Dornier Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturer founded in Friedrichshafen in 1914 by Claude Dornier. Over the course of its long lifespan, the company produced many designs for both the civil and military markets. Dornier Metallbau, Dornier Flugzeugwerke took over Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen production facilities when it failed in 1923. Dornier was well known between the two world wars as a manufacturer of large, all-metal flying boats and of land based airliners; the record-breaking 1924 Wal was used on many long distance flights and the Do X set records for its immense size and weight. Dornier's successful landplane airliners, including the Komet and Merkur which were used by Lufthansa and other European carriers during the 1920s and early 30s. Dornier built its aircraft outside Germany during much of this period due to the restrictions placed on German aircraft manufacturers by the Treaty of Versailles: locations included Altenrhein, Switzerland, 12km from Zeppelin's Lindau location.
Foreign factories licence-building Dornier products included CMASA and Piaggio in Italy, CASA in Spain, Kawasaki in Japan, Aviolanda in the Netherlands. Once the Nazi government came to power and abandoned the treaty's restrictions, Dornier resumed production in Germany; the success of the Wal family encouraged the development of derivatives, of more advanced successors, such as the Do 18, Do 24 which saw service in several armed forces, including German, into World War II. Dornier's most important World War II military aircraft design was the Do 17, nicknamed The Flying Pencil, it first flew in 1934 as a mailplane for Lufthansa but due to its narrow fuselage it was not commercially viable and was passed over. Dornier developed it further as a military aircraft, with a prototype bomber flying in 1935, in 1937 it was used in by the German Condor Legion during the Spanish Civil War. Production continued in Germany and it was developed to fill multiple roles for the Luftwaffe; as a medium bomber it saw service during the early part of World War II during the Battle of Britain.
It was developed into a nightfighter to counter the RAF bomber offensive. Dornier developed the similar looking Do 217 from the Do 17 but it was a larger and new design. Dornier developed the fastest piston-engined fighter of the war, the twin-engined Do 335, too late to see service. After WWII aircraft production was again forbidden in Germany, Dornier relocated to Spain and to Switzerland where the firm provided aeronautical consultancy services until returning to Germany in 1954. Post-war, Dornier re-established itself with successful small STOL Do 28 transports. In 1974 it joined in a joint venture with French aircraft manufacturers Dassault-Breguet to develop the Alpha Jet; the plane was ordered as the new standard NATO trainer during the 80s. In 1983, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited bought a production licence for the Dornier Do 228 and manufactured the aircraft for the Asian market sphere. By 2013 a total of 117 Dornier DO-228 aircraft had been produced by HAL with plans to build 20 more during 2013-14.
In 1985, Dornier became a member of the Daimler-Benz group integrating its aeronautic assets with the parent company. As part of this transaction, Lindauer Dornier GmbH was spun off, creating a separate, family-owned firm, concentrating on textile machinery design and manufacturing; the rest of the company was split into several subsidiaries for defence, satellites and aircraft. In 1996, the majority of Dornier Aircraft was acquired by Fairchild Aircraft, forming Fairchild Dornier; this company became insolvent in early 2002. Production of its 328 Jet was acquired by US company Avcraft. Asian groups continued to show interest in its 728 version in August 2004, but production had not restarted; the other subsidiaries became part of the EADS. Dornier Medtech manufactures medical equipment, such as the Dornier S lithotriptor, HM3, Compact Delta to treat kidney stones. Dornier MedTech manufactures laser devices for a wide range of applications; the Dornier family have project, the Dornier Seastar. It is a turboprop-powered amphibious aircraft built of composite materials.
