National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Sequoia National Park
Sequoia National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada east of Visalia, California, in the United States. It was established on September 25,1890, the park is south of and contiguous with Kings Canyon National Park, the two are administered by the National Park Service together as the Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. They were designated the UNESCO Sequoia-Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve in 1976, the park is famous for its giant sequoia trees, including the General Sherman tree, the largest tree on Earth. The General Sherman tree grows in the Giant Forest, which five out of the ten largest trees in the world. The Giant Forest is connected by the Generals Highway to Kings Canyon National Parks General Grant Grove, the parks giant sequoia forests are part of 202,430 acres of old-growth forests shared by Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. Indeed, the preserve a landscape that still resembles the southern Sierra Nevada before Euro-American settlement. Many park visitors enter Sequoia National Park through its entrance near the town of Three Rivers at Ash Mountain at 1,700 ft elevation.
The last California grizzly was killed in this park in 1922, the California Black Oak is a key transition species between the chaparral and higher elevation conifer forest. At higher elevations in the front country, between 5,500 and 9,000 feet in elevation, the landscape becomes montane forest-dominated coniferous belt, found here are Ponderosa, Jeffrey and lodgepole pine trees, as well as abundant white and red fir. Found here too are the giant sequoia trees, the most massive living single-stem trees on earth, between the trees and summer snowmelts sometimes fan out to form lush, though delicate, meadows. In this region, visitors often see deer, Douglas squirrels, and American black bears. There are plans to reintroduce the bighorn sheep to this park, the vast majority of the park is roadless wilderness, no road crosses the Sierra Nevada within the parks boundaries. 84 percent of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks is designated wilderness and is only by foot or by horseback. Sequoias backcountry offers a vast expanse of high-alpine wonders, covering the highest-elevation region of the High Sierra, the backcountry includes Mount Whitney on the eastern border of the park, accessible from the Giant Forest via the High Sierra Trail.
On the floor of canyon, at least two days hike from the nearest road, is the Kern Canyon hot spring, a popular resting point for weary backpackers. From the floor of Kern Canyon, the trail ascends again over 8,000 ft to the summit of Mount Whitney, in the summertime, Native Americans would travel over the high mountain passes to trade with tribes to the East. By the time the first European settlers arrived in the area, smallpox had spread to the region. The first European settler to homestead in the area was Hale Tharp, Tharp allowed his cattle to graze the meadow, but at the same time had a respect for the grandeur of the forest and led early battles against logging in the area
Yuba County, California
Yuba County is a county located in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 72,155, Yuba County is included in the Yuba City, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Sacramento-Roseville, CA Combined Statistical Area. The county is located in Californias Central Valley along the Feather River, Yuba County was one of the original counties of California, formed in 1850 at the time of statehood. Parts of the territory were given to Placer County in 1851, to Nevada County in 1851. The county was named after the Yuba River by Captain John Sutter for the Native American village Yubu, Yupu or Juba near the confluence of the Yuba and Feather rivers. General Mariano Vallejo stated that the river was named Uba by an expedition in 1824 because of the quantities of wild grapes which they found growing on its banks. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 644 square miles. It is the fifth-smallest county in California by total area, the county lies along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, the steep slopes making it prime territory for the siting of hydroelectric power plants.
A portion of the county, where Marysville and most of the lives, is west of the mountains on the valley floor. There is a deal of agriculture business in this part of the county, especially fruit orchards, rice fields. National protected areas within Yuba County include portions of the Plumas National Forest, in addition to these identified protected areas the county has extensive natural areas consisting of forestation, riparian area and other habitats. The county exhibits a diversity of flowering plant species, among which is the yellow mariposa lily. The following table includes the number of reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. Yuba is a strongly Republican county in Presidential and congressional elections, the last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Jimmy Carter in 1976. In the United States House of Representatives, Yuba County is in Californias 3rd congressional district, in the California State Legislature, the county is in the 4th Senate District, represented by Republican Jim Nielsen, and the 3rd Assembly District, represented by Republican James Gallagher.
