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Pluto

Pluto is an icy dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond the orbit of Neptune. It is the largest known dwarf planet. Pluto was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930 as the ninth planet from the Sun. After 1992, its status as a planet was questioned following the discovery of several objects of similar size in the Kuiper belt. In 2005, Eris, a dwarf planet in the scattered disc, 27% more massive than Pluto, was discovered; this led the International Astronomical Union to define the term "planet" formally in 2006, during their 26th General Assembly. That definition excluded reclassified it as a dwarf planet, it is the tenth-most-massive known object directly orbiting the Sun. It is less massive than Eris. Like other Kuiper belt objects, Pluto is made of ice and rock and is small—about one-sixth the mass of the Moon and one-third its volume, it has a moderately eccentric and inclined orbit during which it ranges from 30 to 49 astronomical units or AU from the Sun. This means that Pluto periodically comes closer to the Sun than Neptune, but a stable orbital resonance with Neptune prevents them from colliding.

Light from the Sun takes about 5.5 hours to reach Pluto at its average distance. Pluto has five known moons: Charon, Nix and Hydra. Pluto and Charon are sometimes considered a binary system because the barycenter of their orbits does not lie within either body; the New Horizons spacecraft performed a flyby of Pluto on July 14, 2015, becoming the first and to date only, spacecraft to do so. During its brief flyby, New Horizons made detailed measurements and observations of Pluto and its moons. In September 2016, astronomers announced that the reddish-brown cap of the north pole of Charon is composed of tholins, organic macromolecules that may be ingredients for the emergence of life, produced from methane and other gases released from the atmosphere of Pluto and transferred about 19,000 km to the orbiting moon. In the 1840s, Urbain Le Verrier used Newtonian mechanics to predict the position of the then-undiscovered planet Neptune after analyzing perturbations in the orbit of Uranus. Subsequent observations of Neptune in the late 19th century led astronomers to speculate that Uranus's orbit was being disturbed by another planet besides Neptune.

In 1906, Percival Lowell—a wealthy Bostonian who had founded Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, in 1894—started an extensive project in search of a possible ninth planet, which he termed "Planet X". By 1909, Lowell and William H. Pickering had suggested several possible celestial coordinates for such a planet. Lowell and his observatory conducted his search until his death to no avail. Unknown to Lowell, his surveys had captured two faint images of Pluto on March 19 and April 7, 1915, but they were not recognized for what they were. There are fourteen other known precovery observations, with the earliest made by the Yerkes Observatory on August 20, 1909. Percival's widow, Constance Lowell, entered into a ten-year legal battle with the Lowell Observatory over her husband's legacy, the search for Planet X did not resume until 1929. Vesto Melvin Slipher, the observatory director, gave the job of locating Planet X to 23-year-old Clyde Tombaugh, who had just arrived at the observatory after Slipher had been impressed by a sample of his astronomical drawings.

Tombaugh's task was to systematically image the night sky in pairs of photographs examine each pair and determine whether any objects had shifted position. Using a blink comparator, he shifted back and forth between views of each of the plates to create the illusion of movement of any objects that had changed position or appearance between photographs. On February 18, 1930, after nearly a year of searching, Tombaugh discovered a possible moving object on photographic plates taken on January 23 and 29. A lesser-quality photograph taken on January 21 helped confirm the movement. After the observatory obtained further confirmatory photographs, news of the discovery was telegraphed to the Harvard College Observatory on March 13, 1930. Pluto has yet to complete a full orbit of the Sun since its discovery, as one Plutonian year is 247.68 years long. The discovery made headlines around the globe. Lowell Observatory, which had the right to name the new object, received more than 1,000 suggestions from all over the world, ranging from Atlas to Zymal.

