The Plymouth Valiant is an automobile, manufactured by the Plymouth division of the Chrysler Corporation in the United States from the model years of 1960 through 1976. It was created to give the company an entry in the compact car market emerging in the late 1950s; the Valiant was built and marketed, without the Plymouth name, worldwide in countries including Argentina, Brazil, Finland, New Zealand, South Africa and Switzerland, as well as other countries in South America and Western Europe. It became well known for its excellent durability and reliability, was one of Chrysler's best-selling automobiles during the 1960s and 1970s keeping the company afloat during its hard economic times. Road & Track magazine considered the Valiant to be "one of the best all-around domestic cars." In May 1957, Chrysler president Lester Lum "Tex" Colbert established a committee to develop a competitor in the burgeoning compact car market which included the popular VW Beetle, the new American Motors Rambler and upcoming entries from GM, Ford and Studebaker.
Virgil Exner designed a car, smaller and lighter than a full-size car without sacrificing passenger and luggage space. Named the Falcon after Exner's 1955 Chrysler Falcon concept car, the vehicle was renamed the'Valiant' honoring Henry Ford II's request to use the name for the Ford Falcon; the Valiant debuted at the 44th International Motor Show in London on October 26, 1959. It was introduced as a 1960 model and was considered a distinct brand, advertised with the tagline'Nobody's kid brother, this one stands on its own four tires.' For the 1961 model year, the Valiant was classified as a Plymouth model. The 1961–62 Dodge Lancer was a rebadged Valiant with different trim and styling details. For the 1962 model year, the Valiant returned without Plymouth branding but was sold only in Plymouth Chrysler, Chrysler Dodge, or the rare standalone Plymouth dealerships. For model year onwards the car was sold in the United States only as a Plymouth Valiant; the Valiant was less radical in configuration than General Motors' compact Chevrolet Corvair, which had an air-cooled rear-mounted engine, but was considered more aesthetically daring than the also-new Falcon and Lark compacts, which had more conventional looks.
The flush-sided appearance was a carried-over feature from Chrysler's Ghia-built D'Elegance and Adventurer concept cars which gave the Valiant additional inches of interior room. With its semi-fastback and lengthy hood line, many automotive publications of the time thought the Valiant's styling was European inspired. While the Valiant was all new, specific design elements tied it to other contemporary Chrysler products with features such as the canted tailfins tipped with cat's-eye shaped tail lamps and the simulated spare tire pressing on the deck lid that were thematically similar to those on the Imperial and the 300F. According to Exner, the stamped wheel design was used not only to establish identity with other Chryslers, but to "dress up the rear deck area without detracting from the look of directed forward motion."The Valiant debuted an all-new 6-cylinder overhead-valve engine, the famous Slant-Six. Its inline cylinders were uniquely canted 30° to the right; this allowed a lower hoodline, shorter engine length—the water pump was shifted from front to alongside—and efficient long-branch individual-runner intake manifolds, an advance that benefited from Chrysler's pioneering work in tuned intakes.
The Slant-6 produced both more power and better economy than other American made offerings, it soon gained a reputation for dependability. Project Engineer Willem Weertman and his team had designed a simple yet robust workhorse, from its four-main forged crankshaft to a simplified "mechanical" valve train. Block and head castings were unusually thick because both were intended to be cast in either iron or aluminum with the same tooling. Although volume casting techniques of the era could not yet reliably produce complex head castings in aluminum, over 50,000 die-cast aluminum-block versions of the 225 cu in engine were produced between late 1961 and early 1963 and sold as extra-cost options; the 1960 Valiant exemplified. While the aluminum Slant-Six engine block wouldn't enter production until 1961, the Kokomo, foundry produced a number of other aluminum parts for the 1960 Valiant, all instrumental in reducing the total weight of the car; the 1960 model contained as much as 60 lb of aluminum in structural and decorative forms, with the majority of the material used in cast form as chassis parts.
