The Tavy is a river on Dartmoor, England. The name derives from the original meaning of which has now been lost, it has given its name to the villages of Mary Tavy and Peter Tavy. It is a tributary of the River Tamar and has as its own tributaries: Collybrooke River Burn River Wallabrooke River Lumburn River WalkhamAt Tavistock it feeds a canal running to Morwellham Quay, its mouth is crossed by the Tavy Bridge. The river is navigable inland as far as Lopwell, where a weir marks the normal tidal limit, about a 9-mile journey from North Corner Quay at Devonport. River transport was an important feature of the local farming, mining and forestry economies; the Queen's Harbour Master for Plymouth is responsible for managing navigation on the River Tavy up to the normal tidal limit. Tamar–Tavy Estuary SSSI Armstrong, Robin The Painted Stream, London: Dent ISBN 0-460-04702-7
Her Majesty's Naval Base, Devonport, is the largest naval base in Western Europe and is the sole nuclear repair and refuelling facility for the Royal Navy. It is one of three operating bases in the United Kingdom for the Royal Navy. HMNB Devonport is located in the west of the city of Plymouth, England. Having begun as Royal Navy Dockyard in the late-17th century, Shipbuilding ceased at Devonport in the early 1970s, but ship maintenance work has continued: the now privatised maintenance facilities are operated by Babcock Marine, a division of Babcock International Group, who took over the previous owner Devonport Management Limited in 2007. From 1934 until the early 21st century the naval barracks on the site was named HMS Drake; the name HMS Drake has been extended to cover the entire base. In the early 1970s the newly-styled'Fleet Maintenance Base' was itself commissioned as HMS Defiance. HM Naval Base Devonport is the home port of the Devonport Flotilla which includes the Trafalgar-class submarines.
In 2009 the Ministry of Defence announced the conclusion of a long-running review of the long-term role of three naval bases. Devonport will no longer be used as a base for attack submarines after these move to Faslane by 2017, the Type 45 destroyers are based at Portsmouth. However, Devonport retains a long-term role as the dedicated home of the amphibious fleet, survey vessels and half the frigate fleet. In 1588, the ships of the English Navy set sail for the Spanish Armada through the mouth of the River Plym, thereby establishing the military presence in Plymouth. Sir Francis Drake is now an enduring legacy in Devonport, as the naval base has been named HMS Drake. In 1689 Prince William of Orange became William III and immediately he required the building of a new Royal Dockyard west of Portsmouth. Edmund Dummer, Surveyor of the Navy, travelled the West Country searching for an area where a dockyard could be built. Having dismissed the Plymouth site as inadequate, he settled on the Hamoaze area which soon became known as Plymouth Dock renamed Devonport.
On 30 December 1690, a contract was let for a dockyard to be built: the start of Plymouth Royal Dockyard. Having selected the location, Dummer was given responsibility for designing and building the new yard. At the heart of his new dockyard, Dummer placed a stone-lined basin, giving access to what proved to be the first successful stepped stone dry dock in Europe; the Navy Board had relied upon timber as the major building material for dry docks, which resulted in high maintenance costs and was a fire risk. The docks Dummer designed were stronger with more secure foundations and stepped sides that made it easier for men to work beneath the hull of a docked vessel; these innovations allowed rapid erection of staging and greater workforce mobility. He discarded the earlier three-sectioned hinged gate, labour-intensive in operation, replaced it with the simpler and more mobile two-sectioned gate. Dummer wished to ensure that naval dockyards were efficient working units that maximised available space, as evidenced by the simplicity of his design layout at Plymouth Dock.
He introduced a centralised storage area alongside the basin, a logical positioning of other buildings around the yard. His double rope-house combined the separate tasks of spinning and laying while allowing the upper floor to be used for the repair of sails. On high ground overlooking the rest of the yard he built a grand terrace of houses for the senior dockyard officers. Most of Dummer's buildings and structures were rebuilt over ensuing years, including the basin and dry dock; the terrace survived into the 20th century, but was destroyed in the Blitz along with several others of Devonport's historic buildings. Just one end section of the terrace survives; the dockyard was established on the southern tip of the present-day site. The town that grew around the dockyard was called Plymouth Dock up to 1823, when the townspeople petitioned for it to be renamed Devonport; the dockyard followed suit twenty years becoming Devonport Royal Dockyard. In just under three centuries over 300 vessels were built at Devonport, the last being HMS Scylla in 1971.
