm fast-medium swing bowler, Kallis is regarded as the greatest cricketer of all time and the game's greatest all rounder; as of 2016 he was the only cricketer in the history of the game to score more than 10,000 runs and take over 250 wickets in both ODI and Test match cricket, pouching 131 ODI catches along the way as well. His Test match career in particular saw him score 13,289 runs, take 292 wickets and 200 catches respectively. Kallis played 166 Test had a batting average of over 55 runs per innings. From October to December 2007 he scored. With his century in the second innings of the third Test against India in January 2011, his 40th in all, he moved past Ricky Ponting to become the second-highest scorer of Test centuries, behind only Sachin Tendulkar's 51. Kallis was named Leading Cricketer in the World in the 2008 Wisden for his performances in 2007 in addition to being the "ICC Test Player of the Year" and ICC Player of the Year in 2005.
He has been described by Kevin Pietersen and Daryll Cullinan as the greatest cricketer to play the game, along with Wally Hammond and Sir Garry Sobers is one of the few Test all-rounders whose Test batting average is over 50 and exceeds his Test bowling average by 20 or more. Kallis became the fourth player and first South African to score 13,000 Test runs on an eventful opening day of the first Test against New Zealand on 2 January 2013. Kallis, who had taken 292 Test wickets, lies third behind Indian player Sachin Tendulkar and Australian Ricky Ponting on the list of all-time run scorers in test cricket, he was named one of the Wisden cricketers of the year in 2013. He retired from Test and first-class cricket after playing in the second Test against India at Durban in December 2013, he retired from all forms of international cricket on 30 July 2014. Kallis featured for Wales, representing the nation against England in the 2002 Natwest Challenge, helping them to an 8 wicket victory with a return of 31–1 off 10 overs and a score of 3 in the run chase.
He is the current coach of Kolkata Knight Riders. Kallis played cricket for Wynberg Boys' High School. In 2009 Wynberg honoured Kallis by naming their main cricket oval after him; as a teenager, Kallis had a brief spell with Netherfield CC in England where he established himself in Northern England – Kallis was only 19 when he spent a summer at Parkside Road back in 1995, returning 791 runs at an average of 98.87 from 14 matches before making his Test debut against England that year. Kallis played for Old Edwardians for a spell as a teenager, where coaching staff saw potential for him to become a first-class all rounder, he made his first-class debut in 1993/94 as an 18-year-old, playing for Western Province B. His first Test appearance was on 14–18 December 1995 against England in Durban, but he struggled with the bat in his first few matches. Kallis did not have much opportunity to excel, his breakthrough came in 1997, with 61 against Pakistan, two matches he salvaged a draw for South Africa with a fighting century against Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground.
Between 1998 and 2002, Jacques Kallis was one of the world's leading all-rounders, as seen in the ICC's cricket ratings. In 1998, he led South Africa to the ICC Champions Trophy title with two "Man of the Match" and the "Player of the Series" performances; the youngster was solid, without being spectacular, in the 1999 ICC Cricket World Cup, before a "Player of the Series" performance led South Africa to a stunning Test series victory against India in India in 2000. By late 2001 he was the world's number one ranked Test all-rounder, having held the same ranking in ODIs for the best part of 3 years. During this time, "Kallis blossomed into arguably the world's leading batsman, with a defensive technique second to none, the adhesive qualities of a Cape Point limpet. A placid and undemonstrative man, he nailed down the crucial No. 3 position in the South African batting order after a number of players had been tried and discarded, his stock rose exponentially from that moment." Kallis is one of only four players in Test history to make a century in five consecutive matches, achieved in season 2003/04.