State Route 20 State Route 49 State Route 65 State Route 70 Yuba Sutter Transit operates local bus service, Yuba County Airport is located three miles south of Marysville. It is a general aviation airport, Brownsville Aero Pines Airport is located off La Porte Rd in Brownsville. The 2010 United States Census reported that Yuba County had a population of 72,155
The Feather River is the principal tributary of the Sacramento River, in the Sacramento Valley of Northern California. The rivers main stem is about 71 miles long and its length to its most distant headwater tributary is about 220 miles. Its drainage basin is about 6,000 square miles, the main stem Feather River begins in Lake Oroville, where its four long tributary forks join together—the South Fork, Middle Fork, North Fork, and West Branch Feather Rivers. These and other tributaries drain part of the northern Sierra Nevada, the rivers drainage basin above Lake Oroville is 3,222 square miles, or about 53% of the whole. The Feather River and its forks were a center of gold mining during the 19th century. Since the 1960s, the river has provided water to central and southern California and its water is used for hydroelectricity generation. The river rises in four main forks in the Sierra Nevada which unite as arms of the Lake Oroville reservoir in the foothills 5 miles northeast of Oroville in eastern Butte County.
In terms of areas the largest is the North Fork. The Middle Fork is the second largest, draining about 32% of the upper basin, the South Fork and the West Branch are much smaller, each drains less than 5% of the upper basin. The main stem Feather River begins at Oroville Dam, the outlet of Lake Oroville, from there the river flows generally south across the Sacramento Valley, east of the Sutter Buttes, past Oroville and Yuba City-Marysville. The Feather receives the Yuba River from the east at Yuba City and it empties into the Sacramento River from the north, about 20 miles northwest of Sacramento. The North Fork Feather River begins in Feather River Meadows at the junction of Rice Creek and South Arm Rice Creek, the names and confluence locations of the streams in this area were changed by the Board on Geographic Names in 1927. USGS topographic maps, as of 1995, are mislabeled for South Arm, North Arm Rice Creek, Rice Creek, the North Forks length is about 102 miles, or about 112 miles including Rice Creek.
The total length of the Feather River from the source of Rice Creek to the Sacramento River is about 187 miles, from its source in Feather River Meadows the North Fork flows east. A tributary emerges from Buzzard Springs and flows into the Stump Ranch Marsh Area, where it joins the North Fork, which flows southeast to Lake Almanor. Below Canyon Dam the North Fork flows generally southwest through the Sierra Nevada, the East Branch is one of the major tributaries of the Feather River system. It originates at 40°2′16″N 120°58′57″W, at the confluence of Indian Creek, impounded at Antelope Dam, Indian Creek joins Spanish Creek to form the East Branch North Fork Feather River. From its source at the Indian and Spanish Creeks confluence, the East Branch North Fork flows west past Twain, the East Branchs main stem length is about 18 miles
It is the most widely distributed pine species in North America. It grows in various forms from British Columbia southward and eastward through 16 western U. S. states and has been successfully introduced in temperate regions of Europe. It was first documented into modern science in 1826 in eastern Washington near present-day Spokane, on that occasion, David Douglas misidentified it as Pinus resinosa. In 1829, Douglas concluded that he had a new pine among his specimens, in 1836, it was formally named and described by Charles Lawson, a Scottish nurseryman. It is the state tree of Montana. Pinus ponderosa is a large pine tree. The bark helps to distinguish it from other species, mature to over-mature individuals have yellow to orange-red bark in broad to very broad plates with black crevices. Younger trees have blackish-brown bark, referred to as blackjacks by early loggers, ponderosa pines five subspecies, as classified by some botanists, can be identified by their characteristically bright, green needles.
