Dame Grace Hilda Cuthbertha Ross, known as Hilda Ross, was a New Zealand politician for the National Party and an activist. She was born at Auckland to Zillah Johnson, her family lived in both Sydney and Auckland, she received her education in these cities. She trained as a music teacher and conducted the Hamilton City Choral Operatic Society. In 1904 she married Harry Campbell Manchester Ross in Auckland, her husband founded a furnishing company, "Barton and Ross". They had four sons, her first elected posts were the Hamilton Borough Council. She was Deputy Mayor of Hamilton in 1945. Following the death of the incumbent MP for Hamilton, Frank Findlay, she won the 1945 by-election to represent the electorate in the New Zealand Parliament, where she remained until her death 14 years in 1959; as MP she held various posts in the First National Government, including Member of the Executive Council, Minister of Social Security, Minister of Welfare of Women and Children, Minister of Child Welfare. She was appointed a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1956 New Year Honours.
She died on 6 March 1959 in Hamilton. "The Country is today enjoying so much prosperity that married women with children should wake up to their responsibilities in the home and stay at home". Dame Hilda Ross Memorial Arts Centre & Dame Hilda Ross Memorial Arts Centre Appeal List of New Zealand politicians List of members of the New Zealand Parliament who died in office Gustafson, Barry; the First 50 Years: A History of the New Zealand National Party. Auckland: Reed Methuen. ISBN 0-474-00177-6. Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. Women in Parliamentary Life 1970–1990: Hocken Lecture 1993 by Marilyn Waring, page 34–35 ISBN 0-902041-61-4 Background
Wellington is the capital city and second most populous urban area of New Zealand, with 418,500 residents. It is located at the south-western tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Remutaka Range. Wellington is the major population centre of the southern North Island, is the administrative centre of the Wellington Region, which includes the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa, its latitude is 41°17′S, making it the world's southernmost capital of a sovereign state. Wellington features a temperate maritime climate, is the world's windiest city by average wind speed; the Wellington urban area comprises four local authorities: Wellington City, on the peninsula between Cook Strait and Wellington Harbour, contains the central business district and about half the population. As the nation's capital since 1865, the New Zealand Government and Parliament, Supreme Court and most of the public service are based in the city. Architectural sights include the Government Building—one of the largest wooden buildings in the world—as well as the iconic Beehive.
Wellington is home to several of the largest and oldest cultural institutions in the nation such the National Archives, the National Library, the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, numerous theatres. It plays host to many artistic and cultural organisations, including the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra and Royal New Zealand Ballet. One of the world's most liveable cities, the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranked Wellington 12th in the world. Wellington's economy is service-based, with an emphasis on finance, business services, government, it is the centre of New Zealand's film and special effects industries, a hub for information technology and innovation, with two public research universities. Wellington is one of New Zealand's chief seaports and serves both domestic and international shipping; the city is served by the third busiest airport in the country. Wellington's transport network includes train and bus lines which reach as far as the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa, ferries connect the city to the South Island.
Wellington takes its name from Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo: his title comes from the town of Wellington in the English county of Somerset. It was named in November 1840 by the original settlers of the New Zealand Company on the suggestion of the directors of the same, in recognition of the Duke's strong support for the company's principles of colonisation and his "strenuous and successful defence against its enemies of the measure for colonising South Australia". One of the founders of the settlement, Edward Jerningham Wakefield, reported that the settlers "took up the views of the directors with great cordiality and the new name was at once adopted". In the Māori language, Wellington has three names. Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara refers to Wellington Harbour and means "the great harbour of Tara". In New Zealand Sign Language, the name is signed by raising the index and ring fingers of one hand, palm forward, to form a "W", shaking it from side to side twice.
The city's location close to the mouth of the narrow Cook Strait leads to its vulnerability to strong gales, leading to the city's nickname of "Windy Wellington". Legends recount that Kupe explored the district in about the 10th century; the earliest date with hard evidence for Maori living in New Zealand is about 1280. Situated near the geographic centre of the country, Wellington was well placed for trade. In 1839 it was chosen as the first major planned settlement for British immigrants coming to New Zealand; the settlement was named in honour of Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo. European settlement began with the arrival of an advance party of the New Zealand Company on the ship Tory on 20 September 1839, followed by 150 settlers on the Aurora on 22 January 1840. Food processing plants, engineering industries, vehicle assembly and oil refineries were located in the NE which caused the main industrial growth in Hutt valley; the settlers constructed their first homes at Petone on the flat area at the mouth of the Hutt River.