These parts included the oil pump, water pump, alternator housing, Hyper-Pak and standard production intake manifolds, all-new Torqueflite A-904 automatic transmission case and tail extension, numerous other small parts. These cast-aluminum parts were 60% lighter than corresponding parts of cast iron. A cast aluminum part had the benefit of reduced section thickness where strength was not a vital consideration. Section thickness of cast-iron parts were dictated by casting practice, which required at least 3⁄16 in to ensure good castings. Exterior decorative parts stamped from aluminum were lighter than similar chromium-plated zinc castings; the entire grille and surrounding molding on the Valiant weighed only 3 lb. If this same assembly had been made of die-cast zinc, as many grilles of the era were, it would have weighed an estimated 13 lb. An estimated 102 lb —abo
Liberty Oil Co. v. Condon National Bank, 260 U. S. 235, was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States dealing with civil procedure and the nature of taking an appeal from the United States District Court. Liberty Oil Company, a corporation organized under the laws of Virginia contracted to purchase 160 acres, more or less, of oil lands in Butler County, for $1,150,000 from the Atlas Petroleum Company of Oklahoma, C. M. Ball, Isadore Litman, P. G. Keith, J. H. Keith, residents of Kansas. Pursuant to the contract Liberty Oil Company deposited $100,000 in escrow with the Condon National Bank pursuant to the contract; the escrow was pursuant the term of the contract requiring that the vendors furnish an abstract of title to the property showing a good and marketable title in them. Liberty Oil Co. has seven days to review the abstract of title and if it showed good and marketable title Liberty Oil Co. was to pay the remainder of the purchase price and receive the deeds and possession of the land.
If the examination showed a good and marketable title, the vendee should refuse to pay the money due from it, the $100,000 was to be delivered to the vendors as liquidated damages. In the event that the examination should disclose that the title was not good and marketable, the Liberty Oil was to notify the vendors, they were to have 30 days in which to perfect the title, should they neglect in that time to do so, the $100,000 on deposit was to be returned to the Liberty Oil. In either case the contract was to become void. Liberty Oil claims abstract showed that the title of the vendors was not good and marketable, in that in the chain of title the vendors claimed under the deed of an assignee for the benefit of creditors filed in a Colorado court, but never authorized or confirmed by a court of competent jurisdiction under the laws of Kansas, as required by the law of Kansas, that this defect was not remedied by the vendors within the time required. On July 11, 1918, the plaintiff duly notified Condon National Bank of this and demanded payment of the money deposited.
The vendors demanded the payment of the money deposited. The bank did not pay either. Liberty Oil brought an action at law against Condon National Bank in the United States District Court for the District of Kansas for the money deposited plus interest; the bank answered admitting the facts alleged except the character of the title. The bank asked that be discharged from liability in a defensive interpleader since: it claimed no interest in the deposit, offered to pay the sum into court or to such person as the court orders asked the vendors be made parties and required to set up their claim to the deposit asked the court make an order as to the disposition of the money, discharged the bank it be from all liability in connection with the deposit; the court granted the banks request and the vendors voluntarily appeared and cross petitioned for the deposits and payment of the purchase price. A jury trial was waived; the court tried the matter and found in a general verdict for the vendors, awarding them the deposit with interest.
Liberty Oil appealed to the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals claiming the court incorrectly decided the issue of the vendors having good and marketable title. The record of appeal was prepared as either bill of exceptions for writ of error from an action at law or a transcript for an appeal from a suit in equity; the Court of Appeals held that the case was reviewed by writ of error and since the bill of exceptions showed no special findings of fact but only a general finding in a case at law tried without a jury, it lacked power to rule as to the sufficiency of the evidence to sustain the finding so sustained the verdict. Liberty Oil appealed by certiorari to the United States Supreme Court. Court held that a defensive interpleader was an equitable defense authorized in an action at law by Judicial Code § 274b added by 38 Stat. 956. An equitable defense should be transferred from the law side of the court to the equity side of the court under Judicial Code § 274a added by 38 Stat. 956 and tried before the legal action and that there was no constitutional right to a jury trial in interpleader.