This was developed by Claudius Dornier Jr. Dornier Gs Precursor to Wal destroyed by Military Inter-Allied Commission of Control Dornier Do A Libelle Dornier Spatz Landplane version of Do A Dornier Do B Merkur Development of Do C Dornier Do C Komet Dornier Do C 2, 3, 4 Fighter unrelated to earlier Do C, redesignated Do 10 Dornier Do D Dornier Do E Dornier Do F Dornier Do G Grief Dornier Do H Falke Dornier Do I Dornier Do J Wal Dornier Do K Dornier Do L Delphin Dornier Do N Design for Japanese as Kawasaki Ka 87 Dornier Do O Wal Custom built version of Do J Dornier Do P Dornier Do R.2 and R.4 Superwal Dornier Do S Dornier Do T Dornier Do U Dornier Do X Dornier Do Y Additional unbuilt projects include 3 different Schneider Trophy racers from 1924, 1928 and 1931 and a large multi-engine seaplane similar to the Do X
Gran Canaria, is the second most populous of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off the Atlantic coast of Northwest Africa, part of Spain. As of 2018 the island had a population of 846,717 that constitutes 40% of the population of the archipelago. Gran Canaria is located in the Atlantic Ocean about 150 kilometres off the northwestern coast of Africa and about 1,350 km from Europe. With an area of 1,560 km2 and an altitude of 1,956 m at the Pico de las Nieves, Gran Canaria is the third largest island of the archipelago in both area and altitude. Gran Canaria is the third most populated island in Spain after Tenerife and Mallorca. In Ancient History, Gran Canaria was populated by the North African Canarii, who may have arrived as early as 500 BC; the Canarii called the island Tamarán. In the Medieval period, after over a century of European incursions and attempts at conquest, the island was conquered on April 29, 1483 by the Crown of Castile, under Queen Isabella I; the conquest succeeded after a campaign that lasted five years, it was an important step towards the expansion of the unified Spain.
The capital city of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria was founded on June 24, 1478, under the name "Real de Las Palmas", by Juan Rejón, head of the invading Castilian army. In 1492, Christopher Columbus anchored in the Port of Las Palmas on his first trip to the Americas. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria is, jointly with Santa Cruz de Tenerife, the capital of the autonomous community of the Canary Islands. Gran Canaria is located west of Fuerteventura; the island is of volcanic origin made of fissure vents. Gran Canaria's surface area is 1,560 km² and its maximum elevation is 1,949 metres, it has a round shape, with a diameter of 50 km. About 80% of the volume of the island was formed during the Miocene period eruptions, between 14 and 9 million years ago; this is called the "Old Cycle" and is estimated to have lasted some 200,000 years and have emitted about 1000 km3 of fissural alkali basalt. This cycle continued with the emission of trachytes and peralkaline rocks; this period was followed by one of erosion.
A second cycle of volcanic eruptions, known as the "Roque Nublo cycle", took place between 4.5 and 3.4 million years ago. This shorter cycle emitted about 100 km3. Most of the inland peaks were formed by erosion from these materials; this period started with fissural basalts, but ended with violent eruptions of pyroclastic flows. Some phonolitic features, like the Risco Blanco, were formed in its last stages; the third or recent cycle is held to have started some 2.8 million years ago and is considered to be still active. The last eruptions are held to have occurred some 3500 years ago; the changes in volume and, weight of the island have caused the island to rise above the previous sea level during erosive periods and to sink during eruptive periods. Some of these "fossil beaches" can be seen in the cliff faces of the more eroded northern coast; until the conquest, Gran Canaria had extensive forests, but suffered extensive deforestation as a result of continuous logging, land divisions and other intensive uses.
This reduced the forest cover to just 56,000 hectares, making the island the most deforested of the Canary Islands. However, in the twentieth century reforestation of the ridge of the island was begun, recovering some of the lost forest mass. Much of the summit of the island is forested due to reforestation. Gran Canaria is in the autonomous community of the Canary Islands, it lies within the Province of Las Palmas, a Spanish province which consists of the eastern part of the Canary Islands community. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria is the provincial capital, one of the two capitals of the Canary Islands along with Santa Cruz de Tenerife; the island of Gran Canaria is governed by the Cabildo insular de Gran Canaria. Gran Canaria itself is divided into twenty-one smaller municipalities: The island has a population of 846,717 with 378,628 of those in the capital city of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Gran Canaria is the second most populous island of the Canary Islands, after Tenerife. Gran Canaria has roads extending into the mountain areas.
