A comb is a fleshy growth or crest on the top of the head of gallinaceous birds, such as turkeys and domestic chickens. Its alternative name cockscomb reflects that combs are larger on males than on females. There can be several fleshy protuberances on the heads and throats of gallinaceous birds, i.e. the comb and earlobe, which collectively are called caruncles, however, in turkeys caruncle refers to the fleshy nodules on the head and throat. Chicken combs are most red, but in other species the color may vary from light grey to deep blue or red; the comb may be a reliable indicator of health or vigor and is used for mate-assessment in some poultry species. Comb shape varies depending on the breed or species of bird; the "comb" most refers to chickens in which the most common shape is the "single comb" of a rooster from breeds such as the Leghorn. Other common comb types are the "rose comb" or "pea comb". Other distinctive shapes have been selectively bred for, such as the "buttercup comb" of the Sicilian Buttercup, "V combs" in the Houdan and other breeds, the "cushion comb" of the Chantecler, "walnut comb" of Malay game.
Combs are used in cookery in combination with wattles or chicken kidneys. Combs were used in French cuisine as garnishes, they were used to prepare salpicons served in vol-au-vents, etc. in which they were combined with other luxury ingredients such as truffles, sweetbreads, or morels in a cream sauce. In Italian cuisine, combs are an important ingredient in the famous sauce called Cibreo, which includes chicken livers and unlaid eggs, it is used in the molded potato-ricotta ring Cimabella con cibreo. Combs are prepared by parboiling and skinning cooking in court-bouillon. After preparation, they are greyish. Rooster combs are served in Chinese dim sum style dishes; because of its bright color and distinctive shape, "cockscomb" describes various plants, including the florists' plant Celosia cristata, the meadow weed yellow rattle, wild poppy, lousewort and Erythrina crista-galli. Cockscomb cock's comb cock's-comb coxcomb Crest Dubbing - removal of the comb Larousse Gastronomique Snood Wattle
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
Rhode Island Red
The Rhode Island Red is an American breed of domestic chicken. It is the state bird of Rhode Island.:70 It was developed there and in Massachusetts in the late nineteenth century, by cross-breeding birds of Oriental origin such as the Malay with brown Leghorn birds from Italy. It was a dual-purpose breed, raised both for eggs; the traditional non-industrial strains of the Rhode Island Red are listed as "watch" by The Livestock Conservancy. The Rhode Island Red was bred in Rhode Island and Massachusetts in the second half of the nineteenth century, by selective breeding of birds of Oriental origin such as the Cochin, Java and Shanghai with brown Leghorn birds from Italy; the characteristic deep red plumage derived from the Malay.:70 The State of Rhode Island celebrated the centenary of the breed in 1954, when a commemorative plaque was raised at the William Tripp farm, in Little Compton, Rhode Island.:2The name of the breed is ascribed either to Isaac Champlin Wilbour of Little Compton at an unknown date, or to a Mr. Jenny of the Southern Massachusetts Poultry Association in 1879 or 1880.
In 1891 Nathaniel Borden Aldrich exhibited some as "Golden Buffs" in Rhode Island and in Philadelphia. They were also known as "John Macomber fowls" or "Tripp fowls.":11The first breed standard was drawn up in 1898, was approved by the American Rhode Island Red Club in Boston in 1901. In 1925, the Rhode Island Red Club of America donated funds for a monument to the Rhode Island Red in Adamsville, the monument is now on the National Register of Historic Places. Another monument was erected by the state in 1988 commemorating the farmers who grew them commercially in Little Compton; the color of the plumage of the traditional Rhode Island Red ranges from a lustrous deep red to black. The Rhode Island Red was developed as dual-purpose breed, to provide eggs. Since about 1940, it has been selectively bred predominantly for egg-laying qualities, the modern industrial Rhode Island Red is a layer breed. Rhode Island Reds have been used in the creation of many modern hybrid breeds due to the prolific egg laying abilities of the Rhode Island Red.