In 2005, he set the record for the fastest half-century, as measured by balls faced, in Test cricket history, scoring 50 against Zimbabwe off only 24 balls. In 2007, Kallis scored five centuries in four Tests, making him just the fourth man after Bradman, Ken Barrington and Matthew Hayden to score four centuries in four Tests on two different occasions; that Kallis holds these records belies his reputation as a defensive batsman of the old-fashioned type, something he himself became determined to erase in the latter half of his career. Regardless of style, Kallis has a remarkable batting average in the mid-50s, has been rated as one of the best batsmen in the world. Although still a capable bowler with 292 Test wickets, he impressed with the bat between 2005 and 2007; as a result, he evolved into more of a batting all-rounder, a role in which he continued because of the emergence of Dale Steyn, Morné Morkel, Vernon Philander. Kallis is the only man to take over 200 wickets in Test cricket. Sir Garfield Sobers managed over 8,000 runs and 200 wickets
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League is a professional sports league in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football; the league consists of each located in a city in Canada. They are divided into two divisions: four teams in the East Division and five teams in the West Division; as of 2018, it features a 21-week regular season where each team plays 18 games with three bye weeks. This season traditionally runs from mid-June to early November. Following the regular season, six teams compete in the league's three-week divisional playoffs which culminate in the Grey Cup championship game in late November; the Grey Cup is television events. The CFL was founded on January 19, 1958; the league was formed through a merger between the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union and the Western Interprovincial Football Union. Rugby football began to be played in Canada in the 1860s, many of the first Canadian football teams played under the auspices of the Canadian Rugby Football Union, founded in 1884.
The CRFU was reorganized as the Canadian Rugby Union in 1891, served as an umbrella organization for several provincial and regional unions. The Grey Cup was donated by Governor General Earl Grey in 1909 to the team winning the Senior Amateur Football Championship of Canada. By that time, the sport as played in Canada had diverged markedly from its rugby origins, started to become more similar to the American game. From the 1930s to the 1950s, the two senior leagues of the CRU, the eastern Interprovincial Rugby Football Union and Western Interprovincial Football Union evolved from amateur to professional leagues, amateur teams such as those in the Ontario Rugby Football Union were no longer competitive for the Grey Cup. From 1945 onward, the WIFU's champion faced the Big Four's champion for the Grey Cup, though until 1954 it had to play in a semi-final against the champion of the ORFU–by the only amateur union still competing for the Grey Cup; the ORFU withdrew from Grey Cup competition after the 1954 season, the WIFU champion was automatically awarded a berth in the Grey Cup final.
For this reason, 1954 is reckoned as the start of the modern era of Canadian football, in which the Grey Cup has been contested by professional teams. Since 1965, Canada's top amateur teams, competing in what is now U Sports, have competed for the Vanier Cup. In 1956, the IRFU and WIFU formed the Canadian Football Council. In 1958, the CFC became the Canadian Football League; as part of an agreement between the CRU and CFL, the CFL took possession of the Grey Cup though amateurs had not competed for it since 1954. The CRU remained the governing body for amateur play in Canada adopting the name Football Canada; the two unions remained autonomous, there was no intersectional play between eastern and western teams except at the Grey Cup final. This situation was analogous to how the American baseball leagues operated for years; the IRFU was renamed the Eastern Football Conference in 1960, while the WIFU was renamed the Western Football Conference in 1961. In 1961, limited intersectional play was introduced.
Because the West played 16 games by this time while the East still only played 14, this arrangement oddly allowed both the four-team Eastern Conference and the five-team Western Conference to play three games per intraconference opponent and one game per interconference opponent. It wasn't until 1974. In 1981, the two conferences agreed to a full merger, becoming the East and West Divisions of the CFL. With the merger came a balanced and interlocking schedule of 16 games per season. Since 1986, the CFL's regular season schedule has been 18 games; the separate histories of the IRFU and the WIFU accounted for the fact that two teams had the same name: the IRFU's Ottawa Rough Riders were called the "Eastern Riders", while the WIFU's Saskatchewan Roughriders were called the "Western Riders" or "Green Riders". Other team names had traditional origins. With rowing a national craze in the late 19th century, the Argonaut Rowing Club of Toronto formed a rugby team for its members' off-season participation.