In the late 20th century, its motorways, among the first in the Canary Islands, were opened and run around Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, were extended to the north coast and the airport and subsequently to the south coast in response to increased tourist traffic. The high-speed motorways are GC1, GC2, GC31, dual carriageways GC4 and GC5; the western and the north-western parts, with the fewest inhabitants, are linked only with main roads. Public transport around Gran Canaria is provided by an extensive bus network, known in the local dialect as guaguas; the Autoridad Única del Transporte de Gran Canaria manages the network and operates a number of bus stations across the island, including San Telmo and Santa Catalina bus stations in Las Palmas and Galdar. Bus tickets may be purchased with cash, AUTGC operates a contactless electronic ticket called the TransGC Card, valid across the whole network. Inter-urban bus services across the island are operated by the Global bus company. Global was created in 2000 after the merger of two bus companies and Salcai.
Local bus services in Las Palmas are run by the municipal bus company, Guaguas Municipales de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Gran C
Buenos Aires Province
Buenos Aires is the largest and most populous Argentinian province. It takes the name from the city of Buenos Aires, which used to be part of the province and the provincial capital until it was federalized in 1880. Since in spite of bearing the same name, the province does not include the national capital city proper, though it does include all other localities of the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area surrounding it; the current capital of the province is the city of La Plata, founded in 1882. The province is the only within the whole Argentina to be divided into partidos and furtherly into localidades, borders the provinces of Entre Ríos to the northeast. Uruguay is just near the Atlantic Ocean to the east; the entire province is part of the Pampas geographical region. The province has a population of 39 % of Argentina's total population. Nearly 10 million people live in Greater Buenos Aires; the area of the province, 307,571 km2, makes it the largest in Argentina with around 11% of the country's total area.
The inhabitants of the province before the 16th century advent of Spanish colonisation were aboriginal peoples such as the Charrúas and the Querandíes. Their culture was lost over the next 350 years, they were subjected to Eurasian plagues from. The survivors joined other tribes or have been absorbed by Argentina's European ethnic majority. Pedro de Mendoza founded Santa María del Buen Ayre in 1536. Though the first contact with the aboriginals was peaceful, it soon became hostile; the city was evacuated in 1541. Juan de Garay re-founded the settlement in 1580 as Santísima Trinidad y Puerto Santa María de los Buenos Aires. Amidst ongoing conflict with the aboriginals, the cattle farms extended from Buenos Aires, whose port was always the centre of the economy of the territory. Following the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata at the end of the 18th century, the export of meat and their derivatives through the port of Buenos Aires was the basis of the economic development of the region.
Jesuits unsuccessfully tried to peacefully assimilate the aboriginals into the European culture brought by the Spanish conquistadores. A certain balance was found at the end of the 18th century, when the Salado River became the limit between both civilizations, despite frequent malones; the end to this situation came in 1879 with the Conquest of the Desert in which the aboriginals were completely exterminated. After the independence from Spain in 1816, the city and province of Buenos Aires became the focus of an intermittent Argentine Civil War with other provinces. A Federal Pact secured by Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas in 1831 led to the establishment of the Argentine Confederation and to his gaining the sum of public power, which provided a tenuous unity. Ongoing disputes regarding the influence of Buenos Aires, between Federalists and Unitarians, over the Port of Buenos Aires fueled periodic hostilities; the province was declared independent on September 1852, as the State of Buenos Aires.
