A playwright or dramatist is a person who writes plays. One of the most famous playwrights in history was William Shakespeare; the word "play" is from Middle English pleye, from Old English plæġ, pleġa, plæġa ("play, exercise. The word "wright" is an archaic English term for a builder; the words combine to indicate a person who has "wrought" words and other elements into a dramatic form—a play. The first recorded use of the term "playwright" is from 1605, 73 years before the first written record of the term "dramatist", it appears to have been first used in a pejorative sense by Ben Jonson to suggest a mere tradesman fashioning works for the theatre. Jonson uses the word in his Epigram 49, thought to refer to John Marston: Epigram LXVIII — On Playwright PLAYWRIGHT me reads, still my verses damns, He says I want the tongue of epigrams. Playwright, I loath to have thy manners known In my chaste book. Jonson described himself as a poet, not a playwright, since plays during that time were written in meter and so were regarded as the province of poets.
This view was held as late as the early 19th century. The term "playwright" again lost this negative connotation; the earliest playwright in Western literature with surviving works are the Ancient Greeks. These early plays were for annual Athenian competitions among play writers held around the 5th century BC; such notables as Aeschylus, Sophocles and Aristophanes established forms still relied on by their modern counterparts. For the ancient Greeks, playwriting involved poïesis, "the act of making"; this is the source of the English word poet. In the 4th century BCE, Aristotle wrote his Poetics, in which he analyzed the principle of action or praxis as the basis for tragedy, he considered elements of drama: plot, thought, diction and spectacle. Since the myths, on which Greek tragedy were based, were known, plot had to do with the arrangement and selection of existing material. Character was determined by action. Tragedy is mimesis—"the imitation of an action, serious", he developed his notion of hamartia, or tragic flaw, an error in judgment by the main character or protagonist, which provides the basis for the "conflict-driven" play.
The Italian Renaissance brought about a stricter interpretation of Aristotle, as this long-lost work came to light in the late 15th century. The neoclassical ideal, to reach its apogee in France during the 17th century, dwelled upon the unities, of action and time; this meant that the playwright had to construct the play so that its "virtual" time would not exceed 24 hours, that it would be restricted to a single setting, that there would be no subplots. Other terms, such as verisimilitude and decorum, circumscribed the subject matter significantly. For example, verisimilitude limits of the unities. Decorum fitted proper protocols for language on stage. In France, contained too many events and actions, violating the 24-hour restriction of the unity of time. Neoclassicism never had as much traction in England, Shakespeare's plays are directly opposed to these models, while in Italy and bawdy commedia dell'arte and opera were more popular forms. In England, after the Interregnum, restoration of the monarchy in 1660, there was a move toward neoclassical dramaturgy.
One structural unit, still useful to playwrights today, is the "French scene", a scene in a play where the beginning and end are marked by a change in the makeup of the group of characters onstage, rather than by the lights going up or down or the set being changed. Popularized in the nineteenth century by the French playwrights Eugène Scribe and Victorien Sardou, the most schematic of all formats, the "well-made play" relies on a series of coincidences that determined the action; this plot driven format is reliant on a prop device, such as a glass of water, or letter that reveals some secret information. In most cases, the character receiving the secret information misinterprets its contents, thus setting off a chain of events. Well-made plays are thus motivated by various plot devices which lead to "discoveries" and "reversals of action," rather than being character motivated. Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House is an example of a well-made structure that began to integrate a more realistic approach to character.
The character Nora's leaving is as much motivated by "the letter" and disclosure of a "past secret" as it is by her own determination to strike out on her own. The well-made play infiltrated other forms of writing and is still seen in popular formats such as the mystery, or "whodunit." Contemporary playwrights in the United States do not reach the same level of fame or cultural importance as others did in the past. No longer the only outlet for serious drama or entertaining comedies, theatrical productions must use ticket sales as a source of income, which has caused many of them to reduce the number of new works being produced. For example, Playwrights Horizons produced only six plays in the 2002-03 seasons, compared with thirty-one in 1973-74; as revivals and large-scale production musicals become the de rigueur of Broadway productions, playwrights find it difficult to earn a living in the business, let alone achieve major successes. In an effort to develop new American voices in playwriting, a phenomenon known as new play development began to emerge in th
Giorgio Cornaro was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Treviso and Apostolic Nuncio to Florence. Giorgio Cornaro was born in Venice, Italy on 26 February 1524. In 20 February 1538, he was appointed during the papacy of Pope Paul III as Bishop of Treviso. On 1552, he was consecrated bishop by Bishop of Padua. On 13 January 1561, he was appointed during the papacy of Pope Pius IV as Apostolic Nuncio to Florence. On 8 February 1565, he resigned as Apostolic Nuncio to Florence, he served as Bishop of Treviso until his resignation on 29 November 1577. He died in 1578. Cheney, David M. "Nunciature to Florence". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018. Self-published Cheney, David M. "Diocese of Treviso". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018. Self-published Chow, Gabriel. "Diocese of Treviso". GCatholic.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018. Self-published
Giulia Lama was an Italian painter, active in Venice. Her dark, tense style contrasted with the dominant pastel colors of the late Baroque era. Lama was born c. 1681 in the parish of Santa Maria Formosa in Venice. She was trained by her father, the painter Agostino Lama, she studied alongside a childhood friend, Giambattista Piazzetta, the prominent rococo painter of various religious subjects and genre paintings. Though here was debate as to whether she was a student of Giovanni Battista Piazzetta or a student who painted alongside Piazzetta at the Scuola di Antonio Molinari in Venice. However, records show that they were fellow painters, not student; as a result of learning together their styles are similar in the sharp contrasts of shade. They were known to be good friends, Piazzetta painted a portrait of his friend in c.1715–20. Lama was well known for her plain appearance Lama herself was well aware of this and played it up in her own self-portraits. A letter written by the Abbé Conti to Madame de Caylus in March 1728 has been important in determining Lama's background and character.
She remarks, "The poor woman is persecuted by painted. It is true she is as ugly as she is intelligent, but she speaks with grace and polish, so that one pardons her face... She lives, however, a retired life." It reveals that in addition to being a great painter she was gifted in mathematics, a wonderfully skilled poet, a lace maker, an inventor. It brings to light the opposition of male artists to the career of a woman and the prejudices regarding physical beauty, this was an issue that confronted Rosalba Carriera. Lama was active as a historical painter and poet in Venice from till after 1753. One of her pieces, a Crucifixion altarpiece remain in situ at San Vitale, she had a successful career in public figure painting. Giulia Lama appears to have been the first woman to break the barrier against women studying and drawing the nude figure from life. Over 200 drawings that were discovered show that she indeed studied both male and female nude figures during her training, she had public success in a style, a position held by men, giving rise to opposition from her male counterparts who were not prepared to tolerate such competition.
That she was able to compete at all is amazing because painting human subjects required study of the human figure and the nude figure, most women of her era did not have access to study nudes. As a trained professional, she was just as capable of painting a sensitive portrait such as, Young Man with a Turban, as she was of carrying out large, original commissions, such as altarpieces, with confidence, it is through the identification of three such altarpieces in a Venetian guidebook of 1733 that Lama's artistic personality began to be reconstructed. That she was as competent as the male artists with whom she competed is demonstrated by the names to which her work has been attributed. Recovery of Lama's oeuvre has required reattribution of works by not only Piazzetta, but artists such as Federico Bencovich, Domenico Maggiotto, Francesco Capella, Zurbarán, among others. Bryan, Michael. Walter Armstrong and Robert Edmund Graves. Dictionary of Painters and Engravers and Critical. York St. #4, Covent Garden, London.
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