The dockyard began in. It was here. In the 1760s a period of expansion began, leading to a configuration which can still be seen today: five slipways, four dry docks and a wet basin. One slipway survives unaltered from this period: a rare survival, it is covered with a timber superstructure of 1814, a rare and early survival of its type.
Search and rescue
Search and rescue is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger. The general field of search and rescue includes many specialty sub-fields determined by the type of terrain the search is conducted over; these include mountain rescue. International Search and Rescue Advisory Group is a UN organization that promotes the exchange of information between national urban search and rescue organizations; the duty to render assistance is covered by Article 98 of the UNCLOS. There are many different definitions of search and rescue, depending on the agency involved and country in question. Canadian Forces: "Search and Rescue comprises the search for, provision of aid to, ships or other craft which are, or are feared to be, in distress or imminent danger." United States Coast Guard: "The use of available resources to assist persons or property in potential or actual distress." United States Defense Department: A search is "an operation coordinated by a Rescue Coordination Center or rescue sub-center, using available personnel and facilities to locate persons in distress" and rescue is "an operation to retrieve persons in distress, provide for their initial medical or other needs, deliver them to a place of safety".
One of the world's earliest well-documented SAR efforts ensued following the 1656 wreck of the Dutch merchant ship Vergulde Draeck off the west coast of Australia. Survivors sought help, in response three separate SAR missions were conducted, without success. On 29 November 1945, a Sikorsky R-5 performed the first civilian helicopter rescue operation in history, with Sikorsky's chief pilot Dmitry "Jimmy" Viner in the cockpit, using an experimental hoist developed jointly by Sikorsky and Breeze. All 5 crew members of an oil barge, which had run aground on Penfield Reef, were saved before the barge sank. In 1983, Korean Air Lines Flight 007 with 269 occupants was shot down by a Soviet aircraft near Sakhalin; the Soviets sent SAR helicopters and boats to Soviet waters, while a search and rescue operation was initiated by U. S. South Korean, Japanese ships and aircraft in international waters, but no survivors were found. In July 2009, Air France Flight 447 was lost in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.
An international SAR effort was launched, to no avail. A third effort nearly two years discovered the crash site and recovered the flight recorders. In early 2014, Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 crashed under mysterious circumstances. Many nations contributed to the initial SAR effort, fruitless. In June 2014, the Australian Transport Safety Bureau commissioned the MV Fugro Equator to lead a three-month survey of the ocean bed, for which it had budgeted $60mn; the search for Flight 370 has become the largest SAR so far with the largest budget. Ground search and rescue is the search for persons who are lost or in distress on land or inland waterways. People may go missing for a variety of reasons; some may disappear voluntarily, due to issues like domestic abuse. Others disappear for involuntary reasons such as mental illness, getting lost, an accident, death in a location where they cannot be found or, less due to abduction. Ground search and rescue missions that occur in urban areas should not be confused with "urban search and rescue", which in many jurisdictions refers to the location and extraction of people from collapsed buildings or other entrapments.
In most countries, the police are the primary agency for carrying out searches for a missing person on land. Some places have voluntary search and rescue teams that can be called out to assist these searches. Mountain rescue relates to search and rescue operations in rugged and mountainous terrain. Cave rescue is a specialized form of rescue for rescuing injured, trapped or lost cave explorers. Urban search and rescue referred to as Heavy Urban Search and Rescue, is the location and rescue of persons from collapsed buildings or other urban and industrial entrapments. Due to the specialized nature of the work, most teams are multi-disciplinary and include personnel from police and emergency medical services. Unlike traditional ground search and rescue workers, most US&R responders have basic training in structural collapse and the dangers associated with live electrical wires, broken natural gas lines and other hazards. While earthquakes have traditionally been the cause of US&R operations, terrorist attacks and extreme weather such as tornadoes and hurricanes have resulted in the deployment of these resources.