The football team name Toronto Argonauts still remains though it and the rowing club have long since gone their separate ways. After World War II, the two teams in Hamilton—the Tigers and the Flying Wildcats—merged both their organizations into the Hamilton Tiger-Cats; the league remained stable with nine franchises—the BC Lions, Calgary Stampeders, Edmonton Eskimos, Saskatchewan Roughriders, Winnipeg Blue Bombers, Hamilton Tiger-Cats, Toronto Argonauts, Ottawa Rough Riders and Montreal Alouettes—from its 1958 inception until 1981. After the 1981 season, the Alouettes folded and were replaced the next year by a new franchise named the Concordes. In 1986 the Concordes were renamed the Alouettes to attract more fan support, but the team folded the next year; the loss of the Montreal franchise forced the league to move its easternmost Western team, into the East Division from 1987 to 1994, again from 1997 to 2001 and 2006 to 2013 when Montreal resumed operations, but Ottawa was unable to field a team.
In 1993, the league admitted the Sacramento Gold Miners. After modest success, the league expanded further in the U. S. in 1994 with the Las Vegas Posse, Baltimore Stallions, Shreveport Pirates. For the 1995 campaign, the American
Deshabandu Sanath Teran Jayasuriya is a former Sri Lankan cricketer and a former captain of the Sri Lankan national team. Considered one of the greatest One Day International players of all time, Jayasuriya is well known for his powerful striking and match winning all-round performances in ODI cricket. Jayasuriya is credited for having revolutionized one-day international cricket with his explosive batting with Romesh Kaluwitharana in 1996, which initiated the hard-hitting modern day batting strategy of all nations. Jayasuriya was an all-rounder, who had an international cricket career that spread over two decades, He is the only player to score over 12,000 runs and capture more than 300 wickets in One Day International cricket, hence regarded as one of the best all rounders in the history of limited-overs cricket, he was named the Most Valuable Player of 1996 Cricket World Cup and Wisden Cricketers' Almanack broke an age old tradition by naming him one of Five Cricketers’ of the Year 1997 despite not playing the previous season in England.
Jayasuriya was the captain of the Sri Lankan cricket team from 1999 to 2003. He retired from Test cricket in December 2007 and from limited overs cricket in June 2011. On 28 January 2013, Sri Lanka Cricket appointed him as the chairman of cricket selection committee. Sri Lanka won the ICC World Twenty20 for the first time in 2014, during his tenure as the chief selector. Jayasuriya ran for public office at the 2010 Sri Lankan general elections and was elected to the parliament from his native Matara District, he topped the UPFA parliamentary election list for Matara district by obtaining 74,352 preferential votes. He served as the deputy minister of Postal services in the former UPFA government led by Mahinda Rajapaksa, as the Deputy Minister of Local Government & Rural Development under president Maithripala Sirisena. Jayasuriya did not contest for the 2015 Sri Lankan general election, though he won most votes from Matara district under UPFA in the 2010 Sri Lankan general election. In February 2019, Jayasuriya was banned for two years in taking part in any cricket-related activity by the International Cricket Council's anti-corruption unit, after he failed to co-operate in a corruption investigation.
Sanath Jayasuriya was born in the Southern Sri Lankan city of Matara, to the family of Dunstan and Breeda Jayasuriya. He has Chandana Jayasuriya, he was educated at St. Servatius' College, where his cricketing talents were nourished by his school principal, G. L. Galappathy, cricket coach, Lionel Wagasinghe, he excelled in cricket while at St. Servatius College and captained the college cricket team at the annual St. Thomas'–St. Servatius Cricket Encounter in 1988. Jayasuriya was picked as the'Observer Schoolboy Cricketer of the Year' in the Outstation Segment in 1988, he received the awards for the'Best Batsman' and'Best All-rounder' in the Outstation Segment at the Observer School Cricket Awards ceremony in the same year. Jayasuriya represented Sri Lanka in the inaugural ICC Under-19 Cricket World Cup, held in Australia in 1988 and was subsequently selected for a tour in Pakistan a few months with the Sri Lanka'B' team, where he made two unbeaten double centuries. Shortly afterwards he was drafted into the national side for the tour to Australia in 1989–90.
