The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Lanfranc was a celebrated Italian jurist who renounced his career to become a Benedictine monk at Bec in Normandy. He served successively as prior of Bec Abbey and abbot of St Stephen in Normandy and as archbishop of Canterbury in England, following its Conquest by William the Conqueror, he is variously known as Lanfranc of Pavia, Lanfranc of Bec, Lanfranc of Canterbury. Lanfranc was born in the early years of the 11th century at Pavia, where tradition held that his father, held a rank broadly equivalent to magistrate, he was orphaned at an early age. Lanfranc was trained in the liberal arts, at that time a field. For unknown reasons at an uncertain date, he crossed the Alps, soon taking up the role of teacher in France and in Normandy. About 1039 he became the master of the cathedral school at Avranches, where he taught for three years with conspicuous success, but in 1042 he embraced the monastic profession in the newly founded Bec Abbey. Until 1045 he lived at Bec in absolute seclusion. Lanfranc was persuaded by Abbot Herluin to open a school at Bec to relieve the monastery's poverty.
From the first he was celebrated. His pupils were drawn not only from France and Normandy, but from Gascony, Flanders and Italy. Many of them afterwards attained high positions in the Church; the favourite subjects of his lectures were the trivium of grammar and rhetoric and the application of these principles to theological elucidation. In one of Lanfranc's most important works, The Commentary on the Epistles of St. Paul; as a result of his growing reputation Lanfranc was invited to defend the doctrine of transubstantiation against the attacks of Berengar of Tours. He took up the task with the greatest zeal. To Lanfranc's influence is attributed the desertion of Berengar's cause by Hildebrand and the more broad-minded of the cardinals. Our knowledge of Lanfranc's polemics is chiefly derived from the tract De corpore et sanguine Domini written c. 1060–63. Though betraying no signs of metaphysical ability, his work was regarded as conclusive and became for a while a text-book in the schools, it is said to be the place where the Aristotelian distinction between substance and accident was first applied to explain Eucharistic change.
It is the most important of the surviving works attributed to Lanfranc. In the midst of Lanfranc's scholastic and controversial activities Lanfranc became a political force. Tradition told that while he was Prior of Bec he opposed the non-canonical marriage of Duke William with Matilda of Flanders and carried matters so far that he incurred a sentence of exile, their relationship was within the prohibited degrees of kindred. But the quarrel was settled when he was on the point of departure, he undertook the difficult task of obtaining the pope’s approval of the marriage. In this he was successful at the same council which witnessed his third victory over Berengar, he thus acquired a lasting claim on William's gratitude. In 1066 Lanfranc became the first Abbot of the Abbey of Saint-Étienne at Caen in Normandy, a monastery dedicated to Saint Stephen which the duke had been enjoined to found as a penance for his disobedience to the Holy See. Henceforward Lanfranc exercised a perceptible influence on his master's policy.
William adopted the Cluniac programme of ecclesiastical reform, obtained the support of Rome for his English expedition by assuming the attitude of a crusader against schism and corruption. It was Alexander II a pupil of Lanfranc's and a close friend, who gave the Norman Conquest the papal benediction—a notable advantage to William at the moment, but subsequently the cause of serious embarrassments; when the see of Rouen next fell vacant, the thoughts of the electors turned to Lanfranc. But he declined the honour, he was nominated to the English Primacy as Archbishop of Canterbury as soon as Stigand had been canonically deposed on 15 August 1070, he was speedily consecrated on 29 August 1070. The new archbishop at once began a policy of reform, his first difficulties were with Thomas of Bayeux, Archbishop-elect of York, who asserted that his see was independent of Canterbury and claimed jurisdiction over the greater part of the English Midlands. This was the beginning of a long running dispute between the sees of Canterbury and York known as the Canterbury–York dispute.