The Pacific subspecies has the longest—19.8 cm or 7.8 in—and most flexible needles in fascicles of three. The Columbia ponderosa pine has long—12. 0–20.5 cm or 4. 7–8.1 in—and relatively flexible needles in fascicles of three. The Rocky Mountains subspecies has shorter—9. 2–14.4 cm or 3. 6–5.7 in—and stout needles growing in scopulate fascicles of two or three. The southwestern subspecies has 11. 2–19.8 cm or 4. 4–7.8 in, needles are widest and fewest for the species. Sources differ on the scent of P. ponderosa, but it is more or less of turpentine, some state that it has no distinctive scent. The National Register of Big Trees lists a ponderosa pine that is 235 ft tall and 324 in in circumference, in January 2011, a Pacific ponderosa pine in the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest in Oregon was measured with a laser to be 268.35 ft high. The measurement was performed by Michael Taylor and Mario Vaden, a professional arborist from Oregon, the tree was climbed on October 13,2011, by Ascending The Giants and directly measured with tape-line at 268.29 ft high.
This is the second tallest known pine after the sugar pine and this species is grown as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens. The trees were burned and blown over. Pinus ponderosa is a dominant tree in the Kuchler plant association, like most western pines, the ponderosa generally is associated with mountainous topography
Sierra County, California
Sierra County is a county located in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,240 making it the second-least populous county in California, the county seat is Downieville, and the only incorporated city is Loyalton. The county is located in the Sierra Nevada, northeast of Sacramento on the border with Nevada, Sierra County was formed from parts of Yuba County in 1852. The county derives its name from the Sierra Nevada, prior to the California Gold Rush, the area was home to both the Maidu and the Washoe peoples. They generally summered in the elevations to hunt and fish. After the discovery of gold in the Sierra foothills sparked the California Gold Rush, most mining settlements in the county sprung up along the North and Middle Forks of the Yuba River, both of which had rich deposits of gold. While some of the boom towns faded away once gold fever died down, other settlements such as Downieville. Notable gold nuggets found in the county include a 26.5 pound specimen, found by a group of sailors at Sailor Ravine, a 51-pound specimen was found in 1853 by a group of Frenchmen in French Ravine.
The 106 pound Monumental Nugget was found in Sept.1869 at Sierra City, the Bald Mountain drift mine in Forest City was founded in Aug.1864, and was the largest of its kind in the state at the time. The Bald Mountain Extension was located in 1874 east of Forest, the Monte Cristo Mine was located in 1854. The largest quartz-mine is the Sierra Buttes Gold Mine was located in 1850 near Sierra City, the Gold Bluff Mine was located near Downnieville in 1854. By 1880 the county was crushing 70,000 tons of quartz and had 266 miles of mining ditches. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 962 square miles. In more recent times it is a strongly Republican county in Presidential and congressional elections, the last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Jimmy Carter in 1976. On November 4,2008 Sierra County voted 64. 2% for Proposition 8, U. S. Sierraville-Dearwater Field Airport is a general aviation airport located near Sierraville. The following table includes the number of reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.
As of 2015 the largest self-reported ancestry groups in Sierra County, California are, The 2010 United States Census reported that Sierra County had a population of 3,240. The racial makeup of Sierra County was 3,022 White,6 African American,44 Native American,12 Asian,2 Pacific Islander,75 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 269 persons
Abies concolor, commonly known as the white fir or Colorado white-fir, is a fir native to the mountains of western North America, occurring at elevations of 900–3,400 m. It is a medium to large coniferous tree growing to 25–60 m tall. It is popular as a landscaping tree and as a Christmas tree. It is sometimes called concolor fir, the cones are 6–12 cm long and 4–4.5 cm broad, green or purple ripening pale brown, with about 100–150 scales, the scale bracts are short, and hidden in the closed cone. The winged seeds are released when the cones disintegrate at maturity about 6 months after pollination. As treated here, there are two subspecies, these are variously treated at either the lower rank of variety by some authors, or as distinct species by others. Concolor — Colorado white fir or Rocky Mountains white fir, a smaller tree to 25–35 m tall, rarely 45 m. Foliage strongly upcurved to erect on all except weak shaded shoots in the crown, leaves mostly 3. 5–6 cm. Tolerates winter temperatures down to about −40 °C, lowiana — Lows white fir or Sierra Nevada white fir.