Combat search and rescue is search and rescue operations that are carried out during war that are within or near combat zones. Maritime search and rescue is carried out at sea to save sailors and passengers in distress, or the survivors of downed aircraft; the type of agency which carries out maritime search and rescue varies by country. When a distressed or missing vessel is located, these organizations deploy lifeboats to return them to land. In some cases, the agencies may carry out an air-sea rescue; this refers to the combined use of aircraft and surface vessels. NationalThe Australian search and rescue service is provided by AusSAR, part of the Australian Maritime Safety Authority. AusSAR operates a 24-hour Rescue Coordination Centre in Canbe
Devon known as Devonshire, its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is part of South West England, bounded by Cornwall to the west, Somerset to the north east, Dorset to the east; the city of Exeter is the county town. The county includes the districts of East Devon, Mid Devon, North Devon, South Hams, Teignbridge and West Devon. Plymouth and Torbay are each geographically part of Devon, but are administered as unitary authorities. Combined as a ceremonial county, Devon's area is 6,707 km2 and its population is about 1.1 million. Devon derives its name from Dumnonia. During the British Iron Age, Roman Britain, the early Middle Ages, this was the homeland of the Dumnonii Brittonic Celts; the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain resulted in the partial assimilation of Dumnonia into the Kingdom of Wessex during the eighth and ninth centuries. The western boundary with Cornwall was set at the River Tamar by King Æthelstan in 936.
Devon was constituted as a shire of the Kingdom of England. The north and south coasts of Devon each have both cliffs and sandy shores, the county's bays contain seaside resorts, fishing towns, ports; the inland terrain is rural and hilly, has a lower population density than many other parts of England. Dartmoor is the largest open space in southern England, at 954 km2. To the north of Dartmoor are the Culm Measures and Exmoor. In the valleys and lowlands of south and east Devon the soil is more fertile, drained by rivers including the Exe, the Culm, the Teign, the Dart, the Otter; as well as agriculture, much of the economy of Devon is based on tourism. The comparatively mild climate and landscape make Devon a destination for recreation and leisure in England, with visitors attracted to the Dartmoor and Exmoor national parks; the name Devon derives from the name of the Britons who inhabited the southwestern peninsula of Britain at the time of the Roman conquest of Britain known as the Dumnonii, thought to mean "deep valley dwellers" from proto Celtic *dubnos'deep'.
In the Brittonic, Devon is known as Welsh: Dyfnaint, Breton: Devnent and Cornish: Dewnens, each meaning "deep valleys." Among the most common Devon placenames is -combe which derives from Brittonic cwm meaning'valley' prefixed by the name of the possessor. William Camden, in his 1607 edition of Britannia, described Devon as being one part of an older, wider country that once included Cornwall: THAT region which, according to the Geographers, is the first of all Britaine, growing straiter still and narrower, shooteth out farthest into the West, was in antient time inhabited by those Britans whom Solinus called Dumnonii, Ptolomee Damnonii For their habitation all over this Countrey is somewhat low and in valleys, which manner of dwelling is called in the British tongue Dan-munith, in which sense the Province next adjoyning in like respect is at this day named by the Britans Duffneit, to say, Low valleys, but the Country of this nation is at this day divided into two parts, knowen by names of Cornwall and Denshire, The term "Devon" is used for everyday purposes e.g. "Devon County Council" but "Devonshire" continues to be used in the names of the "Devonshire and Dorset Regiment" and "The Devonshire Association".
One erroneous theory is that the "shire" suffix is due to a mistake in the making of the original letters patent for the Duke of Devonshire, resident in Derbyshire. However, there are references to "Defenascire" in Anglo-Saxon texts from before 1000 AD, which translates to modern English as "Devonshire"; the term Devonshire may have originated around the 8th century, when it changed from Dumnonia to Defenascir. Kents Cavern in Torquay had produced. Dartmoor is thought to have been occupied by Mesolithic hunter-gatherer peoples from about 6000 BC; the Romans held the area under military occupation for around 350 years. The area began to experience Saxon incursions from the east around 600 AD, firstly as small bands of settlers along the coasts of Lyme Bay and southern estuaries and as more organised bands pushing in from the east. Devon became a frontier between Brittonic and Anglo-Saxon Wessex, it was absorbed into Wessex by the mid 9th century. A genetic study carried out by the University of Oxford & University College London discovered separate genetic groups in Cornwall and Devon, not only were there differences on either side of the Tamar, with a division exactly along the modern county boundary dating back to the 6th Century but between Devon and the rest of Southern England, similarities with the modern northern France, including Brittany.