Concessions gained in the 1859 Pact of San José de Flores and a victory at the Battle of Pavón led to its reincorporation into the Argentine Republic on December 17, 1861. Intermittent conflicts with the nation did not cease until 1880, when the city of Buenos Aires was formally federalized and, administratively separated from the province. La Plata was founded in 1882 by Governor Dardo Rocha for the purpose of becoming the provincial capital; the equivalent of a billion dollars of British investment and pro-development and immigration policies pursued at the national level subsequently spurred dramatic economic growth. Driven by European immigration and improved health, the province's population, like Argentina's, nearly doubled to one million by 1895 and doubled again by 1914. Rail lines connected nearly every town and hamlet in the province by 1914; this era of accelerated development was cut short by the Wall Street Crash of 1929, which caused a sharp drop in commodity prices and led to a halt in the flow of investment funds between nations.
The new Concordance and Perón governments funded ambitious lending and public works programs, visible in Buenos Aires Province through the panoply of levees, power plants, water works, paved roads, municipal buildings, schools and massive regional hospitals. The province's population, after 1930, began to grow disproportionately in the suburban areas of Buenos Aires; these suburbs had grown to include 4 million out of the province's total 7 million people in 1960. Much of the area these new suburbs were developed on consisted of wetlands and were prone to flooding. To address this, Governor Oscar Alende initiated the province's most important flood-control project to date, the Roggero Reservoir. Completed a decade in 1971, the reservoir and associated electric and water-treatment facilities encouraged still more, more orderly, development of the Greater Buenos Aires region, which today includes around 10 million people, it did not address worsening pollution resulting from the area's industrial growth, which had made itself evident since aroun
Airmail is a mail transport service branded and sold on the basis of at least one leg of its journey being by air. Airmail items arrive more than surface mail, cost more to send. Airmail may be the only option for sending mail to some destinations, such as overseas, if the mail cannot wait the time it would take to arrive by ship, sometimes weeks; the Universal Postal Union adopted comprehensive rules for airmail at its 1929 Postal Union Congress in London. Since the official language of the Universal Postal Union is French, airmail items worldwide are marked Par avion, literally: "by airplane". For about the first half century of its existence, transportation of mail via aircraft was categorized and sold as a separate service from surface mail. Today it is the case that mail service is categorized and sold according to transit time alone, with mode of transport being decided on the back end in dynamic intermodal combinations, thus "regular" mail may make part of its journey on an aircraft. Such "air-speeded" mail is different from nominal airmail in its branding and priority of service.
Specific instances of a letter being delivered by air long predate the introduction of Airmail as a scheduled service available to the general public. Although homing pigeons had long been used to send messages, the first mail to be carried by an air vehicle was on January 7, 1785, on a hot air balloon flight from Dover to France near Calais, it was flown by John Jeffries. The letter was written by an American Loyalist William Franklin to his son William Temple Franklin, serving in a diplomatic role in Paris with his grandfather Benjamin Franklin. During the first aerial flight in North America by balloon on January 9, 1793, from Philadelphia to Deptford, New Jersey, Jean-Pierre Blanchard carried a personal letter from George Washington to be delivered to the owner of whatever property Blanchard happened to land on, making the flight the first delivery of air mail in the United States; the first official air mail delivery in the United States took place on August 17, 1859, when John Wise piloted a balloon starting in Lafayette, with a destination of New York.
Weather issues forced him to land near Crawfordsville and the mail reached its final destination via train. In 1959, the U. S. Postal Service issued a 7 cent stamp commemorating the event. Balloons carried mail out of Paris and Metz during the Franco-Prussian War, drifting over the heads of the Germans besieging those cities. Balloon mail was carried on an 1877 flight in Nashville, Tennessee. Starting in 1903 the introduction of the airplane generated immediate interest in using them for mail transport. An unofficial airmail flight was conducted by Fred Wiseman, who carried three letters between Petaluma and Santa Rosa, California, on February 17, 1911; the world's first official airmail flight came the next day, at a large exhibition in the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, British India. The organizer of the aviation display, Sir Walter Windham, was able to secure permission from the postmaster general in India to operate an airmail service in order to generate publicity for the exhibition and to raise money for charity.