These statues were a step on the way to merger of law and equity but not as as in the states with a code of procedures by creating one form of action. Judicial Code § 269, as amended 40 Stat. 1181, appellate courts are to give judgment after an examination of the record without regard to technical errors, defects, or exceptions which do not affect the substantial rights of the parties, Judicial Code § 274b, provides whether the review is sought by writ of error or appeal, the appellate court is given to render such judgment upon the record as law and justice shall require. It follows that the court should have considered the issue of law and fact upon which the decree of the district court depended whether there was a good and marketable title; the Supreme Court could have determined the issue of whether there was good and marketable title but did not because the case was not of sufficient public interest to justify that, the case was remanded to the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals. The case was determined on remand by the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals at 291 F. 293 in 1923.
List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 260 List of United States Supreme Court cases Official Website of the Supreme Court of the United States ^ Text of Liberty Oil Co. v. Condon National Bank, 260 U. S. 235 is available from: CourtListener Findlaw Google Scholar Justia Library of Congress
Divisions of the Carpathians are categorization of the Carpathian mountains system. Below is a detailed overview of the major ranges of the Carpathian Mountains; the Carpathians are a "subsystem" of a bigger Alps-Himalaya System that stretches from the western Europe all the way to southern Asia, are further divided into "provinces" and "subprovinces". The last level of the division, i.e. the actual mountain ranges and basins, is classified as "units". The main divisions are shown in the map on the right. To generalize, there are three major provinces: Western Carpathians, Eastern Carpathians, Southern Carpathians; the division is undisputed at the lowest level, but various divisions are given for the higher levels for the penultimate level. A geomorphological division has been used as much. Where the classification of a higher level "title" is known/sure, it is added at the end of the name in brackets, e.g. "". TaxonomyThe names are given in the language of the corresponding country and marked by the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes: AT=Austria CZ=Czech Republic HU=Hungary PL=Poland RO=Romania RS=Serbia SK=Slovakia UA=UkraineThe most confusing and diverse is the classification of the Beskids, including the Western Beskids, the Central Beskids and the Eastern Beskids.
Their geologic features are distinct, but multiple traditions and nationalities have developed overlapping variants for the divisions and names of these ranges. In Romania, it is usual to divide the Eastern Carpathians in Romanian territory into three formal groups, instead in Outer and Inner sections of Eastern Carpathians; the Romanian approach is shown by adding the following abbreviations to the names of units within Romania: MMB = Maramureș-Bukovinian Carpathians MMT = Moldavian-Transylvanian Carpathians MC = Curvature Carpathians Similar standard is traditionally applied within broader use of the term "Wooded Carpathians", that encompasses all mountain ranges within central section of Outer Eastern Carpathians, including Eastern Beskids with Polonynian Mountains, all mountains within northern section of Inner Eastern Carpathians, including Vihorlat-Gutin Area and Maramureș-Rodna Area. The Transylvanian Plateau is encircled by, geologically a part of, the Carpathians, but it is not a mountainous region and its inclusion is disputed in some sources.
Its features are included below. The Serbian Carpathians are sometimes considered part of the Southern Carpathians, sometimes not considered part of the Carpathians at all. They're included below; the Outer Carpathian Depressions lay outside the broad arc of the entire formation and are listed as part of the individual divisions of the Carpathian Mountains, i.e. of Western Carpathians, Eastern Carpathians etc. With the difficulty of finding their exact subdivisions, they are given only as a list of the final units from the west to the east and south, in a separate listing at the end. Lower Austrian Inselberg Swell + Mikulov Highlands Dyje-Svratka Vale Ždánice Forest Litenčice Hills Chřiby Kyjov Hills White Carpathians Maple Mountains Myjava Hills Váh Valley Land Vizovice Highlands Silesian-Moravian Foothills Silesian Foothills Wieliczka Foothills Wiśnicz Foothills Western section of the Western Beskids Hostýn-Vsetín Mountains Moravian-Silesian Beskids Turzovka Highlands Jablunkov Furrow Rožnov Furrow Jablunkov Intermontane Silesian Beskids Żywiec Basin Northern section of the Western Beskids Little Beskids Maków Beskids or Middle Beskids Island Beskids Gorce Rabka Basin Sącz Basin Eastern section of the Western Beskids Beskid Sądecki + Ľubovňa Highlands Čergov + Czerchów Mountains Pieniny Central section of the Western Beskids Orava Beskids + Żywiec Beskids Kysuce Beskids +Żywiec Beskids (the older SK