In the United States, at altitudes of 900–2,700 m from the Cascades of central Oregon south through California to northern Baja California, a larger tree to 40–60 m tall. Tolerates winter temperatures down to about −30 °C, to the south in Mexico, it is replaced by further close relatives, Durango fir and Mexican fir. It is sometimes regarded as a pest by those in the industry, as it drives out trees of greater stature, has weaker, knottier wood than its competitors. This latter trait creates a fire ladder that allows flames to reach up to the canopy and this tree was discovered by William Lobb on his expedition to California of 1849–1853, having been overlooked previously by David Douglas. This tree is host to fir mistletoe, a parasitic plant and it is attacked by many types of insects, such as the fir engraver. White fir is a preferred construction species because of its ability, lightness in weight, and resistance to split, twist. It is straight-grained, non-resinous, fine-textured and strong, White fir is popular as a Christmas tree and for Christmas decoration owing to its soft needles, generally excellent needle retention and abundance.
It is often marketed as concolor or white fir, White fir is widely planted as an ornamental tree in parks and larger gardens, particularly some cultivars of subsp. Concolor selected for very bright blue foliage, such as cv
Calocedrus is a genus of coniferous trees in the cypress family Cupressaceae first described as a genus in 1873. It is native to eastern Asia and western North America, the generic name means beautiful cedar. The genus is related to the Thuja, and has similar overlapping scale-leaves, Calocedrus decurrens, California incense cedar, is native to western North America. It is a tree, typically reaching heights of 40–60 m and a trunk diameter of up to 3 m. The leaves are green on both sides of the shoots, and the cones 2–2.5 cm long. It is by far the most widely known species in the genus, Calocedrus formosana, Taiwan incense cedar, is endemic to Taiwan. It is very similar to C. macrolepis, and some treat it as a variety of that. It is a tree, growing to 25–30 m tall. The leaves are green on the upper side of the shoots. The cones are 1. 5–2 cm long, carried on a 1–1.5 cm stem, †Calocedrus huashanensis is an extinct species which was described in 2012. It is known from fossils found in the Oligocene age Ningming Formation of southern China.
Calocedrus huashanensis is known from branches and leaves and it is a medium-size tree to 25–30 m tall, and like C. formosana, is rare in the wild. The leaves and cones are similar to C. formosana, differing most obviously in the shorter cone stem, Calocedrus rupestris, the most recently discovered living species of Calocedrus, was identified in Vietnam and first described in 2004. It occurs exclusively on limestone terrain, a habitat that has a very high level of endemism. The close proximity of these populations to the Chinese and Laotian borders indicates that the species may occur in countries as well. It is an evergreen, monoecious tree up to 25 m tall with a rounded crown. †Calocedrus suleticensis is a species known from fossils found in the Early Oligocene of Probostov in the volcanic complex of the Ceske stredohori Mts. Boehmia. Calocedrus suleticensis is known from a cone, the wood of Calocedrus is soft, moderately decay-resistant, and with a strong spicy-resinous fragrance
Old-growth features include diverse tree-related structures that provide diverse wildlife habitat that increases the biodiversity of the forested ecosystem. The concept of tree structure includes multi-layered canopies and canopy gaps, greatly varying tree heights and diameters. Old-growth forests are valuable, and logging of these forests has been a point of contention between the logging industry and environmentalists. Old-growth forests tend to have trees and standing dead trees, multi-layered canopies with gaps that result from the deaths of individual trees. Depending on the forest, this may take anywhere from a century to several millennia, hardwood forests of the eastern United States can develop old-growth characteristics in one or two generations of trees, or 150–500 years. In British Columbia, old growth is defined as 120 to 140 years of age in the interior of the province where fire is a frequent and natural occurrence. In British Columbia’s coastal rainforests, old growth is defined as more than 250 years.
