H.K. Porter, Inc.
Porter, Inc. manufactured light-duty railroad locomotives in the US, starting in 1866. The company became the largest producer of industrial locomotives, and built almost eight thousand of them, the last locomotive was built in 1950, but the company continues to produce industrial equipment to this day. Porter was known for building locomotives that were smaller than those normally used by the larger Class I railroads. The companys locomotives were small enough that they were operated by only one person. Porter built mostly steam locomotives, but they built some powered by gasoline and diesel engines. The largest collection of Porter photographs and information is currently housed in the Kentlein Porter Collection at the A. C, kalmbach Memorial Library in Chattanooga, TN. Many of the 780 builders photos, blueprints and other data were republished in Porter Steam Locomotives. 1866, Henry Kirke Porter formed a partnership with John Y. Smith, the two opened a small machine shop on 28th Street in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and begin repairing and building industrial equipment. They received an order for their first locomotive on March 4,1867 and they went on to build 43 locomotives together, including the Minnetonka. They specialized in four wheeled, saddle tank locomotives for small industrial railroads,1871, Fire broke out in the shop on February 7, destroying twelve locomotives under construction, the shop, and 23 adjacent structures. Total losses were estimated at $200,000, and the partnership was dissolved, Smith formed Smith & Dawson Locomotives, which became National Locomotive Works. Porter formed a partnership with Arthur W. Bell, called Porter, Bell & Co. and they expanded their range to include light passenger engines and small freight engines, primarily for narrow gauge railroads. They built 223 locomotives, until Arthur Bell died in May 1878,1878, Henry K. Porter continued the business on his own, as H. K. He had established a reputation as a builder of rugged, specialized locomotives and he could custom build a locomotive quickly and efficiently, with a system of interchangeable parts, pistons, wheels and boilers in various sizes that can be combined to suit a customers requirements. Some of the designs are kept in stock, and can be ordered literally off the shelf. 1890, Porter built their first compressed-air locomotive, for a mine in Pennsylvania. Air was stored in two tanks, and used to drive the pistons instead of steam and this allowed locomotive use inside mines without the fumes of burning coal, or the dangers of high-pressure steam. Porter went on to build over 400 compressed-air locomotives for use in mines, plants, others built compressed-air locomotives, but by 1900 Porter had captured 90% of the market
The term Engineering is derived from the Latin ingenium, meaning cleverness and ingeniare, meaning to contrive, devise. Engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental inventions such as the wedge, lever, wheel, each of these inventions is essentially consistent with the modern definition of engineering. The term engineering is derived from the engineer, which itself dates back to 1390 when an engineer originally referred to a constructor of military engines. In this context, now obsolete, a referred to a military machine. Notable examples of the obsolete usage which have survived to the present day are military engineering corps, the word engine itself is of even older origin, ultimately deriving from the Latin ingenium, meaning innate quality, especially mental power, hence a clever invention. The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep, as one of the officials of the Pharaoh, Djosèr, he probably designed and supervised the construction of the Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630–2611 BC. Ancient Greece developed machines in both civilian and military domains, the Antikythera mechanism, the first known mechanical computer, and the mechanical inventions of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical engineering. In the Middle Ages, the trebuchet was developed, the first steam engine was built in 1698 by Thomas Savery. The development of this gave rise to the Industrial Revolution in the coming decades. With the rise of engineering as a profession in the 18th century, similarly, in addition to military and civil engineering, the fields then known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering. The inventions of Thomas Newcomen and the Scottish engineer James Watt gave rise to mechanical engineering. The development of specialized machines and machine tools during the revolution led to the rapid growth of mechanical engineering both in its birthplace Britain and abroad. John Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer and is regarded as the father of civil engineering. He was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours and he was also a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse where he pioneered the use of hydraulic lime and his lighthouse remained in use until 1877 and was dismantled and partially rebuilt at Plymouth Hoe where it is known as Smeatons Tower. The United States census of 1850 listed the occupation of engineer for the first time with a count of 2,000, there were fewer than 50 engineering graduates in the U. S. before 1865. In 1870 there were a dozen U. S. mechanical engineering graduates, in 1890 there were 6,000 engineers in civil, mining, mechanical and electrical. There was no chair of applied mechanism and applied mechanics established at Cambridge until 1875, the theoretical work of James Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century gave rise to the field of electronics