Mail from people across the region was gathered in at Holy Trinity Church and the first airmail flight was piloted by Henri Pequet, who flew 6,500 letters a distance of 13 km from Allahabad to Naini – the nearest station on the Bombay-Calcutta line to the exhibition. The letters bore an official frank "First Aerial Post, U. P. Exhibition, Allahabad. 1911". The aircraft used was a Humber-Sommer biplane, it made the journey in thirteen minutes; the first official American airmail delivery was made on September 23, 1911, by pilot Earle Ovington under the authority of the United States Post Office Department. The first official air mail in Australia was carried by French pilot Maurice Guillaux. On July 16–18, 1914, he flew his Blériot XI aircraft from Melbourne to Sydney, a distance of 584 miles, carrying 1785 specially printed postcards, some Lipton's Tea and some O. T. Lemon juice. At the time, this was the longest such flight in the world; the world's first scheduled airmail post service took place in the United Kingdom between the London suburb of Hendon, North London, the Postmaster General's office in Windsor, Berkshire, on September 9, 1911, as part of the celebrations for King George V's coronation and at the suggestion of Sir Walter Windham, who based his proposal on the successful experiment he had overseen in India.
The service ran for just under a month. The service was terminated due to constant and severe delays caused by bad weather conditions. Similar services were intermittently run in other countries before the war, including in Germany and Japan, where airmail provision was established in 1912, only to meet with similar practical difficulties; the range and lifting capacity of aircraft were transformed through technological innovation during the war, allowing the first practical air mail services to become a reality when the war ended. For instance, the first scheduled airmail service in the United States was inaugurated on May 15, 1918; the route, which ran between Washington, D. C. and New York City, with an intermediate stop in Philadelphia, was designed by aviation pioneer Augustus Post. In 1925, the U. S. Postal service issued contracts to fly airmail between designated points. In 1931, 85% of domest
Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country. The state of Pernambuco includes the archipelago Fernando de Noronha. With an estimated population of 9.2 million people in 2013, it is the seventh most populous state of Brazil, is the sixth most densely populated and the 19th most extensive among the states and territories of the country. Its capital and largest city, Recife, is one of the most important economic and urban hubs in the country; as of 2013 estimates, Recife's metropolitan area is the fifth most populous in the country, the largest urban agglomeration in Northeast Brazil. In 1982, the city of Olinda, the second oldest city in Brazil, was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Recife, the state capital and Olinda have one of the most traditional Brazilian Carnivals. Both have architecture of Portugal, with centuries-old casarões and churches, kilometers of beaches and much culture; the proximity of the equator guarantees sunshine throughout the year, with average temperatures of 26 °C.
Pernambuco comprises a comparatively narrow coastal zone, a high inland plateau, an intermediate zone formed by the terraces and slopes between the two. Its surface is much broken by the remains of the ancient plateau, worn down by erosion, leaving escarpments and ranges of flat-topped mountains, called chapadas, capped in places by horizontal layers of sandstone. Ranges of these chapadas form the boundary lines with three states–the Serra dos Irmãos and Serra Vermelha with Piauí, the Serra do Araripe with Ceará, the Serra dos Cariris Velhos with Paraíba; the coastal area is fertile, was covered by the humid Pernambuco coastal forests, the northern extension of the Atlantic Forests of eastern Brazil. It is now placed to extensive sugar cane plantations, it has a humid climate, relieved to some extent by the south-east trade winds. The middle zone, called the agreste region, has a drier climate and lighter vegetation, including the semi-deciduous Pernambuco interior forests, where many trees lose their leaves in the dry season.