When that proved swampy and flood-prone they transplanted the plans, drawn without regard for the hilly terrain. In 1865, Wellington became the capital city in place of Auckland, which William Hobson had made the capital in 1841; the New Zealand Parliament had first met in Wellington on 7 July 1862, on a temporary basis. There had been some concerns that the more populous South Island would choose to form a separate colony in the British Empire. Several Commissioners invited from Australia, chosen for their neutral status, declared that Wellington was a suitable location because of
Otago Daily Times
The Otago Daily Times is a newspaper published by Allied Press Ltd in Dunedin, New Zealand. Styled The Otago Daily Times, the ODT was first published on 15 November 1861, it is New Zealand's oldest surviving daily newspaper - Christchurch's The Press, six months older, was a weekly paper for its first few years. The first issue ran to 2750 copies, was sold for threepence; the ODT was founded by W. H. Cutten and Julius Vogel during the boom following the discovery of gold at the Tuapeka, the first of the Otago goldrushes. Cutten was the publisher of a weekly newspaper, the Otago Witness, founded in 1851, the strong political views of co-founder Vogel saw an outlet in the ODT's pages, notably for advocacy of provincial government, its first chief reporter was Edward Thomas Gillon. The ODT was published from premises in Princes Street, but moved to a new building at the corner of Dowling and Burlington Streets at the foot of Bell Hill in 1879, it stayed here until 1928 when it moved into larger premises on the other side of Burlington Street facing Queen's Gardens, where they stayed until 1977.
From the start, the ODT held a strong position among South Island newspapers. Most of its Dunedin opposition papers were short lived, with only the Evening Star surviving beyond the early 1900s; the Star merged with the ODT in 1975 forming a new company, Allied Press, the ODT moved to the Evening Star Building in Stuart Street in June 1977. The Evening Star ceased publication in November 1979; as a result, the Allied Press, now publishes the ODT and several smaller papers throughout New Zealand, including the Greymouth Star. On 5 January 1998 the ODT published for the first time on a new Goss International printing press; the ODT is regarded as the father-figure of the country's four main daily newspapers, serving the southern South Island with a circulation of around 43,000 and an estimated readership of 110,000. 1861 - 15 November: first edition 1881 - price dropped to one penny 1898 - first linotype machines installed 1900 - first photoengraving plant installed 1949 - first full-time cartoonist employed 1952 - November: the ODT became the first New Zealand metropolitan paper to print news rather than classified advertisements on the front page 1955 - new general printing department inaugurated 1956 - wire photographic equipment installed 1961 - new enlarged format 1966 - first full colour gravure preprinting 1978 - 13 and 20 October: no edition due to journalists' strike.
Sid Scales was a cartoonist for the ODT for 30 years until his retirement in 1981. Since Queenstown artist Garrick Tremain has been the principal cartoonist; the editor is Barry Stewart, who took over from long-serving editor Murray Kirkness in August, 2015. 1861–68 Sir Julius Vogel 1868–71 George Burnett Barton 1871–77 William Murison 1877–78 George M Reed 1878–83 James Ashcroft 1883–90 Richard Twopeny 1890–1909 Sir George Fenwick 1909–46 Sir James Hutchinson 1946–61 John Rowley Moffet 1961–76 Allan Aubin 1976–88 Keith Eunson 1988–97 Geoff Adams 1997–2007 Robin Charteris 2007–2015 Murray Kirkness 2015-Barry Stewart The Otago Daily Times is delivered with the following regular inserted tabloid supplements: World Focus Queenstown Times Sport and U-Bet The following sister publications of the ODT are weekly free newspapers: The News, Alexandra The Star The Courier The Ensign Southern Rural Life region-wide farming paper Southland Express The Courier The Oamaru Mail Montain Scene Clutha Leader Otago Daily Times official newspaper website Allied Press official website of the publisher National Library of New Zealand Online Newspaper Archive Early history of the Otago Daily Times from the "Cyclopedia of New Zealand"
The seaside settlement of Karitane is located within the limits of the city of Dunedin in New Zealand, 35 kilometres to the north of the city centre. Set in rolling country near the mouth of the Waikouaiti River, the town is a popular holiday retreat for Dunedinites; the site of the present settlement of Karitane includes that of the pre-European Māori kaik, or undefended village. Giant moas were to be hunted in the area, it encompasses Huriawa on the adjacent peninsula, a pā or fortified village, recalled in oral tradition for sieges in the late 17th or early 18th centuries. It was the site of the whaling station set up by Long and Richards in 1837; that was known as Waikouaiti, but the name became transferred to the present township of that name established by Johnny Jones as a farming settlement in 1840, on the north side of the estuary. In 1838 Jones acquired the Karitane whaling station targeting southern rights and humpbacks, resulting in severe depletion of local populations for these species.