A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. An air compressor is a type of gas compressor. Compressors are similar to pumps, both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe, as gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas. Liquids are relatively incompressible, while some can be compressed, the action of a pump is to pressurize. The main types of gas compressors are illustrated and discussed below and they can be either stationary or portable, can be single or multi-staged, and can be driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines. Small reciprocating compressors from 5 to 30 horsepower are commonly seen in applications and are typically for intermittent duty. Larger reciprocating compressors well over 1,000 hp are commonly found in large industrial, discharge pressures can range from low pressure to very high pressure. Another type of reciprocating compressor is the swash plate compressor, which uses pistons moved by a swash plate mounted on a shaft, household, home workshop, and smaller job site compressors are typically reciprocating compressors 1½ hp or less with an attached receiver tank. Rotary screw compressors use two meshed rotating positive-displacement helical screws to force the gas into a smaller space and these are usually used for continuous operation in commercial and industrial applications and may be either stationary or portable. Their application can be from 3 horsepower to over 1,200 horsepower, rotary screw compressors are commercially produced in Oil Flooded, Water Flooded and Dry type. The efficiency of rotary compressors depends on the air drier, rotary vane compressors consist of a rotor with a number of blades inserted in radial slots in the rotor. The rotor is mounted offset in a housing that is either circular or a more complex shape. As the rotor turns, blades slide in and out of the slots keeping contact with the wall of the housing. Thus, a series of increasing and decreasing volumes is created by the rotating blades, rotary Vane compressors are, with piston compressors one of the oldest of compressor technologies. With suitable port connections, the devices may be either a compressor or a vacuum pump and they can be either stationary or portable, can be single or multi-staged, and can be driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines. A rotary vane compressor is well suited to electric drive and is significantly quieter in operation than the equivalent piston compressor. Rotary vane compressors can have mechanical efficiencies of about 90%, rolling piston forces gas against a stationary vane. A scroll compressor, also known as pump and scroll vacuum pump
A pneumatic motor or compressed air engine is a type of motor which does mechanical work by expanding compressed air. Pneumatic motors generally convert the compressed air energy to work through either linear or rotary motion. Linear motion can come from either a diaphragm or piston actuator, while rotary motion is supplied by either a vane type air motor, piston air motor, air turbine or gear type motor. Pneumatic motors have existed in many forms over the past two centuries, ranging in size from hand-held motors to engines of up to several hundred horsepower, some types rely on pistons and cylinders, others on slotted rotors with vanes and other uses turbines. Many compressed air engines improve their performance by heating the air or the engine itself. Pneumatic motors have found success in the hand-held tool industry. Continual attempts are being made to expand their use to the transportation industry, however, pneumatic motors must overcome inefficiencies before being seen as a viable option in the transportation industry. In order to linear motion from compressed air, a system of pistons is most commonly used. The compressed air is fed into a chamber that houses the shaft of the piston. Also inside this chamber a spring is coiled around the shaft of the piston in order to hold the chamber completely open when air is not being pumped into the chamber. As air is fed into the chamber the force on the shaft begins to overcome the force being exerted on the spring. As more air is fed into the chamber, the pressure increases, when it reaches its maximum length the air pressure is released from the chamber and the spring completes the cycle by closing off the chamber to return to its original position. Piston motors are the most commonly used in hydraulic systems, essentially, piston motors are the same as hydraulic motors except they are used to convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. Piston motors are used in series of two, three, four, five, or six cylinders that are enclosed in a housing. A type of motor, known as a rotary vane motor. The rotating element is a rotor which is mounted on a drive shaft. Each slot of the rotor is fitted with a freely sliding rectangular vane, the vanes are extended to the housing walls using springs, cam action, or air pressure, depending on the motor design. Air is pumped through the input which pushes on the vanes creating the rotational motion of the central shaft