The inland region, called the sertão is high and dry, devastated by prolonged droughts. The climate is characterized by cool nights. There are two defined seasons, a rainy season from March to June, a dry season for the remaining months; the interior of the state is covered by the dry thorny scrub vegetation called caatinga. The Rio São Francisco is the main water source for this area; the climate is more mild in the countryside of the state because of the Borborema Plateau. Some towns are located more than 1000 meters above sea level, temperatures there can descend to 10 °C and 5 °C in some cities during the winter; the island of Fernando de Noronha in the Atlantic Ocean, 535 km northeast of Recife, has been part of Pernambuco since 1988. The rivers of the state include a number of small plateau streams flowing southward to the São Francisco River, several large streams in the eastern part flowing eastward to the Atlantic; the former are the Moxotó, Pajeú, Terra Nova, Boa Vista and Pontai, are dry channels the greater part of the year.
The largest of the coastal rivers are the Goiana River, formed by the confluence of the Tracunhaem and Capibaribe-mirim, drains a rich agricultural region in the north-east part of the state. A large tributary of the Uná, the Rio Jacuhipe, forms part of the boundary line with Alagoas. Inhabited by numerous tribes of Tupi-Guarani speaking indigenous peoples, Pernambuco was first settled by the Portuguese in the 16th century; the French under Bertrand d'Ornesan tried to establish a French trading post at Pernambuco in 1531. Shortly after King John III of Portugal created the Hereditary Captaincies in 1534, Pernambuco was granted to Duarte Coelho, who arrived in Nova Lusitânia in 1535. Duarte directed military actions against the French-allied Caetés Indians and upon their defeat in 1537 established a settlement at the site of a former Marin Indian village, henceforth known as Olinda, as well as another village at Igarassu. Due to the cultivation of sugar and cotton, Pernambuco was one of the few prosperous captaincies.
With the support of the Dutch West India Company, sugar mills were built and a sugar-based economy developed. In 1612, Pernambuco produced 14,000 tons of sugar. While the sugar industry relied at first on the labor of indigenous peoples the Tupis and Tapuyas, high mortality and economic growth led to the importation of enslaved Africans from the late 17th century; some of these slaves escaped the sugar-producing coastal regions and formed independent inland communities called mocambos, including Palmares. In 1630, Pernambuco, as well as many Portuguese possessions in Brazil, was occupied by the Dutch until 1654; the occupation was resisted and the Dutch conquest was only successful, it was repelled by the Spaniards. In the interim, thousands of the enslaved Africans had fled to Palmares, soon the mocambos there had grown into two significant states; the Dutch Republic, who allowed sugar production to remain in Portuguese hands, regarded suppression of Palmares impor
Miss Veedol was the first airplane to fly non-stop across the Pacific Ocean. On October 5, 1931, Clyde Pangborn, with co-pilot Hugh Herndon, crash-landed the plane in the hills of East Wenatchee, Washington, in the central part of the state, becoming the first to fly non-stop across the northern Pacific Ocean; the 41-hour flight from Sabishiro Beach, Aomori Prefecture, Japan won them the 1931 Harmon Trophy, symbolizing the greatest achievement in flight for that year. Afterward, Miss Veedol was renamed The American Nurse. On a 1932 flight from New York City to Rome for aviation medicine research, she was last sighted by an ocean liner in the eastern Atlantic, before disappearing without trace. Miss Veedol was a 1931 Bellanca CH-400 or Bellanca J-300 Long-Distance Special, registration NR796W, it was built at Bellanca Airfield in Delaware. It could carry 696 US gallons of fuel. Clyde Pangborn and Hugh Herndon modified Miss Veedol while being held in Japan – on unfounded suspicions of spying – to be able to carry more fuel, to be able to jettison the landing gear.
Miss Veedol carried an initial load of 915 US gallons of aviation gasoline on her record-breaking flight. Miss Veedol was named for the motor oil brand, as it was sponsored by Veedol's manufacturer, Tidewater Oil Company. Herndon's mother, Alice Carter Herndon, was the heiress of the Tidewater Oil Company. Pangborn and Herndon had been trying to set a speed record for a round-the-world flight, but after a number of delays along the way including a damaging landing in Khabarovsk, in the Soviet Far East, they found themselves 27 hours behind schedule and had to concede breaking the record set earlier that year by Wiley Post and Harold Gatty. Looking for a worthwhile aviation record to set, they decided to modify Miss Veedol to make the first non-stop trans-Pacific flight, for which the Japanese newspaper Asahi Shimbun had offered a $25,000 prize. Loaded to well beyond the manufacturer's maximum operating weight, on October 4, 1931, Miss Veedol only managed to take off from a specially prepared area of Sabishiro Beach.