This suggests the Anglo-Saxon migration into Devon was limited rather than a mass movement of people. The border with Cornwall was set by King Æthelstan on the east bank of the River Tamar in 936 AD. Danish raids occurred sporadically along many coastal parts of Devon between around 800AD and just before the time of the Norman conquest, including the silver mint at Hlidaforda Lydford in 997 and Taintona in 1001. Devon has featured in most of th
Plymouth Hoe, referred to locally as the Hoe, is a large south facing open public space in the English coastal city of Plymouth. The Hoe is adjacent to and above the low limestone cliffs that form the seafront and it commands views of Plymouth Sound, Drake's Island, across the Hamoaze to Mount Edgcumbe in Cornwall; the name derives from the Anglo-Saxon word Hoe, a sloping ridge shaped like an inverted foot and heel. Until the early 17th century large outline images of the giants Gog and Magog had for a long time been cut into the turf of the Hoe exposing the white limestone beneath; these figures cleaned. No trace of them remains today, but this commemorates the Cornish foundation myth, being the point, Lam Goemagot – the Giant's Leap - from which the Giant was cast into the sea by the hero Corin. Plymouth Hoe is best known for the apocryphal story that Sir Francis Drake played his famous game of bowls here in 1588 while waiting for the tide to change before sailing out with the English fleet to engage with the Spanish Armada.
The British Library holds a 1591 Spry map of Plimmouth from this era. A Tudor fortress guarded the neck of water between the eastern Hoe and Mount Batten and some sheer granite and limestone cannon points remain, however in the late 1660s, following The Restoration, a massive star-shaped stone fortress known as the Royal Citadel, was constructed to replace it, its purpose was to protect the port and also to intimidate the townsfolk who had leaned towards Parliament during the Civil War. It remains occupied by the military. From 1880 there was a popular bandstand on the Hoe, it was never rebuilt. A three tier belvedere built in 1891 survives. Below this site was the Bull Ring, a grand pleasure pier, started in 1880, which provided a dance hall, promenading and a landing place for boat trips; the pier was destroyed by German bombing in World War II. There is an imposing series of Victorian terraces to the west of the naval memorial which continued to the Grand Hotel and, until it was destroyed by bombing, the grand clubhouse of the Royal Western Yacht Club.
The club merged with the Royal Southern and occupied that club's older premises which it had created from the regency public steam baths by the basin at West Hoe before the rejuvenated club moved in the late 1980s to Queen Anne Battery. A prominent landmark on the Hoe is Smeaton's Tower; this is the upper portion of John Smeaton's Eddystone Lighthouse, built on the Eddystone Rocks, located 14 miles to the south, in 1759. It was moved, stone by stone, to the Hoe where it was re-erected. Smeaton's Tower overlooks Tinside Pool, an unusual 1930s outdoor lido which sits upon the limestone shoreline at the base of the cliff. Most of the works to create the swimming areas and Madeira Road were carried out to make work for the local unemployed during the Depression. A statue of Sir Francis Drake by Joseph Boehm was placed here in 1884 to commemorate him. There are several war memorials along the northern side of the Hoe; the largest commemorates the Royal Naval dead of the two world wars. The Armada Memorial was opened in 1888 to celebrate the tercentenary of the Spanish Armada.
The Hoe includes a long broad tarmacked promenade which serves as a spectacular military parade ground and, used for displays by Plymouth-based Royal Navy, Royal Marines, the Army garrison, as well as for travelling funfairs and open-air concerts. Set into the shape of the southern sea facing fortifications of the Royal Citadel is the Citadel Hill Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, which houses the Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science. Below and to the east, perched on the rocky foreshore is the clubhouse of the Royal Plymouth Corinthian Yacht Club; the Hoe is a popular area for visitors. There is always a great deal of activity on the water, including frequent warship movements, ferries going and coming from France and Spain, fishing trawlers and a swarm of larger and smaller sailing boats; the Fastnet yacht race ends here. The annual two-day British Firework Championships attracts tens of thousands of spectators. For forty years, there has been controversy about development on the edges of the Hoe green space.