He made his One Day International debut against Australia at Melbourne on Boxing Day of 1989 and his Test debut against New Zealand at Hamilton in February 1991. Along with his opening partner Romesh Kaluwitharana, Jayasuriya revolutionized One Day International batting with his aggressive tactics during the 1996 Cricket World Cup, a strategy they first tried on the preceding tour of Australia; the tactic used was to take advantage of the early fielding restrictions by smashing the opening bowlers to all parts of the cricket ground by lofting their deliveries over the mandatory infielders, rather than the established tactic of building up momentum gradually. This was a novel but match-winning tactic at that time, Sri Lanka, who had never made it out of the preliminary rounds, went on to win the World Cup without a single defeat, their new gameplan is now the standard opening batting strategy in limited overs cricket for the modern era. Glenn McGrath cited Jayasuriya in his XI of toughest batsmen, noting "it is always a massive compliment to someone to say they changed the game, his storming innings in the 1996 World Cup changed everyone's thinking about how to start innings."Jayasuriya is known for both cuts and pulls along with his trademark shot, a lofted cut over point.
He was one of the key players in Sri Lanka's victory in the 1996 Cricket World Cup, where he was adjudged Man of the Tournament in recognition of his all-round contributions. His philosophy towards batting is summarized by an all-aggression approach and over the years he has dominated every one day bowling combination that he has faced at one stage or another; this is because of his ability to make huge match-winning contributions at rapid pace once he gets in, he holds the record for the second highest number of one day centuries and has scored the second most 150+ scores. His devastating performances have ensured that Sri Lanka have won 80% of the matches that he scored over 50 runs in limited overs cricket; when asked in an interview who are the most challenging bowlers he had faced in the game, he named in the order Wasim Akram, Shane Warne, Glenn McGrath, Courtney Walsh, Curtly Ambrose. Jayasuriya was a left arm orthodox spin bowler known for getting through his overs. Although a spinner, he was used to bowl faster balls and yorkers with quick arm action which g
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is a professional ice hockey league in North America comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada. The NHL is considered to be the premier professional ice hockey league in the world, one of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada; the Stanley Cup, the oldest professional sports trophy in North America, is awarded annually to the league playoff champion at the end of each season. The National Hockey League was organized on November 26, 1917, at the Windsor Hotel in Montreal after the suspension of operations of its predecessor organization, the National Hockey Association, founded in 1909 in Renfrew, Ontario; the NHL took the NHA's place as one of the leagues that contested for the Stanley Cup in an annual interleague competition before a series of league mergers and folds left the NHL as the only league left competing for the Stanley Cup in 1926. At its inception, the NHL had four teams—all in Canada, thus the adjective "National" in the league's name.
The league expanded to the United States in 1924, when the Boston Bruins joined, has since consisted of American and Canadian teams. From 1942 to 1967, the league had only six teams, collectively nicknamed the "Original Six"; the NHL added six new teams to double its size at the 1967 NHL expansion. The league increased to 18 teams by 1974 and 21 teams in 1979. Between 1991 and 2000, the NHL further expanded to 30 teams, it added its 31st team in 2017 and has approved the addition of a 32nd team in 2021. The league's headquarters have been in New York City since 1989 when the head office moved there from Montreal. After a labour-management dispute that led to the cancellation of the entire 2004–05 season, the league resumed play in 2005–06 under a new collective agreement that included a salary cap. In 2009, the NHL enjoyed record highs in terms of sponsorships and television audiences; the International Ice Hockey Federation considers the Stanley Cup to be one of the "most important championships available to the sport".