Lanfranc, during a visit which he paid the pope for the purpose of receiving his pallium, obtained an order from Alexander that the disputed points should be settled by a council of the English Church. This was held at Winchester in 1072. At this council Lanfranc obtained the confirmation of his primacy. Lanfra
Augustine of Canterbury
Augustine of Canterbury was a Benedictine monk who became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in the year 597. He is considered the "Apostle to the English" and a founder of the English Church. Augustine was the prior of a monastery in Rome when Pope Gregory the Great chose him in 595 to lead a mission known as the Gregorian mission, to Britain to Christianize King Æthelberht and his Kingdom of Kent from Anglo-Saxon paganism. Kent was chosen because Æthelberht had married a Christian princess, daughter of Charibert I the King of Paris, expected to exert some influence over her husband. Before reaching Kent, the missionaries had considered turning back, but Gregory urged them on, in 597, Augustine landed on the Isle of Thanet and proceeded to Æthelberht's main town of Canterbury. King Æthelberht converted to Christianity and allowed the missionaries to preach giving them land to found a monastery outside the city walls. Augustine was consecrated as a bishop and converted many of the king's subjects, including thousands during a mass baptism on Christmas Day in 597.
Pope Gregory sent more missionaries in 601, along with encouraging letters and gifts for the churches, although attempts to persuade the native British bishops to submit to Augustine's authority failed. Roman bishops were established at London, Rochester in 604, a school was founded to train Anglo-Saxon priests and missionaries. Augustine arranged the consecration of his successor, Laurence of Canterbury; the archbishop died in 604 and was soon revered as a saint. After the withdrawal of the Roman legions from their province of Britannia in 410, the inhabitants were left to defend themselves against the attacks of the Saxons. Before the Roman withdrawal, Britannia had been converted to Christianity and produced the ascetic Pelagius. Britain sent three bishops to the Council of Arles in 314, a Gaulish bishop went to the island in 396 to help settle disciplinary matters. Material remains testify to a growing presence of Christians, at least until around 360. After the Roman legions departed, pagan tribes settled the southern parts of the island while western Britain, beyond the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, remained Christian.
This native British Church developed in isolation from Rome under the influence of missionaries from Ireland and was centred on monasteries instead of bishoprics. Other distinguishing characteristics were its calculation of the date of Easter and the style of the tonsure haircut that clerics wore. Evidence for the survival of Christianity in the eastern part of Britain during this time includes the survival of the cult of Saint Alban and the occurrence in place names of eccles, derived from the Latin ecclesia, meaning "church". There is no evidence; the invasions destroyed most remnants of Roman civilisation in the areas held by the Saxons and related tribes, including the economic and religious structures. It was against this background that Pope Gregory I decided to send a mission called the Gregorian mission, to convert the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity in 595; the Kingdom of Kent was ruled by Æthelberht, who married a Christian princess named Bertha before 588, earlier than 560. Bertha was the daughter of Charibert one of the Merovingian kings of the Franks.
As one of the conditions of her marriage, she brought. Together in Canterbury, they restored a church that dated to Roman times—possibly the current St Martin's Church. Æthelberht allowed his wife freedom of worship. One biographer of Bertha states that under his wife's influence, Æthelberht asked Pope Gregory to send missionaries; the historian Ian N. Wood feels that the initiative came from the Kentish court as well as the queen. Other historians, believe that Gregory initiated the mission, although the exact reasons remain unclear. Bede, an 8th-century monk who wrote a history of the English church, recorded a famous story in which Gregory saw fair-haired Saxon slaves from Britain in the Roman slave market and was inspired to try to convert their people. More practical matters, such as the acquisition of new provinces acknowledging the primacy of the papacy, a desire to influence the emerging power of the Kentish kingdom under Æthelberht, were involved; the mission may have been an outgrowth of the missionary efforts against the Lombards who, as pagans and Arian Christians, were not on good relations with the Catholic church in Rome.
Aside from Æthelberht's granting of freedom of worship to his wife, the choice of Kent was dictated by a number of other factors. Kent was the dominant power in southeastern Britain. Since the eclipse of King Ceawlin of Wessex in 592, Æthelberht was the leading Anglo-Saxon ruler. Trade between the Franks and Æthelberht's kingdom was well established, the language barrier between the two regions was only a minor obstacle, as the interpreters for the mission came from the Franks. Lastly, Kent's proximity to the Franks allowed support from a Christian area. There is some evidence, including Gregory's letters to Frankish kings in support of the mission, that some of the Franks felt that they had a claim to overlordship over some of the southern British kingdoms at this time; the presence of a Frankish bishop could have lent credence to claims of overlordship, if Bertha's Bishop Liudhard was felt to be acting as a representative of the Frankish church and not as a spiritual advisor to the queen. Frankish influence was not political.