After sending pioneers to start his farming settlement he sent a Wesleyan missionary to join them in May 1840, James Watkin, the first in the South Island. However Watkin set up his mission station at Karitane, he was living there with his wife and children in a purpose-built house by late 1842. In 1867 George O'Brien painted a memorable view looking north from the Karitane waterfront, now in the Otago Settlers Museum, Dunedin. Karitane Nurses are mentioned in the Australian Television Miniseries Paper Giants: The Birth of Cleo, suggesting their influence had spread to Australia by the 1970s; the name Karitane is associated with pioneering paediatrician and psychiatrist Sir Truby King, founder of the Plunket Society. The name is echoed in many New Zealand child-related services and products: Plunket set up a string of neonatal care institutions known throughout the country as Karitane Hospitals, starting here in Truby King's house, Kingscliff A type of infant formula, now made by Nutricia, as well as earlier brands Karilac and Kariol made by the Karitane Products Society are named after the town Karitane Nurse a type of nurse in New Zealand specialising in infant care Community Karitane, a type of community worker in New Zealand advising on parenting issues such as breastfeeding, nutrition and behaviour.
Karitane yellow, an informal name for a unpleasant shade of yellowTruby King worked at nearby Seacliff Lunatic Asylum. Huirapa Marae known as Puketeraki Marae, is located in Karitāne, it is a marae of Ngāi Tahu, including the Kāti Huirapa Rūnanga Ki Puketeraki branch, includes the Karitāne wharenui. Close to the settlement is the site of Huriawa Pā, a major pā in pre-European New Zealand, it was set in a strong position on a rocky promontory above the coast
Sir Frederic Truby King known as Truby King, was a New Zealand health reformer and Director of Child Welfare. He is best known as the founder of the Plunket Society. King was born in the son of Thomas and Mary King, his brother, Newton King, was to become a leading Taranaki businessman. Truby King was educated by Henry Richmond and proved to be a keen scholar. After working for a short time as a bank clerk he travelled to Edinburgh and Paris to study medicine. In 1886, he graduated with honours with a M. B. C. M, completed a BSc in Public Health. Although his interest was in surgery it was the demonstrations of Charcot on hysteria and neurological disorders that influenced his choice of career. While training in Scotland he married Isabella Cockburn Miller. In 1887, King was appointed resident surgeon at both the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary and Glasgow Royal Infirmary before becoming Medical Superintendent of the Wellington General Hospital. By 1889 he was in Dunedin as Medical Superintendent at the Seacliff Lunatic Asylum and as a lecturer in mental diseases at the University of Otago.
At Seacliff he introduced better diets for patients, more discipline for staff and improvements to the hospital farm. The'villa' style of treatment, with smaller and more open wards, was one of his innovations; these reforms and King's own intransigence to those who opposed them led to a Commission of Inquiry, which vindicated his methods. Over the next eight years, King had interests in psychology, agriculture, child care and alcoholism, he began to realise. He spent a winter in Japan during the Russo-Japanese War and returned with his dream clarified, having noticed how healthy infants were due to 12 to 18 months of breastfeeding. On his return he began to use his access as a Justice of the Peace to licensed baby-boarding homes where typical conditions moved him to establish such a boarding facility himself at his Karitane residence at the foot of Huriawa Peninsula, it is the establishment of the Plunket Society on 14 May 1907. Set up to apply scientific principles to nutrition of babies, rooted in eugenics and patriotism, its 1917 "Save the Babies" Week had the slogan "The Race marches forward on the feet of Little Children".