The traditional dual-purpose "old-type" Rhode Island Red lays 200–300 brown eggs per year, yields rich-flavored meat. It is included in the Ark of Taste of the Slow Food Foundation. Raymond, Francine; the Big Book of Garden Hens. Kitchen Garden Books. ISBN 0-9532857-3-1. OCLC 650414762. Damerow, Gail. Storey's Guide to Raising Chickens. Pownal, Vt.: Storey Books. ISBN 978-1580173254. OCLC 43913153
The Wyandotte is an American breed of chicken developed in the 1870s. It was named for the indigenous Wyandot people of North America; the Wyandotte is a dual-purpose breed, kept for its yellow-skinned meat. It is a popular show bird, has many color variants, it was known as the American Sebright. The Wyandotte was created in the United States in the 1870s by four people, H. M. Doubleday, John Ray, L. Whittaker and Fred Houdlette; the first type was the silver-laced, included in the American Standard of Perfection in 1883. The Hamburg was used for the rose the Brahma for the color pattern. Prior to the breed’s acceptance into the Standard of Perfection, the breed was referred to as the “Sebright Cochin” and “American Sebright”; the gold-laced Wyandotte was produced by breeding silver-laced hens with gold-spangled Hamburg and partridge Cochin cocks, the white Wyandotte was a sport of the silver-laced, the buff variant came from crossing the silver-laced with buff Cochin stock. The partridge Wyandotte came from crossing the gold-laced with Indian Game, partridge Cochin, gold-pencilled Hamburghs, a strain called "Winnebago".
The Columbian was the result of a chance crossing of white Wyandottes with barred Plymouth Rock birds. In 2015 the Wyandotte was listed as "recovering" by the American Livestock Conservancy. In Germany it is listed in category IV, "alert", on the Rote Liste of the Gesellschaft zur Erhaltung alter und gefährdeter Haustierrassen; the Wyandotte is a large bird, but compact and rounded. The weight range is variable but 5 ½ to 8 ½ pounds for pullets to cock birds respectively; the breast is deep and well rounded. The body of a Wyandotte is described as medium length but wide, carrying that width across the back and into the tail, it is clean-legged and close-feathered, has a broad skull with a rose comb.:311 The skin and shanks are yellow, the ear-lobes and wattles are red. Silver-laced Wyandotte cocks may display hen feathering.:85–86 In the United States, nine colors are recognized in the Standard of Perfection of the American Poultry Association: black, buff, golden laced, silver laced and silver pencilled.
For bantams, the same nine colors are recognized, with the addition of buff Columbian. In Canada, former Ontario Minister of Agriculture John S. Martin, famously bred and sold White Wyandotte chickens from his farm in Port Dover, Ontario, his chickens won awards and were prized all over Canada and the United States. In Europe, the Entente Européenne lists thirty colors; the Poultry Club of Great Britain recognizes barred, blue, blue-laced, blue partridge, buff-laced, gold-laced, red, silver-laced, silver-pencilled and white.:312–317 The Wyandotte is a dual-purpose breed, raised both for eggs and for meat. It matures moderately and hens are good layers of tinted eggs, it is a popular show bird in Germany. Media related to Wyandotte at Wikimedia Commons
The California Gray is an American breed of domestic chicken. It was developed in California in the 1930s by James Dryden, a professor of poultry science at Oregon Agricultural College, now Oregon State University, his aim was to produce a dual-purpose chicken, both suitable for meat production and laid large white eggs. By crossing a Barred Plymouth Rock rooster and a White Leghorn hen, a autosexing breed with gray barred plumage was produced; because the breed was never recognized for exhibition by the American Poultry Association, California Grays are a rare breed in the 21st century. It is not listed on the conservation priority list of the Livestock Conservancy; the California Gray is not sought by commercial factory egg producers since it is too large for battery cages. California Gray cocks are crossed with White Leghorn hens to produce the California White commercial sex-link hybrid, may be known as "production black"
Chicken as food
Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world. Owing to the relative ease and low cost of raising them in comparison to animals such as cattle or hogs, chickens have become prevalent throughout the cuisine of cultures around the world, their meat has been variously adapted to regional tastes. Chicken can be prepared in a vast range of ways, including baking, barbecuing and boiling, among many others, depending on its purpose. Since the latter half of the 20th century, prepared chicken has become a staple of fast food. Chicken is sometimes cited as being more healthful than red meat, with lower concentrations of cholesterol and saturated fat; the poultry farming industry that accounts for chicken production takes on a range of forms across different parts of the world. In developed countries, chickens are subject to intensive farming methods, while less-developed areas raise chickens using more traditional farming techniques; the United Nations estimates there to be 19 billion chickens on Earth today, making them outnumber humans more than two to one.