Odo of Bayeux
Odo of Bayeux, Earl of Kent and Bishop of Bayeux, was the half-brother of William the Conqueror, was, for a time, second in power after the King of England. Odo was the son of Herluin de Conteville. Count Robert of Mortain was his younger brother. There is uncertainty about his birth date; some historians have suggested he was born around 1035. Duke William made him bishop of Bayeux in 1049, it has been suggested that his birth was as early as 1030, making him about nineteen rather than fourteen at the time. Although Odo was an ordained Christian cleric, he is best known as a warrior and statesman, participating in the Council of Lillebonne, he found ships for the Norman invasion of England and is one of the few proven companions of William the Conqueror, known to have fought at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. The Bayeux Tapestry commissioned by him to adorn his own cathedral, appears to labour the point that he did not fight, to say shed blood, at Hastings, but rather encouraged the troops from the rear.
The Latin annotation embroidered onto the Tapestry above his image reads: "Hic Odo Eps Baculu Tenens Confortat Pueros", in English "Here Odo the Bishop holding a club strengthens the boys". It has been suggested that his clerical status forbade him from using a sword, though this is doubtful: the club was a common weapon and used by leadership including by Duke William himself, as depicted in the same part of the Tapestry. Odo was accompanied by William the carrier of his crozier and a retinue of servants and members of his household. In 1067, Odo became Earl of Kent, for some years he was a trusted royal minister. On some occasions when William was absent, he served as de facto regent of England, at times he led the royal forces against rebellions: the precise sphere of his powers is not certain. There are other occasions when he accompanied William back to Normandy. During this time Odo acquired vast estates in England, larger in extent than anyone except the king: he had land in twenty-three counties in the south east and in East Anglia.
In 1076 at the Trial of Penenden Heath Odo was tried in front of a large and senior assembly over the course of three days at Penenden Heath in Kent for defrauding the Crown and the Diocese of Canterbury. At the conclusion of the trial he was forced to return a number of properties and his assets were re-apportioned. In 1082, Odo was disgraced and imprisoned for having planned a military expedition to Italy, his motives are not certain. Chroniclers writing a generation said Odo desired to make himself pope during the Investiture Controversy while Pope Gregory VII was in severe difficulty in his conflict with Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, the position of pope was in contention. Whatever the reason, Odo spent the next five years in prison and his English estates were taken back by the king, as was his office as Earl of Kent. Odo was not deposed as Bishop of Bayeux. On his deathbed in 1087, King William I was reluctantly persuaded by his half-brother, Count of Mortain, to release Odo. After the king's death, Odo returned to England.
William's eldest son, Robert Curthose, had been made duke of Normandy, while Robert's brother William Rufus had received the throne of England. The bishop supported Robert Curthose's claim to England; the Rebellion of 1088 failed and William Rufus permitted Odo to leave the kingdom. Afterwards, Odo remained in the service of Robert in Normandy. Odo joined the First Crusade and started in the duke's company for Palestine, but died on the way at Palermo in January or February 1097, he was buried in Palermo Cathedral. William Stearns Davis writes in Life on a Medieval Barony: Bishop Odo of Bayeux fought at Hastings before any such authorized champions of the church existed.... That bishops shall restrain from warfare is a pious wish not in this sinful world to be granted. On screen, Odo has been portrayed by John Nettleton in the two-part BBC TV play Conquest, part of the series Theatre 625, by Denis Lill in the TV drama Blood Royal: William the Conqueror. Bates, David. "Odo, earl of Kent". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/20543. Retrieved 23 August 2010. Ireland, William Henry. England's Topographer: or A Complete History of the County of Kent. London: G. Virtue. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Odo of Bayeux". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Bates, David,'The Character and Career of Odo, Bishop of Bayeux', in: Speculum, vol. 50, pp. 1–20. LePatourel, John. "The Date of the Trial on Penenden Heath". The English Historical Review. 61: 378–388. Doi:10.1093/ehr/LXI. CCXLI.378. "Odo of Bayeux". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 August 2010. Rowley, The Man Behind the Bayeux Tapestry: Odo, William the Conqueror's Half-Brother ISBN 978-0-7524-6025-3 Nakashian, Craig M, Warrior Churchmen of Medieval England, 1000-1250 ISBN 978-1-7832-7162-7
Woolwich is a district of south-east London, within the Royal Borough of Greenwich. A town in Kent, it has been part of the London metropolitan area since the 19th century. In 1965, most of the former Metropolitan Borough of Woolwich became part of Greenwich Borough, of which it remains the administrative centre; the town is a river crossing point, with the Woolwich Ferry and the Woolwich foot tunnel crossing to North Woolwich in the London Docklands. Throughout the 17th, 18th, 19th and most of the 20th century, Woolwich was an important naval and industrial town. After several decades of economic hardship and social deprivation, large-scale urban renewal projects have turned its fortunes around, it is expected that the town, identified in the London Plan as "opportunity area", will evolve from "major centre" to "metropolitan centre" within Greater London in the next few decades. Woolwich is situated 13.7 km from Charing Cross. It has a 2.5 km long frontage to the south bank of the Thames river.