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The reverse of this is the conversion of energy into electrical energy and is done by an electric generator. In normal motoring mode, most electric motors operate through the interaction between an electric motors magnetic field and winding currents to generate force within the motor, small motors may be found in electric watches. General-purpose motors with highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial use, the largest of electric motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching 100 megawatts. Electric motors may be classified by electric power source type, internal construction, application, type of motion output, perhaps the first electric motors were simple electrostatic devices created by the Scottish monk Andrew Gordon in the 1740s. The theoretical principle behind production of force by the interactions of an electric current. The conversion of energy into mechanical energy by electromagnetic means was demonstrated by the British scientist Michael Faraday in 1821. A free-hanging wire was dipped into a pool of mercury, on which a permanent magnet was placed, when a current was passed through the wire, the wire rotated around the magnet, showing that the current gave rise to a close circular magnetic field around the wire. This motor is often demonstrated in experiments, brine substituting for toxic mercury. Though Barlows wheel was a refinement to this Faraday demonstration. In 1827, Hungarian physicist Ányos Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic coils, after Jedlik solved the technical problems of the continuous rotation with the invention of the commutator, he called his early devices electromagnetic self-rotors. Although they were used only for instructional purposes, in 1828 Jedlik demonstrated the first device to contain the three components of practical DC motors, the stator, rotor and commutator. The device employed no permanent magnets, as the fields of both the stationary and revolving components were produced solely by the currents flowing through their windings. His motor set a record which was improved only four years later in September 1838 by Jacobi himself. His second motor was powerful enough to drive a boat with 14 people across a wide river and it was not until 1839/40 that other developers worldwide managed to build motors of similar and later also of higher performance. The first commutator DC electric motor capable of turning machinery was invented by the British scientist William Sturgeon in 1832, following Sturgeons work, a commutator-type direct-current electric motor made with the intention of commercial use was built by the American inventor Thomas Davenport, which he patented in 1837. The motors ran at up to 600 revolutions per minute, and powered machine tools, due to the high cost of primary battery power, the motors were commercially unsuccessful and Davenport went bankrupt. Several inventors followed Sturgeon in the development of DC motors but all encountered the same battery power cost issues, no electricity distribution had been developed at the time
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure. Construction as an industry comprises six to nine percent of the domestic product of developed countries. Construction starts with planning, design, and financing, and continues until the project is built, large-scale construction requires collaboration across multiple disciplines. An architect normally manages the job, and a manager, design engineer. For the successful execution of a project, effective planning is essential, the largest construction projects are referred to as megaprojects. Construction is a term meaning the art and science to form objects, systems, or organizations. Construction is used as a verb, the act of building, and a noun, how a building was built, in general, there are three sectors of construction, buildings, infrastructure and industrial. Building construction is further divided into residential and non-residential. Infrastructure is often called heavy/highway, heavy civil or heavy engineering and it includes large public works, dams, bridges, highways, water/wastewater and utility distribution. Industrial includes refineries, process chemical, power generation, mills, there are other ways to break the industry into sectors or markets. Engineering News-Record is a magazine for the construction industry. Each year, ENR compiles and reports on data about the size of design and they publish a list of the largest companies in the United States and also a list the largest global firms. In 2014, ENR compiled the data in nine market segments and it was divided as transportation, petroleum, buildings, power, industrial, water, manufacturing, sewer/waste, telecom, hazardous waste plus a tenth category for other projects. In their reporting on the Top 400, they used data on transportation, sewer, hazardous waste, the Standard Industrial Classification and the newer North American Industry Classification System have a classification system for companies that perform or otherwise engage in construction. To recognize the differences of companies in this sector, it is divided into three subsectors, building construction, heavy and civil engineering construction, and specialty trade contractors, there are also categories for construction service firms and construction managers. Building construction is the process of adding structure to real property or construction of buildings, the majority of building construction jobs are small renovations, such as addition of a room, or renovation of a bathroom. Often, the owner of the property acts as laborer, paymaster, for this reason, those with experience in the field make detailed plans and maintain careful oversight during the project to ensure a positive outcome. Residential construction practices, technologies, and resources must conform to local building authority regulations, materials readily available in the area generally dictate the construction materials used