The modern chicken is a descendant of red junglefowl hybrids along with the grey junglefowl first raised thousands of years ago in the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. Chicken as a meat has been depicted in Babylonian carvings from around 600 BC. Chicken was one of the most common meats available in the Middle Ages. For thousands of years, a number of different kinds of chicken have been eaten across most of the Eastern hemisphere, including capons and hens, it was one of the basic ingredients in blancmange, a stew consisting of chicken and fried onions cooked in milk and seasoned with spices and sugar. In the United States in the 1800s, chicken was more expensive than other meats and it was "sought by the rich because so costly as to be an uncommon dish." Chicken consumption in the U. S. increased during World War II due to a shortage of pork. In Europe, consumption of chicken overtook that of beef and veal in 1996, linked to consumer awareness of Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Modern varieties of chicken such as the Cornish Cross, are bred for meat production, with an emphasis placed on the ratio of feed to meat produced by the animal.
The most common breeds of chicken consumed in the U. S. are White Rock. Chickens raised for food are called broilers. In the U. S. broilers are butchered at a young age. Modern Cornish Cross hybrids, for example, are butchered as early as 8 weeks for fryers and 12 weeks for roasting birds. Capons produce fattier meat. For this reason, they are considered a delicacy and were popular in the Middle Ages. Main Breast: These are white meat and are dry. Leg: Comprises two segments: The "drumstick". Wing: Often served as a light meal or bar food. Buffalo wings are a typical example. Comprises three segments: the "drumette", shaped like a small drumstick, this is white meat, the middle "flat" segment, containing two bones, the tip discarded. Other Chicken feet: These contain little meat, are eaten for the skin and cartilage. Although considered exotic in Western cuisine, the feet are common fare in other cuisines in the Caribbean and China. Giblets: organs such as the heart and liver may be included inside a butchered chicken or sold separately.
Head: Considered a delicacy in China, the head is split down the middle, the brains and other tissue is eaten. Kidneys: Normally left in when a broiler carcass is processed, they are found in deep pockets on each side of the vertebral column. Neck: This is served in various Asian dishes, it is stuffed to make helzel among Ashkenazi Jews. Oysters: Located on the back, near the thigh, these small, round pieces of dark meat are considered to be a delicacy. Pygostyle and testicles: These are eaten in East Asia and some parts of South East Asia. By-products Blood: Immediately after slaughter, blood may be drained into a receptacle, used in various products. In many Asian countries, the blood is poured into low, cylindrical forms, left to congeal into disc-like cakes for sale; these are cut into cubes, used in soup dishes. Carcass: After the removal of the flesh, this is used for soup stock. Chicken eggs: The most well-known and well-consumed byproduct. Heart and gizzard: in Brazilian churrascos, chicken hearts are an seen delicacy.
Liver: This is the largest organ of the chicken, is used in such dishes as Pâté and chopped liver. Schmaltz: This is produced by rendering the fat, is used in various dishes. Chicken meat contains about two to three times as much polyunsaturated fat as most types of red meat when measured as weight percentage. Chicken includes low fat in the meat itself; the fat is concentrated on the skin. A 100g serving of baked chicken breast contains 4 grams of fat and 31 grams of protein, compared to 10 grams of fat and 27 grams of protein for the same portion of broiled, lean skirt steak. In factory farming, chickens are administered with the feed additive Roxarsone, an organoarsenic compound which decomposes into inorganic arsenic compounded in the flesh of chickens, in their feces, which are used as a fertilizer; the compound is used to promote growth. In a 2013 sample conducted by the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health of chicken meat from poultry producers that did not prohibit roxarsone, 70% of the samples in the US had levels which exceeded the safety limits as set by the FDA.
The FDA has since revi
Worcester is a city in, the county seat of, Worcester County, United States. Named after Worcester, England, as of the 2010 Census the city's population was 181,045, making it the second most populous city in New England after Boston. Worcester is located 40 miles west of Boston, 50 miles east of Springfield and 40 miles north of Providence. Due to its location in Central Massachusetts, Worcester is known as the "Heart of the Commonwealth", thus, a heart is the official symbol of the city. However, the heart symbol may have its provenance in lore that the Valentine's Day card, although not invented in the city, was mass-produced and popularized by Esther Howland who resided in Worcester. Worcester was considered its own distinct region apart from Boston until the 1970s. Since Boston's suburbs have been moving out further westward after the construction of Interstate 495 and Interstate 290; the Worcester region now marks the western periphery of the Boston-Worcester-Providence U. S. Census Combined Greater Boston.