From the riverside it rises up along the northern slopes of Shooter's Hill towards the common and the ancient London-Dover Road. The ancient parish of Woolwich, more or less the present-day wards Woolwich Riverside and Woolwich Common, comprises 297 ha; this included North Woolwich, now part of the London Borough of Newham. The ancient parishes of Plumstead and Eltham became part of the civil parish of Woolwich in 1930. Parts of the wards Glyndon and Shooter's Hill are referred to as Woolwich, although this definition is not accepted by all; the nearest areas are Abbey Wood, Charlton, Greenwich, Lewisham, North Woolwich, Shooter's Hill, Thamesmead and Well Hall. Woolwich is made up of the Woolwich Common and Riverside wards as well as the ward of Glyndon to the east of the town centre, they had a combined population of 54,790 at the time of the 2011 census. Woolwich has been inhabited since at least the Iron Age. Remains of a Celtic oppidum, established sometime between the 3rd and 1st century BCE, in the late Roman period re-used as a fort, were found at the current Waterfront development site between Beresford Street and the Thames.
According to the Survey of London, "this defensive earthwork encircled the landward sides of a riverside settlement, the only one of its kind so far located in the London area, that may have been a significant port, anterior to London". A path connected the riverside settlement with Watling Street also of Iron Age origin. Sandy Hill Road may be a remnant of this early path, it is believed that the name Woolwich derives from an Anglo-Saxon word meaning "trading place for wool". It is not clear whether Woolwich was a proper -wich town, since there are no traces of extensive artisanal activity from the Early Middle Ages. However, in 2015 Oxford Archaeology discovered a Saxon burial site near the riverside with 76 skeletons from the late 7th or early 8th century; the absence of grave deposits indicates. The first church, which stood to the north of the present parish church, was certainly pre-Norman and dedicated to Saint Lawrence, it was rebuilt in stone around 1100. From the 10th till the mid-12th century Woolwich was controlled by the abbots of St. Peter's Abbey in Ghent.
This may have been a result of a gift of 918 from Ælfthryth, daughter of King Alfred and Countess of Flanders, in that case the first recorded grant of English lands to a foreign ecclesiastic institution. As a result of this tenure Woolwich is not mentioned in the Domesday Book; some of the Ghent lands passed to the royal manors of Dartford and Eltham as early as 1100. Not included were a riverside quay held by Holy Trinity Priory, Aldgate, a wharf held by St Mary's Priory and land around Plumstead owned by Bartholomew de Burghersh, 2nd Baron Burghersh referred to as the Burrage Estate. Medieval Woolwich was susceptible to flooding. In 1236 many were killed by a flood. Woolwich Ferry may be older. Around Bell Water Gate some private shipbuilding or repair may have existed in the 15th century. A windmill was mentioned around 1450. Several pottery kilns have been discovered north of Woolwich High Street and Beresford Street, testifying of a unbroken tradition of pottery production from at least the 14th century until the 17th century.