The landing gear was jettisoned as planned, three hours after take-off, but two supporting struts remained attached, making it necessary for Pangborn to climb out onto the wing struts in flight to remove them manually. Pangborn subsequently criticized Herndon for his alleged negligence in allowing the engine to become starved of fuel. Pangborn had to dive the aircraft down to. Pangborn, needing some sleep, instructed Herndon to wake him when he saw the city lights of Vancouver, Canada. However, Herndon missed both Vancouver and Seattle. Upon reaching the Pacific Northwest, they found that the weather was cloudy and rainy over most of the area, they first considered going on to Boise, Idaho to add the'longest flight' to their accomplished'nonstop Pacific crossing' record. Soon, they found that weather would prevent their landing in Boise, so they turned towards Spokane, Washington; when the weather prevented their landing there, they headed southwest towards Pasco in the Tri-Cities area of the state.
When that failed, they headed towards Wenatchee to land at Fancher Field, far from town. There, they had to make a belly landing because they had disposed of Miss Veedol's landing gear over the western Pacific, she was damaged, but repairable, her propeller was wrecked, but Herndon and Pangborn came through the landing all right. Miss Veedol's bent propeller, the only part of the plane that still exists, is exhibited in the Wenatchee Valley Museum & Cultural Center in Wenatchee, Washington. Pangborn and Herndon did not qualify for the $100,000 prize offered by the Imperial Aeronautics Association or the $28,000 prize offered by a group of Seattle businessmen; as Herndon and his mother were the main financial backers of the flight, they kept all the prize money and the proceeds of the sale of Miss Veedol. Pangborn received a mere $2500 for his part and continued, much as before, as an airmail pilot, air racer, a test and demonstration pilot. Miss Veedol was subsequently sold and ended up owned by a group including one Dr. Leon Martocci-Pisculli, who recruited pilot William Ulbrich and copilot Gladys Bramhall Wilner for a record New York City to Rome flight.
Plans included a flyover of Florence, where Wilner, a pilot and parachute jumper, was to parachute to the ground in honor of Florence Nightingale. Pisculli was the commander of the flight. Leon Martocci-Pisculli, MD, was a gynaecologist and held at least three patents for medical devices and a patent for a toy operating on the same principle as a ouija board, he was born in Italy and became a naturalized US citizen sometime between 25 June 1917 and 8 October 1919. Pisculli was 53 years old at the time of the flight and resided in New York, he was the founder and Director of the American Nurses' Aviation Service, which sought to promote the provision of medical care in aviation and through aviation to others. As this flight was sponsored by the American Nurses' Aviation Service, the aircraft was renamed The American Nurse; the pilot, William Ulbrich, was a resident of Mineola, New York. He was 31 years old at the time of the flight. A barnstormer and flight instructor in earlier years, in September 1932, Ulbrich held a transport pilot's licence and had 3,800 hours flying experience.
The third mem
A transatlantic flight is the flight of an aircraft across the Atlantic Ocean from Europe, Africa, or the Middle East to North America, Central America, or South America, or vice versa. Such flights have been made by fixed-wing aircraft, airships and other aircraft. Early aircraft engines did not have the reliability needed for the crossing, nor the power to lift the required fuel. There are difficulties navigating over featureless expanses of water for thousands of miles, the weather in the North Atlantic, is unpredictable. Since the middle of the 20th century, transatlantic flight has become routine, for commercial, military and other purposes. Experimental flights present challenges for transatlantic fliers; the idea of transatlantic flight came about with the advent of the balloon. The balloons of the period were inflated with coal gas, a moderate lifting medium compared to hydrogen or helium, but with enough lift to use the winds that would be known as the Jet Stream. In 1859, John Wise built an enormous aerostat named intending to cross the Atlantic.