In Australia, eucalypt trees rarely exceed 350 years of age due to frequent fire disturbance, Forest types have very different development patterns, natural disturbances and appearances. Levels of biodiversity may be higher or lower in old-growth forests compared to that in second-growth forests, depending on circumstances, environmental variables. Logging in old-growth forests is an issue in many parts of the world. Excessive logging reduces biodiversity, affecting not only the old-growth forest itself, a forest in old-growth stage has a mix of tree ages, due to a distinct regeneration pattern for this stage. New trees regenerate at different times from other, because each one of them has different spatial location relative to the main canopy. The mixed age of the forest is an important criterion in ensuring that the forest is a stable ecosystem in the long term. A climax stand that is uniformly aged becomes senescent and degrades within a relatively short time-period to result in a new cycle of forest succession, uniformly aged stands are a less stable ecosystem.
Forest canopy gaps are essential in creating and maintaining mixed-age stands, some herbaceous plants only become established in canopy openings, but persist beneath an understory. Openings are a result of death due to small impact disturbances such as wind, low-intensity fires. Because old-growth forest is structurally diverse it provides higher-diversity habitat than forests in other stages, sometimes higher biological diversity can be sustained in old-growth forest, or at least a biodiversity that is different from other forest stages. The characteristic topography of much old-growth forest consists of pits and mounds, mounds are caused by decaying fallen trees, and pits by the roots pulled out of the ground when trees fall due to natural causes, including being pushed over by animals
Death Valley National Park
Death Valley National Park is a national park in the United States. Straddling the border of California and Nevada, located east of the Sierra Nevada, the park protects the northwest corner of the Mojave Desert and contains a diverse desert environment of salt-flats, sand dunes, valleys and mountains. It is the largest national park in the lower 48 states and has declared an International Biosphere Reserve. Approximately 91% of the park is a wilderness area. It is the hottest and lowest of the parks in the United States. The second-lowest point in the Western Hemisphere is in Badwater Basin, the park is home to many species of plants and animals that have adapted to this harsh desert environment. Some examples include creosote bush, bighorn sheep and the Death Valley pupfish, several short-lived boom towns sprang up during the late 19th and early 20th centuries to mine gold and silver. The only long-term profitable ore to be mined was borax, which was transported out of the valley with twenty-mule teams, the valley became the subject of books, radio programs, television series, and movies.
Tourism blossomed in the 1920s, when resorts were built around Stovepipe Wells, Death Valley National Monument was declared in 1933 and the park was substantially expanded and became a national park in 1994. The natural environment of the area has been shaped largely by its geology, the valley itself is actually a graben. The oldest rocks are metamorphosed and at least 1.7 billion years old. Ancient, shallow seas deposited marine sediments until rifting opened the Pacific Ocean, additional sedimentation occurred until a subduction zone formed off the coast. This uplifted the region out of the sea and created a line of volcanoes, the crust started to pull apart, creating the current Basin and Range landform. Valleys filled with sediment and, during the wet times of glacial periods, with lakes, in 2013, Death Valley National Park was designated as a dark sky park by the International Dark-Sky Association. There are two valleys in the park, Death Valley and Panamint Valley. Both of these valleys were formed within the last few million years, the result of this shearing action is additional extension in the central part of Death Valley which causes a slight widening and more subsidence there.
Uplift of surrounding mountain ranges and subsidence of the floor are both occurring. The uplift on the Black Mountains is so fast that the fans there are small
Kings Canyon National Park
Kings Canyon National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada, east of Fresno, California. The park was established in 1940 and covers 461,901 acres and it incorporated General Grant National Park, established in 1890 to protect the General Grant Grove of giant sequoias. The park is north of and contiguous with Sequoia National Park and they were designated the UNESCO Sequoia-Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve in 1976. Humans have inhabited the area for thousands of years, the first Native Americans in the area were Paiute peoples, who moved into the region from their ancestral home east of Mono Lake. The Paiute Nation people used deer and other animals for food. They created trade routes that extended down the slope of the Sierra into the Owens Valley. Kings Canyon had been known to white settlers since the mid-19th century, United States Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes fought to create the Kings Canyon National Park. He hired Ansel Adams to photograph and document this among other parks, the bill combined the General Grant Grove with the backcountry beyond Zumwalt Meadow.