The erection of two discount hotel chain box buildings, at the southern end of Armada Way and the other at the Sound end of Leigham Street, contrast with their Victorian surroundings. The former Grand Hotel has been converted into apartments and the long derelict yacht club site has now been filled by a modern block of flats; the Plymouth Dome, a turreted and domed building, built into a small old quarry site above Tinside as an historical theme tourist attraction, failed to obtain sufficient funding and closed in 2006, despite having been visited by 2.3 million people. Between 2013 and 2016 it was a restaurant owned by celebrity chef Gary Rhodes. Plymouth Hoe has become notorious for the practice of tombstoning which involves leaping feet-first into the sea from any accessible high point; this has caused a number of serious injuries and deaths, leading to the dismantling of seafront diving boards and closure of parts of the waterfront to discourage the activity. Hooe, Plymouth, a small suburb of Plymstock located beside Hooe Lake.
Old photos of Plymouth Hoe Plymouth Hoe
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest.
By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of November 2018, there are 74 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 12 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels.
It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do. The total displacement of the Royal Navy is 408,750 tonnes; the Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. More troubling, is the fact that there is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a ‘raiding-ship army’ which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion an
The Barbican is the name given to the western and northern sides of Sutton Harbour, the original harbour of Plymouth in Devon, England. It was one of the few parts of the city to escape most of the destruction of The Blitz during the Second World War and the preceding era of slum clearance following the Public Health Act 1848. Two or three streets still retain some of the architecture of an historic fishing port; the Barbican has the largest concentration of cobbled streets in Britain, contains 100 listed buildings. The present Barbican district is regarded as being equivalent to the location and size of the medieval walled town of Sutton. A barbican is a fortified gate, here the name derives from the'Castle Barbican', an entrance to Plymouth Castle, the late medieval fortress that guarded access to the Cattewater, prior to the building of the Royal Citadel. For centuries the Barbican is still home to many fishermen. One of the oldest streets in Plymouth running north from the Barbican is now called New Street, it was called Rag Street.
Much historical research and outreach work is done by the Old Plymouth Society, many of the oldest surviving buildings were restored and are still owned and maintained by the Plymouth Barbican Association. However many old and significant buildings were demolished during the late nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries, which had decayed into unsanitary and overcrowded slum tenements following the removal of wealthy merchant landowners to country estates and the subdivision of'Golden Era' Elizabethan properties which had once been grand reflecting the wealth and prosperity of the city at this time. A government survey following the Public health Acts indicated that overcrowding in Plymouth Sutton was amongst the worst in western Europe comparable only with Warsaw, families of up to 10 occupying a single room tenancy; the Plymouth Gin Distillery has been producing Plymouth Gin since 1793, exported around the world by the Royal Navy. During the 1930s, it was the most distributed gin and has a protected designation of origin.
Places of interest in the Barbican include the National Marine Aquarium, one of the larger aquaria in Britain and has one of the deepest tanks in Europe. The Barbican contains a variety of shops and businesses - including the Barbican Theatre, retail art galleries, the Plymouth Gin Distillery, the Dolphin Inn, the Harbourside Restaurant and numerous bars and eating places; the Barbican boasts some underground culture, from live music to Stone Soup Story Tellers evenings and festivals. The promenade of the Parade, shown above, paved with the traditional granite setts, is now filled by seating in glass-sided enclosures with large square umbrellas and infra-red heaters providing all-weather space; the harbour was enclosed by a lock in 1993, designed both to provide a constant adequate depth of water for fishing and pleasure craft and to reduce the risk of flood damage being caused to low-lying property. In the same year, the 1890s Victorian fish market at the eastern end of Southside St was closed and the modern fish market opened across Sutton Harbour at Coxside.
This has been successful and the auctions are some of the busiest on the south coast. There is much activity around the market quay as trawlers and small fishing boats arrive to offload their catches. During the last two decades accelerating developments have taken place around most of Sutton Pool area; this has involved the building of distinctive modern style waterside blocks of flats which have prevented the realisation of David Mackay's plan for a seafront'gateway' from Sutton Pool into the city centre which would have required the clearing of many of the few remaining historical streets and the redevelopment of Bretonside Bus Station. There has been adverse comment about the recent extension of the many marina pontoons limiting the area of open water. Grade II* listed buildings in Plymouth Plymouth's Historic Barbican - Chris Robinson - Pen & Ink Publishing 2007 Barbican Visitors' Guide Plymouth City Council - Barbican Archive South West image Bank Plymouth Barbican Guide and Event Portal