The NHL draws many skilled players from all over the world and has players from 20 countries. Canadians have constituted the majority of the players in the league, with an increasing percentage of American and European players in recent seasons; the current NHL Champions are the Washington Capitals, who defeated the Vegas Golden Knights four games to one in the 2018 Stanley Cup Finals. The National Hockey League was established in 1917 as the successor to the National Hockey Association. Founded in 1909, the NHA began play one year with seven teams in Ontario and Quebec, was one of the first major leagues in professional ice hockey, but by the NHA's eighth season, a series of disputes with Toronto Blueshirts owner Eddie Livingstone led team owners of the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs to hold a meeting to discuss the league's future. Realizing the NHA constitution left them unable to force Livingstone out, the four teams voted instead to suspend the NHA, on November 26, 1917, formed the National Hockey League.
Frank Calder was chosen as its first president, serving until his death in 1943. The Bulldogs were unable to play, the remaining owners created a new team in Toronto, the Arenas, to compete with the Canadiens and Senators; the first games were played on December 19, 1917. The Montreal Arena burned down in January 1918, causing the Wanderers to cease operations, the NHL continued on as a three-team league until the Bulldogs returned in 1919; the NHL replaced the NHA as one of the leagues that competed for the Stanley Cup, an interleague competition back then. Toronto won the first NHL title, defeated the Vancouver Millionaires of the Pacific Coast Hockey Association for the 1918 Stanley Cup; the Canadiens won the league title in 1919. Montreal in 1924 won their first Stanley Cup as a member of the NHL; the Hamilton Tigers, won the regular season title in 1924–25 but refused to play in the championship series unless they were given a C$200 bonus. The league refused and declared the Canadiens the league champion after they defeated the Toronto St. Patricks in the semi-final.
Montreal was defeated by the Victoria Cougars of the Western Canada Hockey League for the 1925 Stanley Cup. It was the last time a non-NHL team won the trophy, as the Stanley Cup became the de facto NHL championship in 1926 after the WCHL ceased operation; the National Hockey League embarked on rapid expansion in the 1920s, adding the Montreal Maroons and Boston Bruins in 1924. The Bruins were the first American team in the league; the New York Americans began play in 1925 after purchasing the assets of the Hamilton Tigers, were joined by the Pittsburgh Pirates. The New York Rangers were added in 1926; the Chicago Black Hawks and Detroit Cougars were added after the league purchased the assets of the defunct WCHL. A group purchased the Toronto St. Patricks in 1927 and renamed them the Maple Leafs; the first NHL All-Star Game was held in 1934 to benefit Ace Bailey, whose career ended on a vicious hit by Eddie Shore. The second was held in 1937 in support of Howie Morenz's family when he died of a coronary embolism after breaking his leg during a game.
The Great Depression and the onset of World War II took a toll on the league. The Pirates became the Philadelphia Quakers in 1930 folded one year later; the Senators became the St. Louis Eagles in 1934 lasting only one
Brian Cody is an Irish hurling manager and former player. He has been the manager of the Kilkenny senior team since 1998, where he has since become the county's longest-serving manager and most successful in terms of major titles won. Cody is regarded as the greatest manager in the history of the game. Born in Sheestown, County Kilkenny, Cody was introduced to hurling by his father Brian senior the long-serving chairman of the local club team, he enjoyed All-Ireland success at colleges level as captain with St. Kieran's College while enjoying championship successes at underage levels with the James Stephens club. A two-time All-Ireland medallist with the James Stephens senior team, Cody won two Leinster medals and three championship medals. Cody made his debut on the inter-county scene at the age of sixteen when he first linked up with the Kilkenny minor team. An All-Ireland-winning captain in this grade, he won two All-Ireland medals with the under-21 team. Cody made his senior debut during the 1973 championship.
He went on to play a key role for Kilkenny in attack and defence during a hugely successful era, won three All-Ireland medals, four Leinster medals and two National Hurling League medals. An All-Ireland runner-up on two occasions, Cody captained the team to All-Ireland victory in 1982; as a member of the Leinster inter-provincial team, Cody won one Railway Cup medal as a non-playing substitute in 1977. Throughout his inter-county career he made 24 championship appearances. Cody retired from inter-county hurling during the 1986 championship. After being involved in team management and coaching in all grades at club level with James Stephens, Cody was appointed manager of the Kilkenny senior team on 16 November 1998, he has since gone on to lead Kilkenny through a period of unprecedented provincial and national dominance, winning 42 major honours. These include eleven All-Ireland Championships, including a record-equalling four-in-a-row between 2006 and 2009, fifteen Leinster Championships in eighteen seasons, nine National Leagues, including five league-championship doubles, seven Walsh Cups.