The flight lasted less than a day, crash-landing in New York. Thaddeus S. C. Lowe prepared a massive balloon of 725,000 cubic feet called the City of New York to take off from Philadelphia in 1860, but was interrupted by the onset of the American Civil War in 1861; the possibility of transatlantic flight by aircraft emerged after the First World War, which had seen tremendous advances in aerial capabilities. In April 1913 the London newspaper The Daily Mail offered a prize of £10,000 to The competition was suspended with the outbreak of war in 1914 but reopened after Armistice was declared in 1918. Between 8 and 31 May 1919, the Curtiss seaplane NC-4 made a crossing of the Atlantic flying from the U. S. to Newfoundland to the Azores, on to mainland Portugal and the UK. The whole journey took 23 days, with six stops along the way. A trail of 53 "station ships" across the Atlantic gave the aircraft points to navigate by; this flight was not eligible for the Daily Mail prize since it took more than 72 consecutive hours and because more than one aircraft was used in the attempt.
With the war over, there were four teams competing to be the first non-stop across the Atlantic. They were Australian pilot Harry Hawker with observer Kenneth Mackenzie-Grieve in a single engine Sopwith Atlantic; each group had to make a rough field for the takeoff. Hawker and Mackenzie-Grieve made the first attempt on 18 May, but engine failure brought them down in the ocean where they were rescued. Raynham and Morgan made an attempt on 18 May but crashed on take off due to the high fuel load; the Handley Page team was in the final stages of testing its aircraft for the flight in June, but the Vickers group was ready earlier. During 14–15 June 1919, the British aviators Alcock and Brown made the first non-stop transatlantic flight. During the War, Alcock resolved to fly the Atlantic, after the war he approached the Vickers engineering and aviation firm at Weybridge, which had considered entering its Vickers Vimy IV twin-engined bomber in the competition but had not yet found a pilot. Alcock's enthusiasm impressed Vickers's team, he was appointed as its pilot.
Work began on converting the Vimy for the long flight, replacing its bomb racks with extra petrol tanks. Shortly afterwards Brown, unemployed, approached Vickers seeking a post and his knowledge of long distance navigation convinced them to take him on as Alcock's navigator. Vickers's team assembled its plane and at around 1:45 p.m. on 14 June, while the Handley Page team was conducting yet another test, the Vickers plane took off from Lester's Field, in St. John's, Newfoundland. Alcock and Brown flew the modified Vickers Vimy, powered by two Rolls-Royce Eagle 360 hp engines, it was not an easy flight, with unexpected fog, a snow storm causing the crewmen to crash into the sea. Their altitude varied between sea level and 12,000 feet and upon takeoff, they carried 865 imperial gallons of fuel, they made landfall in Galway at 8:40 a.m. on 15 June 1919, not far from their intended landing place, after less than sixteen hours of flying. The Secretary of State for Air, Winston Churchill, presented Alcock and Brown with the Daily Mail prize for the first crossing of the Atlantic Ocean in "less than 72 consecutive hours".
There was a small amount of mail carried on the flight making it the first transatlantic airmail flight. The two aviators were awarded the honour of Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire one week by King George V at Windsor Castle; the first transatlantic flight by rigid airship, the first return transatlantic flight, was made just a couple of weeks after the transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown, on 2 July 1919. Major George Herbert Scott of the Royal Air Force flew the airship R34 with his crew and passengers from RAF East Fortune, Scotland to Mineola, New York, covering a distance of about 3,000 miles in about four and a half days; the flight was intended as a testing ground for postwar commercial services by airship, it was the first flight to transport paying passengers. The R34 wasn't built as a passenger carrier, so extra accommodations was arranged by slinging hammocks in the keel walkway; the return journey to Pulham in Norfolk