Tombaugh urged Slipher to suggest a name for the new object before someone else did. Constance Lowell proposed Zeus Percival and Constance; these suggestions were disregarded. The name Pluto, after the god of the underworld, was proposed by Venetia Burney, an eleven-year-old schoolgirl in Oxford, interested in classical mythology, she suggested it in a conversation with her grandfather Falconer Madan, a former librarian at the University of Oxford's Bodleian Library, who passed the name to astronomy professor Herbert Hall Turner, who cabled it to colleagues in the United States. Each member of the Lowell Observatory was allowed to vote on a short-list of three potential names: Minerva and Pluto. Pluto received every vote; the name was announced on May 1, 1930. Upon the announcement, Madan gave Venetia £5 as a reward; the final choice of name was helped in part by the fact that the first two letters of Pluto are t

Annihilation of Caste

Annihilation of Caste is an undelivered speech written in 1936 by B. R. Ambedkar who fought against the country's practice of untouchability, it was self-published by the author. In a letter dated 12 December 1935, the secretary of the Jat-Pat Todak Mandal, an anti-caste Hindu reformist group organisation based in Lahore, invited B. R. Ambedkar to deliver a speech on the caste system in India at their annual conference in 1936. Ambedkar wrote the speech as an essay under the title "Annihilation of Caste" and sent in advance to the organisers in Lahore for printing and distribution; the organisers found some of the content to be objectionable towards the orthodox Hindu religion, so intemperate in the idiom and vocabulary used, so incendiary in promoting conversion away from Hinduism, that they sought the deletion of large sections of the more controversial content endangering Brahmanical interests. They wrote to Ambedkar seeking the removal of sections which they found, in their words, "unbearable.".

Ambedker declared in response. After much deliberation, the committee of organizers decided to cancel their annual conference in its entirety, because they feared violence by orthodox Hindus at the venue if they held the event after withdrawing the invitation to him. Ambedkar subsequently published 1500 copies of the speech as a book on 15 May 1936 at his own expense as Jat-Pat Todak Mandal failed to fulfill their word. In the essay, Ambedkar criticised the Hindu religion, its caste system and its religious texts which are male dominant and spreading hatred and supression of female interests, he argued that inter-caste dining and inter-caste marriage is not sufficient to annihilate the caste system, but that "the real method of breaking up the Caste System was... to destroy the religious notions upon which caste is founded" In July 1936, Mahatma Gandhi wrote articles under the title "A Vindication Of Caste" in his weekly journal in which he commented on Ambedkar's address: The readers will recall the fact that Dr. Ambedkar was to have presided last May at the annual conference of the Jat-Pat-Todak Mandal of Lahore.

But the conference itself was cancelled because Dr. Ambedkar's address was found by the Reception Committee to be unacceptable. How far a Reception Committee is justified in rejecting a President of its choice because of his address that may be objectionable to it is open to question; the Committee knew Dr. Ambedkar's views on the Hindu scriptures, they knew that he had in unequivocal terms decided to give up Hinduism. Nothing less than the address that Dr. Ambedkar had prepared was to be expected from him; the committee appears to have deprived the public of an opportunity of listening to the original views of a man, who has carved out for himself a unique position in society. Whatever label he wears in future, Dr. Ambedkar is not the man to allow himself to be forgotten. In the second edition of his book, Ambedkar replied to Gandhi's comments; this edition was published in 1937 as Annihilation of Caste: With a Reply to Mahatma Gandhi. He published a third edition in 1944. In 2014, an annotated edition was released by Navayana, a New Delhi-based publishing house, with an introduction by Arundhati Roy titled "The Doctor and the Saint".

Annihilation of Caste was translated into Tamil with the help of Periyar and published in 1937. Segments were continuously published in the rationalist Tamil magazine Kudi Arasu. B. R. Ambedkar bibliography Who Were the Shudras? Dalit The Annihilation of Caste

Kwame Baah

Colonel Kwame R. M. Baah was a soldier and politician, he was the Ghanaian foreign minister between 1972 and 1975. Colonel Kwame Baah was appointed Minister for Foreign Affairs after the government of Dr. Kofi Abrefa Busia was overthrown in a coup d'état on 13 January 1972; this replaced the Progress Party government with the National Redemption Council. He was appointed foreign minister by General Ignatius Kutu Acheampong in 1972, a position he held till 1975. At the hearings of the National Reconciliation Commission in Accra on 1 June 2004, a Captain Koda is said to have reported that Colonel Kwame Baah and others were supposed to be among a third batch of officers to be executed during the era of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council; this was never carried out. His successor as foreign minister, Col. Roger Felli was however executed along with five other army officers on 16 June 1979. National Redemption Council Minister for Foreign Affairs