Cody was born on 12 July 1954 in Sheestown, County Kilkenny, to William "Bill" Cody and the former Annie Hoyne. Brian was the fourth of their nine children. Bill Cody, a native of Thomastown, worked with Royal Liver Assurance and became involved with the James Stephens club in the early 1960s, he was instrumental in forming a juvenile section within the club, while serving as a selector with the Kilkenny minor and senior teams. Bill Cody was elected vice-chairman of the club in 1967 and chairman in 1969, a position he held until 1986. Educated at the local national school in Kilkenny, Cody boarded at St. Kieran's College. After completing his Leaving Certificate he attended St. Patrick's College in Dublin where he qualified as a primary school teacher. Cody worked as a teacher at St. Patrick's De La Salle national school in Kilkenny, before serving as principal between 2009 and 2015. During his schooling at St. Kieran's College, Cody established himself as a key member of the senior hurling team.
In 1971 he won a Leinster medal as captain of the side following a 2-15 to 1-7 defeat of St Peter's College. On 9 May 1971 St. Kieran's faced St. Finbarr's College in the All-Ireland decider. An 8-6 to 5-8 victory gave Cody an All-Ireland medal. Cody won a second successive Leinster medal in 1972 following a 7-10 to 3-7 trouncing of Callan CBS. On 30 April 1972 St. Finbarr's renewed their rivalry in the All-Ireland decider. A 3-7 to 2-5 score line resulted in defeat for Cody's side. After enjoying championship success at underage level, Cody subsequently joined the James Stephens senior team. Defeat at the hands of the Fenians in 1973 was followed by a major breakthrough two years later. A 1–14 to 1–5 defeat of first-time finalists Galmoy gave Cody his first championship medal. James Stephens subsequently qualified for the provincial decider, with Offaly champions St. Rynagh's providing the opposition. James Stephens took the lead from the third minute, with Liam "Chunky" O'Brien being scorer-in-chief.
A 1–14 to 2–4 victory gave Cody his first Leinster medal. Two-time champions and hot favourites Blackrock provided the opposition in the subsequent All-Ireland decider; the Rockies got off to the better start, with two goals by Éamonn O'Donoghue and Pat Moylan giving them a 2–1 lead at the quarter mark. James Stephens were transformed in the second half. A 2–10 to 2–4 victory gave Cody his first All-Ireland medal. Cody won a second championship medal in 1976 as Rower-Inistioge were accounted for by 2–14 to 0–13. After a period of decline, James Stephens bounced back in 1981. A double scores 2–10 to 0–8 defeat of Fenians gave Cody a third championship medal, he collected a second Leinster medal as championship debutantes Faythe Harriers were narrowly defeated by 0–13 to 1–9. First time finalists Mount Sion of Waterford provided the opposition in the subsequent All-Ireland decider. A hat-trick of goals by John McCormack, together with a ten-point haul from Billy Walton, saw James Stephens fight back from seven points down to record a 3–13 to 3–8 victory.
It was a second All-Ireland medal for Cody. Cody first played for Kilkenny as a member of the minor team in 1971, he won his first Leinster medal that year following a huge 7-18 to 3-5 trouncing of reigning provincial champions Wexford. On 5 September 1971 Kilkenny faced. A narrow 2-11 to 1-11 victory for Cork resulted in defeat for Cody's side. After being appointed captain of the minor team in 1972, Cody won a second Leinster medal following another 7-10 to 0-4 trouncing of Wexford. On 3 September 1972 Kilkenny faced Galway in the subsequent All-Irela