King's methods to teach mothers domestic hygiene and childcare were promoted through his first book on mothercare and Care of Baby, via a network of specially trained Karitane Nurses and a syndicated newspaper column, Our babies, written by King's wife Isabella. Apart from nutrition, King's methods emphasised regularity of feeding and bowel movements, within a strict regimen supposed to build character by avoiding cuddling and other attention, his methods were controversial. In 1914 the physician Agnes Elizabeth Lloyd Bennett publicly opposed his stance that higher education for women was detrimental to their maternal functions and hence to the human race, he excited controversy during his efforts to export his methods to Australia and the United Kingdom, with particular debate associated with his views on infant feeding formulas. He believed in "humanized" milk with the protein reduced to 1.4% to match breast milk, against the general paediatric consensus at the time in favour of high protein feeds.
The work of the Plunket Society was credited with lowering infant mortality in New Zealand from 88 per thousand in 1907 to 32 per thousand over the next thirty years, though it has since been argued that this was due less to its specific methods than to its general raising of awareness of childcare. King was appointed to represent New Zealand in 1913 at the Child Welfare Conference in London and was invited to assist in the establishment of a child public health service in Britain. Following the First World War he was one of the British representatives at the Inter-allied Red Cross Conference and travelled through Europe for the War Victims Relief Committee. Back in New Zealand, by 1921, King became Director of Child Welfare in the Department of Health and by 1925 Inspector-General of Mental Hospitals; until his retirement in 1927, he continued to develop and organise mental hospital services in New Zealand. His work was recognised by the award of a CMG in 1917 and a knighthood in 1925. In 1935, he was awarded the King George V Silver Jubilee Medal.
King died in Wellington on 10 February 1938. He was the first private citizen in New Zealand to be given a state funeral. Twenty years he was the first New Zealander to feature on a New Zealand postage stamp, his babycare method continued in popularity, finding favour in post-war Britain at least until the 1950s. It featured, controversially, in the 2007 Channel 4 documentary series, Bringing Up Baby, which compared it with the 1960s Benjamin Spock and the 1970s Continuum concept. Three streets exist named after King: Truby King Street in the New Plymouth suburb of Merrilands, Truby King Crescent in the Dunedin suburb of Liberton, Truby King Drive in Waikouaiti. Truby King Recreation Reserve: A public nature reserve located in Seacliff Truby King Park, in Melrose, includes the Truby King Mausoleum. Frederic Truby King biography from the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography Biography in 1966 An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand "A King in the dark" documentary of Truby Kings life
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, reproduction and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, assimilation, biosynthesis and excretion; the diet of an organism is what it eats, determined by the availability and palatability of foods. For humans, a healthy diet includes preparation of food and storage methods that preserve nutrients from oxidation, heat or leaching, that reduce risk of foodborne illnesses. In humans, an unhealthy diet can cause deficiency-related diseases such as blindness, scurvy, preterm birth and cretinism, or nutrient excess health-threatening conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. Undernutrition can lead to wasting in acute cases, the stunting of marasmus in chronic cases of malnutrition; the first recorded dietary advice, carved into a Babylonian stone tablet in about 2500 BC, cautioned those with pain inside to avoid eating onions for three days. Scurvy found to be a vitamin C deficiency, was first described in 1500 BC in the Ebers Papyrus.
According to Walter Gratzer, the study of nutrition began during the 6th century BC. In China, the concept of qi developed, a spirit or "wind" similar to what Western Europeans called pneuma. Food was classified into "hot" and "cold" in China, India and Persia. Humours developed first in China alongside qi. Ho the Physician concluded that diseases are caused by deficiencies of elements, he classified diseases as well as prescribed diets. About the same time in Italy, Alcmaeon of Croton wrote of the importance of equilibrium between what goes in and what goes out, warned that imbalance would result in disease marked by obesity or emaciation; the first recorded nutritional experiment with human subjects is found in the Bible's Book of Daniel. Daniel and his friends were captured by the king of Babylon during an invasion of Israel. Selected as court servants, they were to share in the king's fine foods and wine, but they objected, preferring vegetables and water in accordance with their Jewish dietary restrictions.