Woolwich remained a small Kentish settlement until the beginning of the 16th century, when it began to develop into a maritime and industrial centre. In 1512 it became home to Woolwich Dockyard known as "The King's Yard", founded by Henry VIII to built his flagship Henry Grace à Dieu. Many great ships were built here, such as the Prince Royal, the Sovereign of the Seas, the Royal Charles, the Dolphin and the Beagle; the dockyard went through many ups and downs but survived for three and a half centuries, closing down in 1869. Following the establishment of the dockyard, Martin Bowes who had gathered a fortune at the Royal Mint, bought riverside holdings in Woolwich and Plumstead in the 1530s, some of it former church land that had become available after the Dissolution of the Monasteries, his mansion was Tower Place, closed in by a ropeyard and warehouses with open-air storage known as Gun Wharf or Gun Yard The Warren the Royal Arsenal. The arsenal developed from a place of storage into a coll
London postal district
The London postal district is the area in England of 241 square miles to which mail addressed to the LONDON post town is delivered. The General Post Office at the control of the Postmaster General directed Sir Rowland Hill to devise the area in 1856 and throughout its history has been subject to gradual periodic reorganisation and division into smaller postal units, with the early loss of two compass points and a minor retraction in 1866, it was integrated by the Post Office into the national postcode system of the United Kingdom during the early 1970s and corresponds to the N, NW, SW, SE, W, WC, E and EC postcode areas. The postal district has been known as the London postal area; the County of London was much smaller at 117 square miles, but Greater London is much larger at 607 square miles. By the 1850s, the rapid growth of the metropolitan area meant it became too large to operate efficiently as a single post town. A Post Office inquiry into the problem had been set up in 1837 and a House of Commons committee was initiated in 1843.
In 1854 Charles Canning, the Postmaster General, set up a committee at the Post Office in St. Martin's Le Grand to investigate how London could best be divided for the purposes of directing mail. In 1856, of the 470 million items of mail sent in the United Kingdom during the year one fifth were for delivery in London and half of these originated there; the General Post Office thus at the control of the Postmaster General devised the area in 1856 project-managed by Sir Rowland Hill. Hill produced an perfectly circular area of 12 miles radius from the central post office at St. Martin's Le Grand, near St Paul's Cathedral in central London; as devised, it extended from Waltham Cross in the north to Carshalton in the south and from Romford in the east to Sunbury in the west — six counties at the time if including the City of London. Within the district it was divided into two central areas and eight compass points which operated much like separate post towns; each was constituted "London" with a suffix indicating the area.
The system was introduced during 1857 and completed on 1 January 1858. The NE and S divisions were abolished following a report by Anthony Trollope: in 1866 NE was merged into the E district, the large districts transferred included Walthamstow and Leytonstone; the remaining eight letter prefixes have not changed. At the same time, the London postal district boundary was retracted in the east, removing places such as Ilford for good. In 1868 the S district was split between SE and SW; the NE and S codes have been re-used in the national postcode system and now refer to the NE postcode area around Newcastle upon Tyne and the S postcode area around Sheffield. In 1917, as a wartime measure to improve efficiency, the districts were further subdivided with a number applied to each sub-district; this was achieved by designating a sub-area served most conveniently by the head office in each district "1" and allocating the rest alphabetically by the name of the location of each delivery office. Exceptionally and esoterically, W2 and SW11 are also'head districts'.
The boundaries of each sub-district correspond to any units of civil administration: the parishes and hamlets/chapelries with chapels that traditionally define settlement names everywhere in England and Wales or the larger boroughs. The numbered sub-districts became the "outward code" of the postcode system as expanded into longer codes during the 1970s. Ad hoc changes have taken place to the organisation of the districts, such as the creation of SE28 from existing districts because of the construction of the high-density Thamesmead development. Subdivisions of postcode sub-districtsOwing to heavier demand, seven high-density postcode districts in central London have been subdivided to create new, smaller postcode districts; this is achieved by adding a letter after the original postcode district, for example W1P. Where such sub-districts are used elsewhere such as on street signs and maps, the original unsuffixed catch-all versions remain in use instead; the districts subdivided are E1, N1, EC SW1, W1, WC1 and WC2.
There are non-geographic suffixed sub-districts for PO boxes in NW1 and SE1. The London postal district has never been aligned with the London boundary; when the initial system was designed, the London boundary was restricted to the square mile of the small, ancient City of London. The wider metropolitan postal area covered parts of Middlesex, Kent and Hertfordshire. In 1889 a County of London, smaller than the postal district, was created from parts of Middlesex and Kent; the bulk of 40 fringe sub-districts lay outside its boundary including, for example: Leyton, Ealing and Wimbledon In 1965 the creation of Greater London boundary went beyond these postal districts except for part of the parish of Waltham Holy Cross. The General Post Office was unwilling to follow this change and expand the postal district to match because of the cost. Places in London's outer boroughs such as Harrow, Wembley, Ilford, Bexleyheath, Hounslow, Croydon, Sutton and Uxbridge are therefore covered by parts of twelve adjoining postcode areas from postal districts of 5 different counties including Middlesex, abolished upon the creation of Gr