The city features many examples of Victorian-era mill architecture. The area was first inhabited by members of the Nipmuc tribe; the native people called the region built a settlement on Pakachoag Hill in Auburn. In 1673 English settlers John Eliot and Daniel Gookin led an expedition to Quinsigamond to establish a new Christian Indian "praying town" and identify a new location for an English settlement. On July 13, 1674, Gookin obtained a deed to eight square miles of land in Quinsigamond from the Nipmuc people and English traders and settlers began to inhabit the region. In 1675, King Philip's War broke out throughout New England with the Nipmuc Indians coming to the aid of Indian leader King Philip; the English settlers abandoned the Quinsigamond area and the empty buildings were burned by the Indian forces. The town was again abandoned during Queen Anne's War in 1702. In 1713, Worcester was permanently resettled for a third time by Jonas Rice. Named after the city of Worcester, the town was incorporated on June 14, 1722.
On April 2, 1731, Worcester was chosen as the county seat of the newly founded Worcester County government. Between 1755 and 1758, future U. S. president John Adams studied law in Worcester. In the 1770s, Worcester became a center of American revolutionary activity. British General Thomas Gage was given information of patriot ammunition stockpiled in Worcester in 1775. In 1775, Massachusetts Spy publisher Isaiah Thomas moved his radical newspaper out of British occupied Boston to Worcester. Thomas would continuously publish his paper throughout the American Revolutionary War. On July 14, 1776, Thomas performed the first public reading in Massachusetts of the Declaration of Independence from the porch of the Old South Church, where the 19th century Worcester City Hall stands today, he would go on to form the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester in 1812. During the turn of the 19th century Worcester's economy moved into manufacturing. Factories producing textiles and clothing opened along the nearby Blackstone River.
However, the manufacturing industry in Worcester would not begin to thrive until the opening of the Blackstone Canal in 1828 and the opening of the Worcester and Boston Railroad in 1835. The city transformed into a transportation hub and the manufacturing industry flourished. Worcester was chartered as a city on February 29, 1848; the city's industries soon attracted immigrants of Irish, French and Swedish descent in the mid-19th century and many immigrants of Lithuanian, Italian, Greek and Armenian descent. Immigrants moved into new three-decker houses which lined hundreds of Worcester's expanding streets and neighborhoods. In 1831 Ichabod Washburn opened the Moen Company; the company would become the largest wire manufacturing in the country and Washburn became one of the leading industrial and philanthropic figures in the city. Worcester would become a center of machinery, wire products and power looms and boasted large manufacturers, Washburn & Moen, Wyman-Gordon Company, American Steel & Wire, Morgan Construction and the Norton Company.
In 1908 the Royal Worcester Corset Company was the largest employer of women in the United States. Worcester would claim many inventions and firsts. New England Candlepin bowling was invented in Worcester by Justin White in 1879. Esther Howland began the first line of Valentine's Day cards from her Worcester home in 1847. Loring Coes invented the first monkey wrench and Russell Hawes created the first envelope folding machine. On June 12, 1880, Lee Richmond pitched the first perfect game in Major league baseball history for the Worcester Ruby Legs at the Worcester Agricultural Fairgrounds. On June 9, 1953 an F4 tornado touched down in Massachusetts northwest of Worcester; the tornado tore through 48 miles of Worcester County including a large area of the city of Worcester. The tornado killed 94 people; the Worcester Tornado would be the most deadly tornado to hit Massachusetts. Debris from the tornado landed as far away as Massachusetts. After World War II, Worcester began to fall into decline as the city lost its manufacturing base to cheaper alternatives across the country and overseas.
Worcester felt the national trends of movement away from historic urban centers. The city's population would drop over 20% from 1950 to 1980. In the mid-20th century large urban renewal projects were undertaken to try and reverse the city's decline. A huge area of downtown Worcester was demolished for new office towers and the 1,000,000 sq. ft. Wor