The king's chief steward reluctantly agreed to a trial. Daniel and his friends received their diet for ten days and were compared to the king's men. Appearing healthier, they were allowed to continue with their diet. Around 475 BC, Anaxagoras stated that food is absorbed by the human body and, contains "homeomerics", suggesting the existence of nutrients. Around 400 BC, who recognized and was concerned with obesity, which may have been common in southern Europe at the time, said, "Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food." The works that are still attributed to him, Corpus Hippocraticum, called for moderation and emphasized exercise. Salt and other spices were prescribed for various ailments in various preparations for example mixed with vinegar. In the 2nd century BC, Cato the Elder believed that cabbage could cure digestive diseases, ulcers and intoxication. Living about the turn of the millennium, Aulus Celsus, an ancient Roman doctor, believed in "strong" and "weak" foods. One mustn't overlook the doctrines of Galen: In use from his life in the 1st century AD until the 17th century, it was heresy to disagree with him for 1500 years.
Galen was physician to gladiators in Pergamon, in Rome, physician to Marcus Aurelius and the three emperors who succeeded him. Most of Galen's teachings were gathered and enhanced in the late 11th century by Benedictine monks at the School of Salerno in Regimen sanitatis Salernitanum, which still had users in the 17th century. Galen believed in the bodily humours of Hippocrates, he taught that pneuma is the source of life. Four elements combine into "complexion"; the states are made up of pairs of attributes, which are made of four humours: blood, green bile, black bile. Galen thought that for a person to have gout, kidney stones, or arthritis was scandalous, which Gratzer likens to Samuel Butler's Erehwon where sickness is a crime. In the 1500s, Paracelsus was the first to criticize Galen publicly. In the 16th century and artist Leonardo da Vinci compared metabolism to a burning candle. Leonardo did not publish his works on this subject, but he was not afraid of thinking for himself and he disagreed with Galen.
16th century works of Andreas Vesalius, sometimes called the father of modern human anatomy, overturned Galen's ideas. He was followed by piercing thought amalgamated with the era's mysticism and religion sometimes fueled by the mechanics of Newton and Galileo. Jan Baptist van Helmont, who discovered several gases such as carbon dioxide, performed the first quantitative experiment. Robert Boyle advanced chemistry. Sanctorius measured body weight. Physician Herman Boerhaave modeled the digestive process. Physiologist Albrecht von Haller worked out the difference between muscles. Sometimes forgotten during his life, James Lind, a physician in the British navy, performed the first scientific nutrition experiment in 1747. Lind discovered that lime juice saved sailors, at sea for years from scurvy, a deadly an
William Plunket, 5th Baron Plunket
William Lee Plunket, 5th Baron Plunket, was a British diplomat and administrator. He was Governor of New Zealand from 1904-10. Born in Dublin, he was educated at Trinity College Dublin, his parents were William, 4th Lord Plunket, the archbishop of Dublin in 1884-97, his wife Anne, the daughter of Sir Benjamin Guinness. He entered the Diplomatic Service and was sent to Rome in 1889 as an attaché to the British Embassy there. In 1892, he was appointed in the same position to the embassy in Constantinople, retired two years later. Having succeeded his father as fifth Baron Plunket in 1897, Plunket three years became private secretary to Lord Cadogan, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland at the time, fulfilled the same role for his successor Lord Dudley, when he was appointed to the position in August 1902, he was appointed CVO and KCVO in 1900 and 1903 and in 1904 he became Governor of New Zealand as well as a KCMG the following year. By chance the Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives at the time was his cousin Arthur Guinness.
He held this post until 1910, when he was advanced to GCMG. He was appointed KBE in 1918, he was a Freemason. During his term as Governor of New Zealand, he was Grand Master of New Zealand's Grand Lodge. Lord Plunket died on 24 January 1920 aged 55 in 40 Elvaston Place and was buried in the city's Putney Vale Cemetery. Plunket married, in 1894, Lady Victoria Alexandrina Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, youngest daughter of the 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, by whom he was to have eight children. Victoria gave her name to Plunket Society, a New Zealand society promoting the health and well-being of mothers and children