Kings Canyons future was in doubt for nearly fifty years, some wanted to build a dam at the western end of the valley, while others wanted to preserve it as a park. The debate was settled in 1965, when the valley, along with Tehipite Valley, was added to the park, Kings Canyon National Park consists of two sections. The parks Giant Sequoia forests are part of 202,430 acres of old-growth forests shared by Sequoia and this section of the park is mostly mixed conifer forest, and is readily accessible via paved highways. Both the South and Middle Forks of the Kings Rivers have extensive glacial canyons, one portion of the South Fork canyon, known as the Kings Canyon, gives the entire park its name. Kings Canyon, with a depth of 8,200 feet, is one of the deepest canyons in the United States. The canyon was carved by glaciers out of granite, the Kings Canyon, and its developed area, Cedar Grove, is the only portion of the main part of the park that is accessible by motor vehicle. Both the Kings Canyon and its Middle Fork twin, Tehipite Valley, are deeply incised, U-shaped glacial gorges with relatively flat floors and towering granite cliffs thousands of feet high.
In addition, the canyon has several systems, one of which is Boyden Cave. To the east of the canyons are the peaks of the Sierra Crest, which attain an elevation of 14,248 feet NAVD88 at the summit of North Palisade. This is classic high Sierra country, barren ridges and glacially scoured lake-filled basins
Oroville is the county seat of Butte County, United States. The population was 15,506 at the 2010 census, up from 13,004 in the 2000 census, Oroville is considered the gateway to Lake Oroville and Feather River recreational areas. The city of Oroville has recently annexed two locations in South Oroville, areas A and B, which have a population of 2,725 people. The U. S. Census Bureau estimated the population of the city to be 17,996 as of January 1,2016, the Berry Creek Rancheria of Maidu Indians of California is headquartered here. Oroville is located off of State Route 70, and is in proximity to State Route 99. Chico, California is located about 25 minutes north of the city, Oroville is situated at the base of the foothills on the banks of the Feather River where it flows out of the Sierra Nevada onto the flat floor of the Sacramento Valley. It was established as the head of navigation on the Feather River to supply miners during the California Gold Rush. The town was originally called Ophir City, but the name was changed to Oroville when the first post office opened in 1854, the City Of Oroville was incorporated on January 3,1906.
Gold was found at Bidwell Bar, one of the first gold mining sites in California, Oroville would serve as an important stop for the famous California Zephyr during its 20-year run. In 1983, this became a part of the Union Pacific Railroad as their Feather River Canyon Subdivision, a major highway, State Route 70, roughly parallels the railroad line winding through the canyon. The Chinese Temple is another monument to Orovilles storied past, Chinese laborers from the pioneer era established the Temple as a place of worship for followers of Chinese Popular Religion and the three major Chinese religions, Taoism and Confucianism. The Chinese Temple and Garden, as it is now called, has a collection of artifacts. The olive-canning industry was founded in Oroville by Freda Ehmann, the mother of ripe olives and she built a large cannery in Oroville, and by 1900 was the president of the worlds largest canned olive factory. Ehmann was a believer in womens suffrage and a friend of Susan B, anthony Ishi, Orovilles most famous resident, was the last of the Yahi Indians and is considered the last Stone Age Indian to come out of the wilderness and into western civilization.
When he appeared out of the hills in East Oroville in 1911, the Visitors Center at Lake Oroville has a thorough exhibit and documentary film on Ishi and his life in society. Archaeological finds place the border for the prehistoric Martis people in the Oroville area. On August 7,1881, beloved elderly pioneer Jack Crum was stomped to death by local bully Tom Noacks in Chico, California. The young Noacks was feared by the locals of Butte County, not only because of his size and strength, but because he was mentally unbalanced and enjoyed punching oxen in the head